Category Archives: 4.Amphibia

Arthroleptis kutogundua Blackburn

Overlooked Squeaker Frog (Arthroleptis kutogundua)

The Overlooked Squeaker Frog was described in 2012, the species bears its name for the fact that the single type specimen was found hidden among fifty to sixty specimens of another frog species, the Rugege Forest Squeaker Frog (Arthroleptis adolfifriederici Nieden), in an ethanol-filled glass put away at some storage rack in the Museum of Comparative ZoologyHarvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

The species reached a size of about 4 cm (snout to vent), its coloration is not known because the colors of the type specimen have heavily faded.

The type specimen was collected in 1930 in the Ngozi crater in the Poroto Mountains in Tanzania together with several other frog species. Another specimen popped up in 2013, one year after the species’ description, in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Germany.

The Overlooked Squeaker Frog was never found again and is believed to be extinct. [1][2]

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References:

[1] David C. Blackburn: New species of Arthroleptis (Anura: Arthroleptidae) from Ngozi Crater in the Poroto Mountains of southwestern Tanzania. Journal of Herpetology 46(1): 129-135. 2012
[2] Christopher Kemp: Die verlorenen Arten: Große Expeditionen in die Sammlungen naturkundlicher Museen. Verlag Antje Kunstmann GmbH 2019

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edited: 06.09.2019

Atelopus onorei Coloma, Lötters, Duellman & Miranda-Leiva

Onore’s Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus onorei)

Onore’s Stub-foot Toad was described in 2007, it is so far known only from the two localities in the Azuay Basin in the Cordillera Occidental in Ecuador, where it was discovered in 1990.

The species was photographed alive, the ground color of most individuals was orange-yellow, the dorsal areas of the males were variably colored bright green. The most conspicuous character of this species, however, were the aqua-blue colored iris of their eyes.

Onore’s Stub-foot Toad was never found again since its discovery and is believed to be already extinct.

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References:

[1] Luis A. Coloma; Stefan Lötters; William E. Duellman; Alfonso Miranda-Leiva: A taxonomic revision of Atelopus pachydermus, and description of two new (extinct?) species of Atelopus from Ecuador (Anura: Bufonidae). Zootaxa 1557: 1-32. 2007

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edited: 07.05.2019

Thorius longicaudus Parra-Olea et al.

Long-tailed Minute Salamander (Thorius longicaudus)

The Long-tailed Minute Salamander was described in 2016, it is known from two localities; one near the village of Sola de Vega, and another on near the town of San Vicente Lachixio, both in Oaxaca, Mexico.

The species reached a length of about 7 cm, it was mostly blackish brown and had a distinct, tan-reddish stripe with coppery-brassy highlights and indistinct dark chevrons extending anteriorly from the back of its head to the end of its tail.

The Long-tailed Minute Salamander was still extremely abundant in the 1970s and many individuals were found hiding in all kind of crevices at roadside banks and in stands of pines under or inside logs, under fallen branches, and even under piles of cow dung. 

When the type localities were visited again in 2014, the pine-oak forests had vanished – not a single Long-tailed Minute Salamander was found, the species has gone extinct. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Gabriela Parra-Olea; Sean M. Rovito; Mario García-París; Jessica A. Maisano; David B. Wake; James Hanken: Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico. PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2694.
[2] Christopher Kemp: Die verlorenen Arten: Große Expeditionen in die Sammlungen naturkundlicher Museen. Verlag Antje Kunstmann GmbH 2019

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edited: 06.09.2019

Herpele multiplicata Nieden

Victoria Caecilian (Herpele multiplicata)

The Victoria Caecilian was described in 1912; it is only known from the type specimen that was collected somewhere in south-western Cameroon and which is now lost.

The species is closely related to the widespread Congo Caecilian (Herpele squalostoma (Stutchbury)) but nevertheless is not identical with that species. [1]

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References:

[1] Mark Wilkinson; Hendrik Müller; David J. Gower: On Herpele multiplicata (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae). African Journal of Herpethology 52(2): 119-122. 2003

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edited: 02.05.2022

Atelopus petersi Coloma, Lötters, Duellman & Miranda-Leiva

Peters’ Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus petersi)

Peters’ Stub-foot Toad was described in 2007, the species is, respectively was restricted to a small area in Napo Province in the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes in Ecuador. A population that was found in the adjacent Chimborazo Province may also be referable to this species, but this has apparently not be proven yet.

The species was first collected in 1968, the last record of a live individual took place in 1993, when a female was collected, the very last record finally dates from 1996, when a last dead specimen was found.

Peters’ Stub-foot Toad reaches sizes of about 4,3 to 5 cm in females and 3,5 to 4,2 cm in males; The coloration is quite variable, the dorsal areas are bright yellow, with white pustules and warts, most individuals have a white ventral surface, some show orange areas or spots, and some have red bellies. [1] 

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References:

[1] Luis A. Coloma; Stefan Lötters; William E. Duellman; Alfonso Miranda-Leiva: A taxonomic revision of Atelopus pachydermus, and description of two new (extinct?) species of Atelopus from Ecuador (Anura: Bufonidae). Zootaxa 1557: 1-32. 2007

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edited: 07.05.2019

Plectrohyla siopela (Duellman)

Voiceless Treefrog (Plectrohyla siopela)

The Voiceless Treefrog was described in 1968, it was restricted to the western slope of the Cofre de Perote Mountain in the Sierra Madre Oriental in central Veracruz, Mexico, where the frogs inhabited dry pine forests spending the days hidden in crevices and under rocks behind small cascades of mountain streams.

The species reached a length of 4 to 5 cm, with the females being slightly larger than the males

The Voiceless Treefrog was once abundant but has not been seen since around 2010 and is now feared to have gone extinct.

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edited: 13.09.2019

Thorius pinicola Parra-Olea et al.

Pine-dwelling Minute Salamander (Thorius pinicola)

The Pine-dwelling Minute Salamander was described in 2016, it was found at several localities north of the village of San Miguel Suchixtepec in the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico.

The terrestrial species inhabited montane pine-oak forests, where it was found almost always between the bark and wood of upright ree stumps.

The Pine-dwelling Minute Salamander reached a length of 5 cm, it was mainly blackish, its flanks were black suffused with fine white speckling, the back was decorated with a broad brassy copper dorsal band etched with thin black lines. 

The species was last seen in 2001 and may now already be extinct. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Gabriela Parra-Olea; Sean M. Rovito; Mario García-París; Jessica A. Maisano; David B. Wake; James Hanken: Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico. PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2694.
[2] Christopher Kemp: Die verlorenen Arten: Große Expeditionen in die Sammlungen naturkundlicher Museen. Verlag Antje Kunstmann GmbH 2019

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edited: 06.09.2019

“Prostherapis” dunni Rivero

Dunn’s Rocket Frog (“Prostherapis” dunni)

Dunn’s Rocket Frog was described in 1961; it is known from two localities on the southern slopes of Cerro El Ávila in the central part of the Cordillera de la Costa of Venezuela.

The species has not been recorded since 1977 and is feared to be extinct.

***

The genus name is written in quotation marks because the assignment of this species to this genus is questioned.

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edited: 24.08.2022

Thorius narismagnus Shannon & Werler

San Martin Pygmy Salamander (Thorius narismagnus)

The San Martin Pygmy Salamander was described in 1955 when the species was still very common.

The species was endemic to lowland forests at the foothills of the San Martin Tuxtla volcano in the Sierra de los Tuxtlas in southern Veracruz, Mexico, it inhabited the leaf-liiter on the ground and was also found under rotten logs and especially under fallen bromeliads.

San Martin Pygmy Salamander was not found since the 1980s and is now most likely extinct.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Andinobates abditus (Myers & Daly)

Collin’s Poison Frog (Andinobates abditus)

This species is known only from its type locality, the forests on the eastern base of the Reventador Volcano in the Napo Province of Ecuador.

The species was last seen during the 1980s and, due to habitat destruction and the spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus, is now most likely extinct.

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edited: 23.08.2022

Phrynomedusa fimbriata Miranda-Ribeiro

Spiny-knee Leaf Frog (Phrynomedusa fimbriata)

The Spiny-knee Leaf Frog was described in 1923, it is known exclusively from the type specimen, a female that apparently was collected in 1898 somewhere in the Paranapiacaba District in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

This single specimen reaches a size of 4,6 cm and is now in very bad condition with completely faded colors, it is said to have been pale blue dorsally and reddish yellow on the ventral side. [1]

***

Two additional species within this genus are also known exclusively from their type series, thus, the Spiny-knee Leaf Frog might in fact not be the only extinct species in this genus. [1]

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References:

[1] Délio Baêta; Luís Olímpio Menta Giasson; José P. Pombal; Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad: Review of the rare genus Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) with description of a new species. Herpetological Monographs 30: 49-78. 2016

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edited: 30.10.2020

Thorius infernalis Hanken, Wake & Freeman

Atoyac Minute Salamander (Thorius infernalis)

The Atoyac Minute Salamander was described in 1999, it was very likely aleady extinct at that date. The species is known from only two specimens which were apparently collected sometimes during the early 1980s.

The salamander was restricted to its type location in the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero, Mexico, were it apparently inhabited dense vegetation along hillsides, a habitat that today is mostly converted into coffee plantations.

The Atoyac Minute Salamander has never been found since the collection of the two type specimens and is thought to be already extinct.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Pseudophilautus oxyrhynchus (Günther)

Sharp-snouted Shrub Frog (Pseudophilautus oxyrhynchus)

The Sharp-snouted Shrub Frog was described in 1872, it was endemic to the island of Sri Lanka.

The species is now considered extinct.

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Depiction from: ‘George Albert Boulenger: Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum. 2d ed.. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1882’

(public domain)

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edited: 14.06.2020

Thorius magnipes Hanke & Wake

Big-footed Salamander (Thorius magnipes)

The Big-footed Salamander was described in 1998, it was restricted to its type locality near the Acultzingo municipality in Veracruz, Mexico.

The ground-dwelling species inhabited pine-oak forests, were it could be found between the leaves axills of terrestrial bromeliads, but also under rocks and among the leaf-litter on the ground.

The Big-footed Salamander was last found in 2003 (as far as I know), and given the fact that its very restricted habitat is still being destroyed, this species is most likely already extinct now.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Ecnomiohyla rabborum Mendelson, Savage, Griffith, Ross, Kubicki & Gagliardo

Rabb’s Fringe-limbed Treefrog (Ecnomiohyla rabborum)  

Rabb’s Fringe-limbed Treefrog, described in 2008, was only ever known from a single locality in Panama.

The species reached sizes of up to 10 cm.

***

The wild population of this species collapsed shortly after its discovery in 2005 due to chytridiomycosis, which killed countless amphibian populations across Central America.  

The species was considered functionally extinct since the 2010s because at that time there was apparently only one single specimen left, a male that was kept in the Botanical Garden of the city of Atlanta in Georgia, USA. 

This last known member of its species (see photo), however, died today, September 26, 2016, thus this species is now indeed fully extinct.

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Photo: Brian Gratwicke  

(under creative commons license (2.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0


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edited: 18.09.2020

Thorius aureus Hanken & Wake

Golden Salamander (Thorius aureus)

The Golden Salamander was described in 1994, it was restricted to a small area around the peak of Cerro Pelón on the northern slopes of the Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

The ground-dwelling species inhabited pine-oak forests, where it was found among leaf-litter, like all of its congeners it was nocturnal and hid itself during daytime under rocks and fallen branches or logs.

The Golden Salamander reached lengths of about 5,5 cm, it was mainly blackish and had a distinct golden dorsal stripe spanning from its head to the end of its tail.

The species appears to have gone extinct sometime prior to 2008, when field surveys did not manage to finde even a single individual.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Atelopus carbonerensis Rivero

La Carbonera Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus carbonerensis)

The La Carbonera Stub-foot Toad, also known as Venezuelan Yellow Frog, was described in 1972, originally as a subspecies of the Yellow Merida Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus oxyrhynchus Boulenger), the species has apparently always have been very rare and appears to have been restricted to its type locality, the humid forests at elevations of 2000 to 2800 m named as Bosque de San Eusebio in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela.

The species reached lengths of 4,3 to 5,4 cm, the males were completely brightly sulfur yellow colored.

The La Carbonera Stub-foot Toad was last recorded in 1998, and has since been lost, it is very obviously another victim to the fungal chytridiomycosis disease and is now completely extinct.

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edited: 10.09.2019

Pseudophilautus pardus (Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, Schneider and Pethiyagoda)

Panther Shrub Frog (Pseudophilautus pardus)

The Panther Shrub Frog was described in 2007, like many of its congeners, this species is known from only a single specimen which in this case was collected sometimes prior to 1858 at an unknown locality on the island of Sri Lanka.

The specimen measures 3,2 cm (snout-vent length).

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edited: 14.06.2020

Atelopus sorianoi La Marca

Scarlet Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus sorianoi)

The Scarlet Stub-foot Toad was described in 1983, it was restricted to the vicinity of a single stream in an isolated cloud forest named Paramito de San Francisco near the town of Guaraque, in Mérida State, Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela.

Both sexes were very distinctly bright orange colored.

The Scarlet Stud-foot Toad is now most certainly extinct, it disappeared due to habitat loss, yet another reason for its disappearance were severe dry seasons which coincided with epidemic events caused by the deadly fungal chytridiomycosis disease.

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edited: 10.09.2019

Pseudophilautus adspersus (Günther)

Sri Lankan Shrub Frog (Pseudophilautus adspersus)

This species is known from at least two specimens, one of which was collected at Nuwara Eliya, a small town in the highlands of the Central Province.

The body reached a length of 3,3 to 4,1 cm.

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Depiction from: ‘George Albert Boulenger: Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum. 2d ed.. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1882’

(public domain)

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edited: 14.06.2020

Centrolene gemmatum (Flores)

Pampas Giant Glass Frog (Centrolene gemmatum 

This species was described in the year 1985.  

The Pampas Giant Glass Frog inhabited a quite small area near San Francisco de Las Pampas in the Cotopaxi Province of Ecuador. The frog was found near streams in the cloud forest, it is assumed that the females attached their eggs to vegetation hanging over water, and that the tadpoles, while hatchings, dropped into the water where they continued to develop.  

There have been intensive search operations near the type locality, but, since not even a single individual was ever found, the species may very well be extinct now.

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edited: 18.09.2020

Craugastor saltuarius (McCranie & Wilson)

Forest Robber Frog (Craugastor saltuarius)

The Forest Robber Frog was described in 1997, it was found at the southern slope of Cerro Búfalo in the Atlántida department of Honduras, it was apparently already rare when it was discovered.

The species was not found during recent searches in 1995 and 1996 and is feared to be extinct.

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edited: 27.05.2019

Atelopus boulengeri Peracca

Boulenger’s Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus boulengeri)

Boulenger’s Stubfoot Toad was described in 1904, the species is known from only six places in the provinces of Morona-Santiago and Loja in the eastern Andes of Ecuador, where it was last seen in 1984.  

The reasons for the disappearance of this species are the same as for most of the other extinct amphibian species: habitat loss and the fungal disease chytridiomycosis.  

Boulenger’s Stubfoot Toad is now most probably extinct.

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edited: 10.09.2019

Cynops wolterstorffi (Boulenger)

Yunnan Lake Newt (Cynops wolterstorffi)

The Yunnan Lake Newt was described in 1905, it was restricted to a small area near Lake Dianchi (or Lake Kunming) in the Yunnan Province, China.

The males are about 11 cm long, the females reach a length of about 14 cm;  both sexes are: “Blackish olive above, with an orange or orange-vermilion vertebral stripe, with or without round or roundish spots or dots of the same colour; orange-vermilion beneath, with black spots or marblings, which may be confluent into longitudinal bands; lower edge of tail vermilion-orange.” [1]

The species was last seen in 1979 and is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] G. A. Boulenger: Description of a new newt from Yunnan. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1905 Vol. 1: 277-278

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Depiction from: ‘G. A. Boulenger: Description of a new newt from Yunnan. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1905 Vol. 1: 277-278’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2021

Atelopus chiriquiensis Shreve

Chiriqui Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus chiriquiensis)

The Chiriqui Stub-foot Toad was described in 1936, it was restricted to a small range in the vicinity of the Chiriquí Viejo River in the Chiriquí Province, Panama.

The species fell victim to the spread of the fungal chytridiomycosis disease, which is deadly to amphibians, in the 2000s, it was not recorded in field surveys undertaken in 2012 and is now feared to be already extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Rachel Perez; Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki; Alexander R. Krohn; Matthew Robak; Edgardo J. Griffith; Heidi Ross; Brian Gratwicke; Roberto Ibáñez; Jamie Voyles: Field surveys in western Panama indicated populations of Atelopus varius frogs are persisting in regions where Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is now enzootic. Ambiphian & Reptile Conservation 8(2): 30-35. 2014

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edited: 10.09.2019

Pristimantis albericoi (Lynch & Ruíz-Carranza)

Paraguas Rain Frog (Pristimantis albericoi)

The Paraguas Rain Frog was described in 1996 when it probably was already extinct, it is known only from a single site, a stream in Alto de Oso on the western flank of the Cordillera Occidental in the Chocó Department of Colombia.

The species has not been recorded since 1986, despite several surveys, and is probably extinct.

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edited: 27.05.2019

Holoaden bradei Lutz

Itatiaia Highland Frog (Holoaden bradei)

The Itatiaia Highland Frog, described in 1958, has always been restricted to a small area on the Itatiaia Mountains in southeastern Brazil.

The species reaches a length of about 3,7 cm; it is generally olive-brown with a lighter-colored belly, it has short limbs and yellowish fingertips.

Only very little is known about this species’ biology, however, it is known that it lays its eggs under mulch and decaying plant material; the offspring bypasses the larval stage and hatches as complete miniature frogs.

The Itatiaia Highland Frog is thought to be very likely extinct (not extinct in the wild as Wikipedia states).

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edited: 17.05.2022

Hylascirtus chlorostea (Reynolds & Foster)

Paracti Tree Frog (Hylascirtus chlorostea)

This species was described in 1992 on the basis of a single male specimen that was collected in 1979 at a place named Paracti in the Cochabamba Department of the Chapare Province, Bolivia.

The scientific species epithet refers to the green-colored bones of this frog species, possibly a result of the impregnation of the tissues with biliverdin and found in other frog species too.

The type locality was surveyed for several times since 1988, yet no additional individual could be detected, thus the Paracti Tree Frog is believed to be possibly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Julián Faivovich; Ignacio De la Riva: On “Hyla” chlorostea Reynolds and Foster, 1992, a Hylid of uncertain relationships, with some comments on Hyloscirtus (Anura: Hylidae). Copeia 785-791. 2006

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edited: 16.01.2019

Lithobates tlaloci (Hillis & Frost)

Tlaloc’s Leopard Frog (Lithobates tlaloci)

Tlaloc’s Leopard Frog was only described in 1985.

The species was restricted to wetland areas in the vicinity of southern Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, these areas disappeared due to urbanisation, leading to the. extinction of this fro species.

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edited: 16.04.2019

Atelopus planispina Jiménez de la Espada

Napo Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus planispina)

The Napo Stub-foot Toad was described in 1875, the species was found very abundantely near a place named San José de Moti, which today is named San José de Mote in the Napo Province of eastern Ecuador, it inhabited humid montane forests at elevations of 1000 to 2000 m.

The species fed on beetles, insect larvae and even scorpions (based on the dissection of at least one sindividual). [1]

The Napo Stub-foot Toad was last seen in 1985, it appears to have be among the first amphibian species that have disappeared due to the deadly fungal chytridiomycosis disease.

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References:

[1] Marcos Jiménez de la Espada: Vertrebrados del viaje al Pacifico : verificado de 1862 a 1865 por una comisión de naturalistas enviada por el Gobierno Español. Madrid: M. Ginesta 1875 

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edited: 10.09.2019

Leiopelma markhami Worthy

Markham’s Frog (Leiopelma markhami)

Markham’s Frog was described in 1987 based on subfossil remains that were found both on the North- as well as the South Island of New Zealand.

The species was larger than the four surviving congeneric species, reaching a body size of about 5 to 6 cm. [1]

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References:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy: Osteology of Leiopelma (Amphibia: Leiopelmatidae) and descriptions of three new subfossil Leiopelma species. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 17(3): 201-251. 1987

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edited: 29.05.2019

Craugastor olanchano (McCranie & Wilson)

Olancho Robber Frog (Craugastor olanchano)

The Olancho Robber Frog was described in 1999, it was found in wet premontane forest on the Atlantic versant of the northwestern part of the Olancho Department of northeastern Honduras.

The species was not found during field surveys that took place only two years after its description and it might already be extinct.

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edited: 27.05.2019

Taudactylus acutirostris (Andersson)

Sharp-nosed Torrent Frog (Taudactylus acutirostris)

The Sharp-nosed Torrent Frog, also known as Sharp-snouted Day Frog, was described in 1916 and is resp. was endemic to the upland rainforests of northeastern Queensland, Australia.

The species was locally abundant, but its population begun to decline rapidly in 1988 certainly due to the spread of the deadly chytridiomycosis fungal disease that killed and still kills amphibian species all over the world.

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Depiction from: ‘Lars Gabriel Andersson: Results of Dr. E. Mjöbergs Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia 1910-1913; IX Batrachians from Queensland. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 52(9): 1-20.1916’

(public domain)

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edited: 13.01.2019

Craugastor fecundus (McCranie & Wilson)

Fertile Robber Frog (Craugastor fecundus)

This species was described in 1997, it was found in Quebrada de Oro and Cerro Calentura in the Sierra Nombre de Dios in the Departments Atlantica resp. Colon in northern Honduras.

The species was originally found to be very abundant, but was not found during recent searches in 1996 and 1997 and is thus now feared to be extinct. However, there seem to have not been any additional searches for this species since that time, so there is still a chance that it might very well be rediscovered.

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edited: 27.05.2019

Pseudophilautus zimmeri (Ahl)

Rumassala Shrub Frog (Pseudophilautus zimmeri)

The Rumassala Shrub Frog wass described in 1927, it is one of several species within its genus that are endemic to the island of Sri Lanka, it is known only from the holotype that was collected in the vicinity of what today is Galle, a large city at the southern coast of Sri Lanka.

The species reached a size of 3,16 cm (snout-vent length).

The Rumassala Shrub Frog is now considered extinct, it disappeared due to habitat loss caused by urbanization.

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edited: 14.06.2020

Ecnomiohyla echinata (Duellman)

Oaxaca Mountainforest Tree Frog (Ecnomiohyla echinata 

The Oaxaca Mountainforest Tree Frog is known only from the type locality, the cloud forest at an elevation of about 2000 m at the northern slopes of the Sierra de Juárez Mountains in Oaxaca, Mexican.  

The species was last recorded in the year 1962, and is considered most probably extinct.  

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edited: 27.05.2019

Altiphrynoides osgoodi (Loveridge)

Osgood’s Ethiopian Toad (Altiphrynoides osgoodi)  

Osgood’s Ethiopian Toad was described in 1932, it inhabited tropical montane forests in some areas east of the Great Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia.

The species was last found in 2003, despite extensive surveys, it could not be rediscovered and is now possibly extinct.

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edited: 30.04.2021

Atelopus arthuri Peters

Arthur’s Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus arthuri)

Arthur’s Stub-foot Toad was described in 1973, this beautiful littles species occurred in moist montane forests at three localities in the Andes of the Chimborazo Province, Ecuador.

The species was last recorded in 1988, it was never seen since and is now considered most certainly extinct, the reason for its disappearance is the deadly chytridiomycosis fungal disease, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier & D. K. Nichols..

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©Luis A. Coloma 
www.anfibioswebecuador.ec  

(by courtesy of Néstor Acosta)

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edited: 10.09.2019

Atelopus pinangoi Rivero

Pinango Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus pinangoi)

The Pinango Stub-foot Toad also known as Green And Red Venter Harlequin Toad was described in 1982, it is, or was restricted to the forest around the village of Piñango in the Estado Mérida in eastern Venezuela, where it formerly was said by the locals to have been very abundant.

The species was distinctly yellowish colored.

The Pinango Stub-foot Toad suffered from habitat destruction that left the forests it inhabited highly fragmented, and from the introduction of exotic trouts into the local rivers, which again very probably fed on the tadpoles.

The species appears now to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Enrique La Marca: Venezuelan Harlequin Frogs: In the face of extinction? Reptilian Magazine 3(8):22-24. 1995

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edited: 10.09.2019

Leiopelma waitomoensis Worthy

Waitomo Frog (Leiopelma waitomoensis)

The Waitomo Frog was described in 1987 based on subfossil bones that were excavated from a cave near the village of Waitomo on the North Island of New Zealand.

The species was about twice the size of all other endemic New Zealand frogs, reaching a body length of nearly 10 cm. [1]

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References:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy: Osteology of Leiopelma (Amphibia: Leiopelmatidae) and descriptions of three new subfossil Leiopelma species. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 17(3): 201-251. 1987

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edited: 29.05.2019

Pseudophilautus nasutus (Günther)

Sharp-snout Pygmy Shrub Frog (Pseudophilautus nasutus)

The Sharp-snout Pygmy Shrub Frog was described in 1868, it was endemic to the island of Sri Lanka.

The species is considered extinct.

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Depiction from: ‘George Albert Boulenger: Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in the collection of the British Museum. 2d ed.. London: printed by order of the Trustees 1882’

(public domain)

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edited: 14.06.2020

Rana brama Lesson

Braman Frog (Rana brama)

The enigmatic braman Frog is known exclusively from a single illustration (shown here), which, however, may or may not correspond to a specimen that is kept in the National Museum of Natural History in France.

The species is believed to originate from an area somewhere between Bangladesh and India.

The Braman Frog may actually never have existed as a distinct species, however, I’d like to list it here as well, since it’s name often appears in listings of extinct animals. 

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Depiction from: ‘H. R. Schinz: Naturgeschichte und Abbildungen der Reptilien: nach den neuesten Systemen. Schaffhausen: Aus Brodtmann’s lithographischer Kunstanstalt 1833’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 11.05.2019

Atelopus angelito Ardila-Robayo & Ruíz-Carranza

Angelito Stub-foot Toad (Atelopus angelito)

The Angelito Stub-foot Toad was described in 1998; it is known from two localities, one in Colombia and the other one in northern Ecuador (only based on museum specimens).

The species is beautifully green colored with a rather yellowish green under side.

The Angelito Stub-foot Toad was already nearly extinct when it was described and only few specimens were found; it was last recorded in 2000 and appears to be extinct now.

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References:

[1] Luis A. Coloma; William E. Duellman; Ana Almendáriz C.; Santiago R. Ron; Anrea Terán-Valdez; Juan M. Guayasamin: Five new (extinct?) species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) from Andean Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Zootaxa 2574: 1-54. 2010

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edited: 17.08.2022

Telmatobius edaphonastes De la Riva

Brown Mountain Frog (Telmatobius edaphonastes)

This species was described in 1994; it is known only from the Andean slopes of the Cordillera Oriental in Bolivia, where it was found at elevations of 2500 to 2600 m above sea level, inhabiting both cloud forests and mountain streams.

The frogs are uniformly dark brown colored.

This species, like so many other Andean amphibians, is highly threatened by the spread of chytridiomycosis as well as by habitat loss due to uncontrolled logging; it was last seen in 1999 despite annual targeted surveys, it may well be extinct.

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edited: 11.08.2022

Pseudophilautus extirpo (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda)

Blunt-snouted Shrub Frog (Pseudophilautus extirpo)

The Blunt-snouted Shrub Frog, described in 2005, is known only from the holotype that was collected in 1882, or even earlier, at some unknown locality on the island of Sri Lanka.

The single specimen is an adult female measuring 4,35 cm (snout-vent length). 

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edited: 14.06.2020

Atopophrynus syntomopus Lynch & Ruíz-Carranza

Sonson Frog (Atopophrynus syntomopus)  

This species, a small reddish brown frog, was described in 1982, it is known only from three specimens.  

The Sonson Frog was found near Sonsón, a municipality in the Cordillera Central, in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. The species inhabited wet rocks near a stream in primary forest at an elevation of about 2780 m, this locality, however, is now highly degraded due to guerilla activities.  

The Sonson Frog was never found again since its description and is very likely extinct.

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edited: 18.09.2020

Eleutherodactylus sp. ‘St. Eustatius’

Sint Eustatius Coqui (Eleutherodactylus sp.)  

This species is known from subfossil remains that were collected at the island of Sint Eustatius in the Lesser Antilles. It was not identical with the Antilles Coqui (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei Barbour) (see photo), a species that is quite widespread on the Lesser Antilles, but that apparently was introduced to Sint Eustatius.  

The species disappeared after the introduction of predatory mammals.  

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Antilles Coqui (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei)  

Photo: Charles J. Sharp  

(under creative commons license (4.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 

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edited: 07.11.2017

Ixalotriton parva (Lynch & Wake)

Dwarf False Brook Salamander (Ixalotriton parva)

The Dwarf False Brook Salamander was restricted to the Cerro Baul Mountains in eastern Oaxaca, Mexico, where it inhabited montane cloud forests at an altitude of about 1600 m.

The habitat of the species is now more or less destroyed by logging, the species was last recorded in 2007 and might now well be extinct.

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edited: 19.01.2020

Pseudoeurycea praecellens (Rabb)

Admirable False Brook Salamander (Pseudoeurycea praecellens)

The Admirable False Brook Salamander is known exclusively from a single specimen that was found in 1954 (or 1940 according to other sources).

This very small species, which reached a total length of only about 6,5 cm, inhabited the tropical humid forest at a small place named as Hacienda El Potrero near the city of Cordoba, a city that since of course has largely increased its expansion.

The Admirable False Brook Salamander was never found since, despite intensive searches, and is most likely extinct.

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Depiction from: ‘George B. Rabb: A new salamander of the genus Parvimolge from Mexico. Breviora 42: 1-9. 1959’

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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edited: 23.11.2018