Tetramolopium consanguineum ssp. consanguineum (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Forest Pamakani (Tetramolopium consanguineum ssp. consanguineum)

The Forest Pamakani is a rather tall, upright growing shrub that may reach hegths of up to 2 m. [1]


The nominate race of the species is thought to have been found on the island of Kaua’i, the northernmost island of the Hawaiian main island chain, this taxon, however, is known exclusively from a single collection and the exact locality has never been recorded. 

The only other subspecies (Tetramolopium consanguineum ssp. leptophyllum (Sherff) Lowrey) is endemic to the island of Hawai’i, the species does not occur on any of the islands between Hawai’i and Kaua’i, making the record from Kaua’i very questionable.

The nominate race was never recorded since the type collection and is now considered extinct. [1]



[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986


Depiction from: ‘E. Drake del Castillo: Illustrationes florae insularum Maris Pacifici. Parisiis: G. Masson 1886’

(public domain)


edited: 15.01.2019