Camarophyllus microbicolor S. Ito

Two-colored Waxy Cap (Camarophyllus microbicolor)

This species is known from specimens that were collected on the islands of Chichijima and Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

It is considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Sinployea planospira (Garrett)

Plane-spired Sinployea Snail (Sinployea planospira)

This species was described in 1881; it was restricted to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 0,34 to 0,43 cm in diameter.

The species is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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edited: 02.08.2022

Vegrandinia trindadensis (Breure & Coelho)

Trindade Vegrandinia Snail (Vegrandinia trindadensis)

This species was described in 1976; it is, or rather was, restricted to the Ilha da Trindade, a volcanic island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1150km offshore the east coast of Brazil.

Apparently, the species is known exclusively from empty shells, which differ greatly in their size depending on their collection date, foreshadowing the reasons for their final extinction.:

Curiously, the shell length of the adult specimens analysed by Breure and Coelho (1976) averaged from 8 to 9 mm (which was an overestimation, our measures of the same specimens average 7 mm), while the ones collected by the MD-55 and later expeditions average 4.8 mm; the shell morphology, though, is the same. It is suspected that this reduction in size reflects inappropriate environmental conditions due to the Island’s much degraded environment.

The native flora of the island is now largely destroyed due to introduced goats, this again led to the extinction of all native (and non-native, except for two spp.) land snail species! [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone: Taxonomic revision of the orthalicid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) from Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of Natural History 47(13-14): 949-961. 2013
[2] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Nílber G. Silva; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone; Ruy J. V. Alves: Rediscovery of living land snails on Trindade Island, Brazil. American Malacological Bulletin 32(1): 140-142. 2014

*********************

Photo: Rodrigo Salvador

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

*********************

edited: 02.05.2022

Cephalochetus sp. ”Upolu’

Upolu Cephalochetus Roof Beetle (Cephalochetus sp.)

This species is known only from several subfossil remains that have been recovered from samplings from the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa by Nick Porch, an Australian entomologist specialized in subfossil insect remains.

The species must have had a size of about 0,3 cm in length.

***

The genus was formerly known to occur on the Fijian Islands, so this is a new record for the Samoan Islands.

The species might quite likely be still alive, but will be mentioned here for completeness.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Megalomys sp. ‘La Desirade’

La Desirade Rice Rat (Megalomys sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from archaeological sites on the small island of La Desirade off the northeast coast of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles.

The remains were dated to about 600 to 1400 AD.. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] S. T. Turvey: Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, USA 2009
[2] Myriam Boudadi-Maligne; Salvador Bailon; Corentin Bochaton; Fabrice Casagrande; Sandrine Grouard; Nathalie Serrand; Arnaud Lenoble: Evidence for historical human-induced extinctions of vertebrate specieson La Désirade (French West Indies). Quaternary Research 85: 54-65. 2016

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edited: 17.02.2020

Elaeocarpus sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus sp.)

This taxon is known from wooden remains collected near the Ahu Akahanga at the southern coast of Rapa Nui, it most certainly was an endemic species, which is now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Catherine Orliac: Données nouvelles sur la composition de la flore de l’île de Pâques. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 107: 135-143. 1998

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edited: 11.12.2018

Rhyncogonus bryani Perkins

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus bryani)

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1919, it is known from only a single specimen.

The species was endemic to the island of Laysan in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian Islands chain; its biology is completely unknown.

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil disappeared as an aftermath of the complete denudation of Laysan Island’s vegetation following the introduction of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) in 1909.

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

*********************

edited: 27.01.2019

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Mangaia’

Mangaian Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This form has not yet been described, it is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from substrate that was collected on the island of Mangaia, Cook Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch; Tessa R. Smith: New Pycnomerus Erichson (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Pycnomerini) from Rimatara, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 4237(1): 154-166. 2017

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edited: 11.06.2020

Aglaia densitricha Pannell

Densely-haired Aglaia (Aglaia densitricha)

This species was described in 1992, it is known only from the type material which had been collected in 1953 along a road in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia.

The species was not found since and is thought to might be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. Mabberley; C. M. Pannell; A. M. Sing: Meliaceae. Flora Malesiana; Series 1 – Spermatophyta 12: 1-388. 1995

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edited: 04.09.2019

Knipowitschia cameliae Nalbant & Oţel

Danube Delta Dwarf Goby (Knipowitschia cameliae)

The Danube Delta Dwarf Goby is a very small freshwater goby that is only known from a single small lagoon south of the Danube Delta in Romania, where it inhabited shallow brackish and fresh water, usually less than 1 m deep.

The species reached a length of only about 3 cm; it was greyish colored and its body was covered with small blackish spots.

The Danube Delta Dwarf Goby was last seen in 1994, since then it is lost without any trace and appears to be extinct.

*********************

edited: 12.05.2022

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.06.2021

Dicliptera dodsonii Wassh.

Dodson’s Dicliptera (Dicliptera dodsonii)

Dodson’s Dicliptera was described in 1977, it is known from just four collections that were made in a private forest of the Río Palenque Biological Station in the Los Rios Province of Ecuador.

The species was apparently last found in 1986 or maybe sometimes later, but since it hasn’t been found during any recent search it is now considered possibly extinct.

*********************

edited: 13.11.2021

Archaeoglenes sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Kauai Darkling Beetle (Archaeoglenes sp.)

This is another of the many beetle forms that are known only by subfossil remains, in this case found on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

***

The genus Archaeoglenes has a very odd distribution, some species occur in the Caribbean, some on the Mascarene Islands, others again on the islands of the western Pacific.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Crepidotus subpurpureus S. Ito & S. Imai

Purple Crepidotus (Crepidotus subpurpureus)

This species is known from a single locality on the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

*********************

edited: 02.09.2021

Acanthomerus monilicornis (Wollaston)

Collared Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus monilicornis)

The Collared Saint Helena Weevil was described in 1869; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena, where it appears to have been quite common and widespread once.:

This is the common Acanthomerus at Plantation, – where it swarms in the dead branches and trunks of the various species of oak, as well as in the crevices of old posts &c.; and I am inclined to think that it be should looked upon as having been attached originally to the gumwoods, which must once have been dominant throughout that district; and I have taken it amongst the gumwoods at Thompson’s Wood, where, however, it is less abundant than the A. ellipticus. At any rate it is more particularly a species of intermediate altitudes; though I believe that on one occasion I met with a single example of it towards the central ridge.” [1]

***

The species was not found during the most recent field searches and is believed to be possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

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edited: 27.05.2021

Helenoconcha polyodon (Sowerby)

Many-toothed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha polyodon)

The Many-toothed Saint Helena Snail was described in 1844 based on subfossil shells that were collected from a place named Sugarloaf Quarry on the island of Saint Helena.

The species’ author gives some information about the form of the shells.:

This is the most widely umbilicated of all the species of Patula from St. Helena, and this feature alone is sufficient to distinguish it from the rest. The whorls also, in adult shells eight to nine in number, enlarge very slowly. The striae are fine, regular, arcuately oblique above, and slightly wavy on the last whorl. There are three parietal lirae extending far within the aperture, of which the upper and lower are nearly always double. The plicae within the outer lip are almost invariably (in adult shells) seven in number, subequidistant, but not of equal thickness, two or three towards the columella being stouter than the rest, which are slender and extend some distance within.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Edgar A. Smith: On the land-shells of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1892: 258-270

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 8, Helicidae Vol. 6. 1892’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Tenebroides raivavae Kolibáč & Porch

Raivavae Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides raivavae)


This species was described in 2020, it is so far only known from the holotype material, a subfossil incomplete prosternum, that was obtained from a core sample taken from the Rairua Swamp on the island of Raivavae in the Austral Islands.

The size of this species is estimated to have been about 1,39 cm in length; it appears to have been black in color. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

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edited: 02.11.2020

Leiocephalus jamaicensis Etheridge

Jamaican Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus jamaicensis)

The Jamaican Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1966 based on fossil or subfossil left dentary that had been recovered from Dairy Cave 2,5 kilometers away from Dry Harbour in the parish of St. Ann, Jamaica, as well as several other remains from other caves on the island.

In life, the species might have reached a size of about 26 to 30 cm or even larger (including the tail). [1][2]

***

The species survived into historical times, some of the remains that have been found were unmineralized and had been collected from surface deposits. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Richard Etheridge: An extinct lizard of the genus Leiocephalus from Jamaica. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(1): 47-59. 1966
[2] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992

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edited: 07.09.2019

Pycnomerus sp. ”Atiu’

Atiu Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)


This species has not yet been described, it is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from substrate that was collected on the island of ‘Atiu in the Cook Islands. 
[1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch; Tessa R. Smith: New Pycnomerus Erichson (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Pycnomerini) from Rimatara, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 4237(1): 154-166. 2017

*********************

edited: 11.06.2020

Perrottetia piriformis (Pfeiffer)

Pear-shaped Perrottetia Snail (Perrottetia piriformis)

This species was described in 1859; it was endemic to the island of Rodrigues in the Mascarenes, however, its taxonomic status is not resolved.:

Taxonomic issues arose concerning two species when they were submitted to experts, although they had never been reported as nonvalid species in the scientific literature; because their taxonomic status is unclear (the biological species designated by their names are unknown), they were classified as impossible to assess. However, due to this taxonomic uncertainty, no data are available apart from their original 19th-century descriptions, and the model evaluates them as extinct. These taxa are Coilostele acus and Perrottetia piriformis.” [1]

***

The genus should not be confused with the plant genus of the same name.

*********************

References:

[1] Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine: Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1-6. 2015

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edited: 09.11.2021

Vertigo marki Gulick

Mark’s Whorl Snail (Vertigo marki)

Mark’s Vertigo Snail was described in 1904 based on “fossil” material that was found on the Bermuda Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,2 cm in height.

This species has never been documented alive, although empty Recent shells are recorded from leaf litter around church Cave ….” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Rüdiger Bieler; John Slapcinsky: A case study for the development of an island fauna: recent terrestrial mollusks of Bermuda. Nemouria 44: 1-99. 2000

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae), 1918-1920′

(public domain)

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edited: 05.05.2022

Hedyotis evenia Thwaites

Evenia’s Hedyotis (Hedyotis evenia)

This species was described in 1859; it was collected in the forests of the Samanala Kanda (Adam’s Peak) in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

A small shrub, yellow when dry; branches acutely 4-angled. Leaves 1/2-3/4 in., coriaceous above, varnished and with a few scattered raised points. Cymes few-fld. – Fruit unknown, and hence the position of the species in the genus.” [1]

The species’ name appears in lists of extinct plant species; thus, I will mention it here briefly; unfortunately, I have no further information.

*********************

References:

[1] Joseph Dalton Hooker: The Flora of British India. London: L. Reeve 1875-97

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edited: 28.04.2022

Cotes sp. ‘Benneydale’

Benneydale Ant-like Flower Beetle (Cotes sp.)

The genus Cotes is endemic to New Zeland, all of the about eight species currently assigned to it are probably feeding on decaying plant material.

***

The Benneydale Ant-like Flower Beetle is known only from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits near Benneydale, a small town in the Waitomo District of western North Island, New Zealand.

This species appears to be extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] Corinne H. Watts; Maureen J. Marra; Chris J. green; Lynette A. Hunt; Danny Thornburrow: Comparing fossil and extant beetles in central North Island forests, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(1): 1-20. 2019

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edited: 05.11.2020

Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola Baldwin

Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola)

The Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail is a form of the Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens(Newcomb)), from the far south of the island of Hawai’i, it was found on an ancient aa (lava) flow at the foothills of the Mauna Lao volcano in the Ka’u District.

This form differs from the nominate race by its more convex whorls of which the last one is rounded peripherally. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

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edited: 15.06.2020

Rallus montivagorum Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando

Pico Rail (Rallus montivagorum)

The Pico Rail was described in 2015, it is known from subfossil material that had been collected in 2013 at a place named Furna das Torres on the island of Pico, Azores, Portugal.

The species derived from the European mainland Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus L.) and differed from that species by its slighly smaller size and a reduced sternum which indicates that it probably was completely flightless.

Some of the remains could be dated to an age of about 1405 to 1450, that is around the same time when Portugese begun to colonize the Azores. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015

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edited: 10.09.2019

Opogona irrorata (E. Wollaston)

Dewy Opogona Moth (Opogona irrorata)

The Dewy Opogona Moth was described in 1879; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The description of this species.:

The fore wings of a pale brownish or straw-coloured tinge, and speckled with numerous irregular black dots (particularly on the basal half), each composed of a few dark scales, those near the costa having a faint tendency to be placed somewhat in transverse pairs. The apex and outer margin are speckled more minutely, as is also the fringe. Hind wings pale glossy cinereous, and, when viewed beneath a high magnifying-power, with a pearly and somewhat opaline lustre. Thorax slightly darker than the anterior wings; body much the same as the posterior ones.
The only examples which I have seen of this moth I captured, I believe, at Thompson’s Wood; but whether the species is in any way connected with the gumwoods I have no means of deciding. At any rate there is no reason to suspect that it is otherwise than truly indigenous in the island. The rather dotted, or speckled, surface of its upper wings will be sufficient to distinguish it from its more immediate allies.
” [1]

***

The species was never found again and is quite likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Mrs. T. Vernon Wollaston: Notes on the Lepidoptera of St. Helena, with descriptions of new species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology. Ser. 5. Vol. 3: 415-441. 1879
[2] Timm Karisch: Darwin-Plus Project DPLUS040: securing the future for St Helena’s endemic invertebrates. Report Lepidoptera. Dessau, 31.08.2018

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edited: 28.05.2021

Vorombe titan (Andrews)

Giant Elephant Bird (Vorombe titan)

The Giant Elephant Bird was originally described in 1894, however, the whole elephant bird family was in urgent need of a proper revision, which indeed took place in 2018 and which lead to a reduction of the number of species and the description of a completely new genus for the largest of the species. [1]

The species must have reached a size of 3 m and must have weighted up to 730 kg, making it the heaviest known bird, dead or alive.

The Giant Elephant Bird died out shortly after the arrival of humans on the island of Madagascar, most likely due to habitat destruction and overhunting.

*********************

References:

[1] James P. Hansford; Samuel T. Turvey: Unexpected diversity within the extinct elephant birds (Aves: Aepyornithidae) and a new identity for the world’s largest bird. Royal Society Open Science 5(9): 1-28. 2018

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edited: 22.01.2022

Indolestes linsleyi Lieftinck

Linsley’s Spreadwing (Indolestes linsleyi)

Linsley’s Spreadwing was described in 1960, it apparently occurs, or maybe occurred near Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea.

The species has a wingspan of about 4,4 cm; the males have distinctly shaped hindwings with a rounded flap in the anal region. [1]

It is now thought to be possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Vincent Kalkman; Albert Orr: Field Guide to the damselflies of New Guinea. Brachytron 2013

*********************

edited: 13.11.2021

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Melanoplus nanus Scudder

Small Spur-throat Grasshopper (Melanoplus nanus)

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper was described in 1898, it was apparently only found in few places in the Alameda – , the Marin – , and the San Mateo Counties in California, USA.

The species inhabited dry grassy hillsides.

The males reached sizes of about 1,4 cm, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were fuscous light-brown colored.

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper is now considered possibly extinct, however, reasons for this assumption are not given.

********************

References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899

********************

Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

********************

edited: 31.08.2019

Blackburnia agonoides (Sharp)

Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia agonoides)

The Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded from cavities in trunks or branches of the endemic Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray). [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

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edited: 03.09.2019

Damonita geminoropiformis Climo

Elliot’s Cave Snail (Damonita geminoropiformis)

This tiny snail species was described in 1981, it was originally known from only two specimens that were recovered from the deposits of Elliots Cave as well as ten that were found in the Ngarua Cave in the Takaka Valley. 

Some 103 specimens were subsequently recovered from the Hawke’s Cave in the 1990s; these deposits are dated to Otiran age (Late Pleistocene); however, it might have survived until the beginning of the Holocene and is thus mentioned here as well. 

The shells reach a size of about 0,3 cm in diameter and are highly furrowed. 

*********************

References:

[1] T. H. Worthy; R. N. Holdaway: Quaternary fossil faunas from caves in Takaha Valley and on Takaka Hill, northwest Nelson, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 24(3): 297-391. 1994

*********************

Photo: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
https://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/154902

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 15.05.2021

Eupithecia dryinombra (Meyrick)

Wailuku Pug Moth (Eupithecia dryinombra)

The Wailuku Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the male type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,7 cm, it is rather pale and narrow-winged, there are obscure medial bands on its forewings that are marked by a series of short, disconnected longitudinal dashes.

The species inhabited the native rain forest above a place named Wailuku on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, a habitat that is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores. 

The Wailuku Pug Moth was never recorded since its description and is likely extinct. [1][2]

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

*********************  

edited: 06.01.2019

Albatrellus cantharellus (Lloyd) Pouzar

Sendai Polypore (Albatrellus cantharellus)

This species was described in 1915; it is apparently known from an unspecified area in the vicinity of the city of Sendai on the island of Honshu, Japan.

The species appears to haven’t been recorded since and is thought to be possibly extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Benneydale’

Benneydale Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This up to now undescribed species is known exclusively from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits near Benneydale, a small town in the Waitomo District of western North Island, New Zealand. [1]

The species is now extinct, it is one of countless large insect species that were eaten into extinction by Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) that had been introduced by the ancestors of the Maori when they first arrived in New Zealand.

*********************

References:

[1] Corinne H. Watts; Maureen J. Marra; Chris J. green; Lynette A. Hunt; Danny Thornburrow: Comparing fossil and extant beetles in central North Island forests, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(1): 1-20. 2019

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edited: 05.11.2020

Amazona vittata ssp. ‘Antigua’

Antigua Amazon (Amazona vittata ssp.)

This form is known from at least two subfossil bones recovered from archaeological sites on the island of Antigua, which were identified as being identical to the Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata (Boddaert)).

It is of course possible that the species was brought to the island by early human settlers, which apparently have always hunted parrots for food but have also kept them as pets and transported them from one place to another. The neighboring island of Barbuda, however, is known to once have harbored a native population of this species or maybe a very closely related one, so it is likely that the same form, or rather a subspecies of it inhabited Antigua as well. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

*********************

edited: 13.02.2020

Turricaspia marisnigri Starobogatov in Alexenko & Starobogatov

Black Sea Freshwater Snail (Turricaspia marisnigri)

The Black Sea Freshwater Snail was descried in 1987; it is known only from Holocene deposits; it is known exclusively from subfossil shells that were recovered from Holocene deposits near the coast of the Crimea Peninsula, Ukraine.

The species disappeared for natural reasons. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Frank P. Wesselingh; Thomas A. Neubauer; Vitaliy V. Anistratenko; Maxim V. Vinarski; Tamara Yanina; Jan Johan ter Poorten; Pavel Kijashko; Christian Albrecht; Olga Yu. Anistratenko; Anouk D’Hont; Pavel Frolov; Alberto Martínez Gándara; Arjan Gittenberger; Aleksandre Gogaladze; Mikhail Karpinsky; Matteo Lattuada; Luis Popa; Arthur F. Sands; Sabrina van de Velde; Justine Vandendorpe; Thomas Wilke: Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list. ZooKeys 827: 31-124. 2019

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edited: 18.11.2021

Mikania iserniana Cuatrec.

Guayaquil Mikania (Mikania iserniana)

This species is known only on the basis of the type material which was collected in 1864 near the city of Guayaquil in the Guayas Province, Ecuador.

The vegetation of the region is now highly destroyed due to urban and agricultural development, the species was never recorded since the collection of the type material and is thus probably extinct.

********************

edited: 25.04.2021

Scyphostelma sodiroi (K. Schum.) Liede & Meve

Sodiro’s Stranglevine (Scyphostelma sodiroi)

Sodiro’s Stranglevine is one of several species in this genus that are endemic to Ecuador. It is known from only two collections, the first one dating from 1887 and the last one from 1936, both were purchased in the Pichincha Province

The species was not found since and appears to be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Sigrid Liede-Schumann; Ulrich meve: The Orthosiinae revisited (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 99(1): 44-81. 2013

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edited: 19.09.2020

Tryonia shikueii Hershler, Landye, H.-P. Liu, De la Maza-Benignos, Ornelas & Carson

Shi-Kuei’s Tryonia (Tryonia shikueii)

This species was described in 2014, it is known from two populations inhabiting Ojo de Federico and Ojo de San Juan, two closely proximal springs in the lower Río Casas Grandes basin with water temperatures around 23 °C to 27°C.

The two localities dried out sometimes in the 1980s, which means that both populations of this species are lost leading to its extinction. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Hershler; J. Jerry Landye; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Mauricio De la Maza-Benignos; Pavel Ornelas; Evan W. Carson: New species and records of Chihuahuan Desert springsnails, with a new combination for Tryonia brunei. Western North American Naturalist 74(1): 47-65. 2014

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edited: 02.05.2019

Megapodius pritchardii ssp. ‘Samoa’

Samoan Megapode (Megapodius pritchardii ssp.)

This taxon is known exclusively on the basis of subfossil bones, found on the small island of Ofu, part of ‘American’ Samoa.

The remains were tentatively identified as possibly belonging to the Tongan Megapode (Megapodius cf. pritchardii), if so, they may have been a local subspecies. [2]

***

This form may be the bird that was described (as Megapodius stairi Gray) based on a single egg found on the island of Savai’i.:

Nach Bennett (Proc. 1862. p. 247) erhielt Dawson auch die lebenden Vögel auf Sava- oder Russel-Island, die indess leider auf der Ueberfahrt nach Sydney starben. Die Eingeborenen kennen diese Hühner sehr gut und sammeln die Eier fleissig, mit welchen sie Handel treiben. Ein Weibchen legt täglich 2-4 Eier.” 

translation:

According to Bennett (Proc. 1862. p. 247) Dawson obtained also the life birds on Sava- or Russel Island [Savai’i], which, however, unfortunately died during the crossing to Sydney. The natives know these chickens very well and diligently collect the eggs, with which they trade. A female lays 2-4 eggs on the daily [I personally doubt that number!].” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] O. Finsch; G. Hartlaub: Beitrag zur Fauna Centralpolynesiens. Ornthologie der Viti-, Samoa- und Tonga-Inseln. Halle, H. W. Schmidt 1867
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

Pluteus daidoi S. Ito & S. Imai

Daido Shed Fungus (Pluteus daidoi)  

This species, described in 1940, is known only from one locality on Hahajima Island in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 30.08.2020

Danais corymbosa Balf. f.

Corymbose Danais (Danais corymbosa)

This species was described in 1879, it is endemic to the island of Rodrigues in the Mascarene Islands.

This species is not common on the island and only occurs in the higher districts.

The Rodrigues plant is not unlike some of the forms of D. fragrans, Comm., but differs conspicuously in the form and long petiolation of its leaves and its longer paniculate inflorescence, the rachis exceeding considerably the petiole.
” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] An Account of the Petrological, Botanical, and Zoological Collection Made in Kerguelen’s Land and Rodriguez during the Transit of Venus Expeditions. Botany. 302-419. 1874-75

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edited: 15.05.2021

Campanella boninensis (S. Ito & S. Imai) Parmasto

Bonin Islands Campanella Mushroom (Campanella boninensis)  

This species is known from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara group, Japan. 

The species is considered extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

*********************  

edited: 31.08.2020

Georissa cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Georissa Snail (Georissa cookei)

Cooke’s Georissa Snail was described in 1928, it is known only from the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of this microscopic species reached sizes of only about 0,085 to 0,1 cm, they were composed of three and a half strongly convex whorls and were orange-cinnamon in color. [1]

***

According to a study from 2018 all (two or three) endemic Hawaiian members of the family Hydrocenidae are now extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. calidae Miller

Tecopa Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. calidae)

The Tecopa Pupfish was described in 1948, it was restricted to some outlets of the North- and South Tecopa Hot Springs in Inyo County, California, USA.

The two hot springs that this fish inhabited were very popular in the 1950s and 60s and were used for recreationally purposes; bathhouses were built, the spring pools were enlarged and their outflows were diverted which resulted in swifter currents which again caused the water temperatures downstream to rise above the level to which this pupfish was adapted.

All these modifications also allowed a subspecies closely related to this form, the Amargosa River Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. armagosae Miller), to invade the Tecopa Pupfish’s habitat and to hybridize with it. 

The last presumed Tecopa Pupfishs were recorded in 1966, but these, having ‘too small’ scales, may already have been hybrids.

*********************

edited: 27.05.2019

Taylorilygus murrayi (Izzard)

Murray’s Plant Bug (Taylorilygus murrayi)

This species, which is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, was last recorded in 1933, it may now be extinct. [1]

There appear to exist no further information about this species.

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 07.05.2021

Anisopappus burundiensis Lisowski

Burundi Anisopappus (Anisopappus burundiensis)

The Burundi Anisopappus, desribed in 1989, was restricted to the Republic of Burundi, a small country in central Africa.

The species was a small, shrubby plant with yellow aster-like flowers; having not be found in recent years, the species appears to be extinct now.

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edited: 27.01.2022

Acrotylus mossambicus Brancsik

South-East African Burrowing Grasshopper (Acrotylus mossambicus)

The South-East African Burrowing Grasshopper was described in 1893, it apparently is widely distributed over parts of Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

The species has apparently not been recorded since 1946 and might be extinct, however, given its wide distribution this assumption seems quite strange.

*********************

edited: 03.11.2020

Aspatharia divaricata (Martens)

Divaricated Lake Mussel (Aspatharia divaricata)

This freshwater mussel species is, or maybe was, endemic to Lake Victoria, where it appears to have inhabited an only about 10 km² large area.

The species was not recorded in recent surveys (actually it has not been recorded for over 100 years), it might have fell victim to the human-induced pollution and sedimentation of the lake and is now very likely extinct.

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edited: 14.11.2021

Orobophana berniceia (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia)

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found near what today is the Limahuli Garden & Preserve, National Tropical Botanical Garden at the northern shore of the osland of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were globosly depressed, with a rounded periphery, quite thin, smooth and minutely marked with growth-striae, they reach sizes of about 0,31 cm in heigth and 0,35 cm in diameter. [2]

***

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 18.05.2019

Hirasea katoi Habe

Kato’s Hirasea Snail (Hirasea katoi)

Kato’s Hirasea Snail was described in 1973 based on only two specimens that were collected from dune deposits of probably Pleistocene age on the island of Minamijima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells reached sizes of 0,3 cm in height, they were very flat, opercular in shape with an extremely depressed spire and a sharply marginated periphery. [1]

***

The species probably disappeared sometimes at the end of the Pleistocene or the beginning of the Holocene.

*********************

References:

[1] Tadashige Habe: Fossil land snails from Minami-jima, Bonin Islands. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Special Volume 6 (Hatai Memorial Volume): pages 51-53. 1973

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edited: 11.05.2019

Pseudohelenoconcha spurca (Sowerby)

Tainted Saint Helena Snail (Pseudohelenoconcha spurca)

The Tainted Saint Helena Snail was described in 1844 on the basis of subfossil, and apparently also quite recent shells that were collected at several localities at higher altitudes on the island of Saint Helena.

***

The species survived at least into the middle of the 19th century, since at least one the forms, (Pseudocampylaea dianae (Pfeiffer)), formerly described as distinct species and now assigned to this one, have been found alive. [1] 

*********************

References:

[1] Edgar A. Smith: On the land-shells of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1892: 258-270

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 8, Helicidae Vol. 6. 1892’

(public domain)

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edited: 29.05.2021

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Taomyia ocellata (Lamb)

Ocellated Fruit Fly (Taomyia ocellata)

This species was described in 1914, it was endemic to the Seychelles Islands (which island(s) exactly?), from where it was not recorded in recent years, it is thus considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Red Listing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phelsuma 20: 9-22. 2012

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edited: 26.11.2018

Mautodontha makateaensis Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Makatea Mautodontha Snail (Mautodontha makateaensis)

This species was described in 2014, it is known from subfossil material that was found near the port of Temao on the island of Makatea in the Tuamotu Archipelago.

The shells are less than 0,4 cm in diameter; they are subdepressed, white and do not bear any markings.

*********************

References:

[1] André F. Sartori; Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3771(1): 1-68. 2014  

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edited: 13.03.2021

Homoeodera asteris Wollaston

Scrubwood Fungus Beetle (Homoeodera asteris)

The Scrubwood Fungus Beetle was described in 1877; it is, or probably was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species was apparently associated with the endemic scrubwood (Commidendrum rugosum (Dryand) DC.).:

It is to Mr. P. Whitehead that we are indebted for this addition to the St.-Helena fauna, – the only two examples which I have seen having been captured by him from some bushes of the scrubwood between Sugarloaf and Flagstaff Hill, in the extreme north of the island.” [1]

***

The Scrubwood Fungus Beetle was not found during the most recent field searches and might well be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

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edited: 26.05.2021

Todiramphus sp. ‚Rapa‘

Rapa Kingfisher (Todiramphus sp.)

The Rapa Kingfisher is yet a hypothetical species that I like to erect based on an account from the 1920s. [1]

This account speaks about the color symbolism of Rapan feather cloaks and says that royal cloaks incorporated dark blue feathers from a bird named “kotokoto”, which was supposed to have been a kingfisher, apparently most likely the Tuamotu Kingfisher (Todiramphus gertrudae Murphy) [but named Halcyon gambieri in the paper [1]].

I personally think that this is rather unlikely, if the feathers came from any kind of imported kingfisher species, as the paper [1] suggests, then probably not from birds from Mangareva (which were already almost extinct at that time) but even more unlikely from birds from the Niau atoll, which is located far, far away from the island of Rapa. They may, however, have come from the far more closely situated Cook Islands, which harbors more than one endemic kingfisher forms. But there may very well once have been an endemic kingfisher species on the island of Rapa as well, because why not?!

*********************

References:

[1] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012

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edited: 08.02.2020

Naesiotus saeronius (Dall)

Saeronius Galapagos Snail (Naesiotus saeronius)

This species was described in 1917, it was restricted to the Isla Santa Cruz in the Galápagos archipelago.

The species was last seen in 1974; it could not be found alive during the last recent searches and might thus be extinct. 

*********************

References: 

[1] William Healey Dall; Washington Henry Ochsner: Landshells of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Ser. 4. Vol. 17.: 141-185. 1928  

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edited: 01.06.2021

Tachornis uranoceles Olson

Puerto Rico Palm Swift (Tachornis uranoceles)

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift was described in 1982, it is known only from fossil remains that were recovered from Blackbone Cave on the island of Puerto Rico and that were dated to a Late Pleistocene age.

The species very likely had similar habits as the three still existing congeneric species, it inhabited palm grooves in open savannas, a habitat that mostly disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, leading to the extinction of this and several other species. [1]

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift may, however, have survived into the early Holocene.

***

Today, another congeneric species is occurring in the Caribbean including Puert Rico, the Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse) (see photo below).

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of palm swift (Tachornis: Apodidae) from the Pleistocene of Puerto Rico. The Auk 99(2): 230-235. 1982

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Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse)

Photo: ZankaM

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

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edited: 05.11.2020

Peritropis listeri (Izzard)

Lister’s Capsid Bug (Peritropis listeri)

Lister’s Capsid Bug was restricted to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean; it is apparently known only from specimens that were collected in 1933. [1]

The species was not found since and is believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 9.11.2021

Melobasis empyria Olliff

Fiery Jewel Beetle (Melobasis empyria)

The Fiery Jewel Beetle was described in 1889; it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species reached a length of 1,2 cm; it was “Coppery green, shining; prothorax bright coppery, purplish on the disc; scutellum fiery copper; elytra coppery, with purple refelxions, irregularly striate-punctate, the third and fourth interstices obviously raised.
Head nearly flat in front, coarsely and very densely punctured. Prothorax at the base more than one-third broader than long, considerably narrowed in front, rather strongly and sparingly punctured on the disc, the punctuation at the sides much stronger and denser, the anterior margin slightly produced in the middle, its angles produced and rounded; the sides rounded; the posterior margin nearly straight. Scutellum excessively finely punctured. Elytra about twice as long as broad, coppery, inclining to fiery near the suture and about the middle, rather strongly and irregularly striate-punctate; the sides straight and nearly parallel for about two-thirds of their length, then denticulate, and narrowed to the apex. Underside bright coppery green, the sterna strongly and not very closely punctured, the abdomen with the punctuation somewhat obsolete. legs coppery green, finely punctured, the tarsi darker.
” [1]

The species has not been collected since the 1880s and is very likely extinct now. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889
[2] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

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edited: 26.04.2022

Blackburnia koebelei (Sharp)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia koebelei)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the western part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and might very well be extinct.

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 02.09.2019

Amastra nucleola (Gould)

Nut-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra nucleola)

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1893, it was restricted to lowland areas around the Hanalei Bay at the northern coast of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,1 cm in height and 0,69 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just before the termination of the whorl at the aperture (Gld.).” [1]

***

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail may have gone extinct already in the middle of the 19th century, since all specimens known to exist appear to have been collected dead. [1]  

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 12.03.2021

Nesoryzomys sp. ‘1 Isla Isabela’

Isabela Rice Rat (Nesoryzomys sp.)

This is one of two species of rice rats that formerly were endemic to the Isla Isabela in the Galápagos Islands, it disappeared sometimes during the middle of the 19th to the early 20th century.

*********************  

edited: 11.06.2020

Polypodium argyrolepis Sodiro

Azuay Polypody (Polypodium argyrolepis)

This fern species is known exclusively from the type material that was collected in the 19th century somewhere in the Azuay Province of Ecuador, an exact locality is not known.

The species was never found again and is presumed to be possibly extinct. 

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edited: 15.04.2019

Eugenia albida Bonpl.

White Eugenia (Eugenia albida)

The White Eugenia is apparently known from a single collection that was made some time in the 18th century somewhere in Ecuador, however this assumption might in fact not be true.

***

There appear to be several species which are named Eugenia albida, and this name is also a synonym for several species; furthermore the species discussed here is sometimes thought as being endemic to Ecuador and sometimes to occur in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

It is mentioned here only for the sake of completness.

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edited: 18.01.2020

Tenebroides mihiura Kolibáč & Porch

Mihiura Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides mihiura)

This species was described in 2020, it is known only from the type material, a subfossil prothorax, that was collected from a sediment core sample that had been taken from the Mihiura Swamp on the island of Tubuai in the Austral Islands. 

The species reached a size of about 0,6 cm in length; it might have been black in color. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

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edited: 02.11.2020

Newcombia perkinsi Sykes

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia perkinsi)

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail apparently was restricted to the Makakupaia Valley on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, this place is now highly degraded and overgrown by introduced vegetation.

The shells have a size of 2,1 cm in height. [1]

***

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′  

(public domain)  

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edited: 04.06.2021

Anabarilius macrolepis P. L. Yih & C. K. Wu

Yilong Whitefish (Anabarilius macrolepis)

This species was restricted to the Yilong Lake in Yunnan, China; in 1981, this lake dried out completely for about 20 days as a consequence of water extraction for agriculture.

The Yilong Whitefish had no chance to survive and is now extinct.

*********************

edited: 27.01.2022

Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii Lundell

Cheatum’s Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii)

Cheatum’s Wahoo, a variety of the American Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.), is known only from a single population that was restricted again to a single place in Dallas County, Texas, USA.

This single population is believed to have been destroyed by insects (which insects?) in 1944, the variety is now regarded as being extinct.

*********************

edited: 27.01.2020

Ctenitis pallatangana (Hook.) Ching

Pallatanga Ctenitis Fern (Ctenitis pallatangana)

This species is known only one collection that was made in the 19th century in the high Andean forests somewhere near the village of Pallatanga in the Chimborazo Province of Ecuador.

The species is believed to be extinct due to habitat destruction by agricultural expansion.

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edited: 13.11.2021

Palaeopropithecus ingens G. Grandider

Large Sloth Lemur (Palaeopropithecus ingens

This species was described in 1899 based on subfossil remains that had been found in Madagascar.

The Large Sloth Lemur was apparently restricted to the southern part of Magadascar

***

The species is known to have survived into the 17th century, bones from a remote cave in the interiror of southern Madagascar could be dated to an age of about 1285 to 1625 AD. The species is mentioned in Malagasy folklore accounts as the tratratratra or tretretretre and was also mentioned by Étienne de Flacourt, who was the french governor of Madagascar from 1648 to 1655.:

The Tretretretre, or Tratratratra, is an animal as large as a two-year- old calf, and which has a round head and a man’s face; the fore-feet like those of a Monkey, and the hind ones also. It has curled hair, a short tail, and ears like those of a man. … It has been seen near Lake Lipomani, in the vicinity of which is ils lair. It is a very solitary animal, which the people of the country hold in great fear and run away from, as it  also does from them.” [1]

I have not yet read the original, which is in French, and there are several translations, which sometimes mention a Lake Lipomani or a Lipomani Lagoon, which I could not detect yet.

*********************

References:

[1] Étienne de Flacourt: Histoire de la grande Isle Madagascar composée par le Sieur de Flacourt, Directeur Général de la Compagnie Françoise de l’Orient, & Commandant pour sa Majesté dans ladite Isle & és Isles adjacentes. Avec une Relation de ce qui s’est passé és année 1655. 1656. & 1657. non encore veuë par la premiere Impression, Paris: Gervais Clovzier 1661
[2] David A. Burney; Ramilisonina: The Kilopilopitsofy, Kidoky, and Bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal “extinction window”. American Anthropologist 100(4): 957-966. 1999

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edited: 01.10.2020

Neochen pugil (Winge)

Minas Gerais Goose (Neochen pugil)

This species was described in 1888 based on fossil bones that were found in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The remains were dated to Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene; thus, the species is briefly mentioned here. [1]

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References:

[1] O. Winge: Fugle fra Knoglehuler i Brasilien. E Museo Lundii 1(2): 1-54. 1888

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edited: 17.02.2020

Corvus sp. ‘Bermudas’

Bermudas Islands Crow (Corvus sp.)

Birds.         

Neither hath the aire for her part been wanting with due supplies of many sorts of Fowles, as the gray and white Hearne, the gray and greene Plover, some wilde Ducks and Malards, Coots and Red-shankes, Sea-wigions, Gray-bitterns, Cormorants, numbers of small Birds like Sparrowes and Robins, which have lately beene destroyed by the wilde Cats, Wood-pickars, very many Crowes, which since this Plantation are kild, the rest fled or seldome seene except in the most uninhabited places, from whence they are observed to take their flight about sun set, directing their course towards the North-west, which makes many coniecture there are some more Ilands not far off that way.
” [1]

This is a part of an account from 1623 that reports some of the bird life inhabiting the Bermudas Islands at that time.

Given the remote location of the islands, the crows mentioned here very likely were of an endemic form, may it have been a species or a subspecies; the text even tells us how these crow population went extinct, they were killed by the British settlers because they were considered a pest for their crops.

*********************  

References:

[1] John Smith: The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles: with the Names of the Adventurers, Planters, and Governours from their first beginning, An: 1584. to this present 1624. With the Procedings of Those Severall Colonies and the Accidents that befell them in all their Journyes and Discoveries. Also the Maps and Descriptions of all those Countryes, their Commodities, people, Government, Customes, and Religion yet knowne. Divided into Sixe Bookes. By Captaine Iohn Smith, sometymes Governour in those Countryes & Admirall of New England. London: printed by I. D. and I. H. for Michael Sparkes 1624

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edited: 05.11.2020

Potamogeton sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Poondweed (Potamogeton sp.)

This taxon appears in lists of endemic plants that once inhabited Rapa Nui, it is known from pollen findings.

These pollen, however, appear to be at least 16600 years old, so are pre-Holocene of age; unfortunately, I have no idea how long this taxon may have survived on the island, thus it is mentioned here just for the sake of completeness.

*********************

References:

[1] J. R. Flenley; Sarah M. King: Late Quaternary pollen records from Easter Island. Nature 307(5): 47-50. 1984
[2] Catherine Orliac: Données nouvelles sur la composition de la flore de l’île de Pâques. Journal de la Société des Océanistes  107: 135-143. 1998
[3] Anthony Dubois; Pierre Lenne; Elsa Nahoe; Marcos Rauch: Plantas de Rapa Nui. Guía Ilustrada de la Flora de Interés Ecológico y Patrimonial. Umanga mo te Natura, CONAF, ONF International, Santiago 2013

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edited: 13.11.2021

Hypocambala exocoeti (Pocock)

Christmas Island Round-backed Millipede (Hypocambala exocoeti)

The Christmas Island Round-backed Millipede was described in 1888.

The species was not seen since its description and is now possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 09.09.2020

Senecio navugabensis C. Jeffrey

Navugabo Groundsel (Senecio navugabensis)

The Navugabo Groundsel was described in 1986, the species is known only from the type specimen that was collected in 1935 (according the the IUCN) or 1947 from a swampy area at Lake Navugabo in the Masaka District, southwestern Uganda.

The species was never recorded again despite it originating from a otherwise fairly-well collected area.

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edited: 26.09.2019

Macrobrachium luscus (Holthuis)

Gruta del Arco Freshwater Prawn (Cryphiops luscus)

The Gruta del Arco Freshwater Prawn, which was described in 1973, is known only from its type locality: a small freshwater lake in the Grutas del Arco in the municipality of La Trinitaria, Rancho de San Rafael del Arco, Chiapas, Mexico.

This locality is now contaminated and the species wasn’t found during recent searches, it is now probably extinct.

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edited: 13.11.2021

Ceyx pusillus ssp. aolae Ogilvie-Grant

Guadalcanal Little Kingfisher (Ceyx pusillus ssp. aolae)

The Guadalcanal Little Kingfisher is one of the nine subspecies of the Little Kingfisher (Ceyx pusillaTemminck), a species that occurs from Australia to parts of melanesia; it is known only from the type specimen that was collected on the island of Guadalcanal, eastern Solomon Islands.

The single known specimen is very similar to Richard’s Little Kingfisher (Ceyx pusillus ssp. richardsi Tristram) (see depiction) from the central Solomon Islands, it differs from that subspecies by its incomplete pectoral band and by its white, blue-tipped undertail coverts. [1]

The Guadalcanal Little Kingfisher is often thought to be extinct, this, however, is not entirely certain.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Hilary Fry; Kathie Fry: Kingfishers, Bee-eaters, & Rollers. Helm 1992

*********************

Richard’s Little Kingfisher (Ceyx pusillus ssp. richardsi Tristram)

Depiction from: ‘H. B. Tristram: Notes on a collection of birds from the Solomon Islands, with descriptions of new species. The Ibis 133-146. 1882’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 01.11.2020

Apetasimus kauaiensis (Scott)

Kauai Sap Beetle (Apetasimus kauaiensis)

The Kauai Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was endemic to the Waimea region on the island of Kaua’i in the Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a length of about 0,53 cm; it was brick red colored, with the lateral margins of the elytra being dark brown. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Anabarilius yangzonensis Y. R. Chen & X. L. Chu

Yangzong Whitefish (Anabarilius yangzonensis)

The Yangzong Whitefish, which was described in 1980, was restricted to the Yangzong Lake in Yunnan, China.

The populations of the species collapsed due to pollution and the introduction of non-native fish species; it has not been found during the most recent surveys in 2008 and might well be extinct.

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edited: 27.01.2022

Wollastonia populifolia (Sherff) Orchard

Poplar-leaved Melanthera (Wollastonia populifolia)

This species was described in 1933, originally as a variety of the Subcordate Melanthera (Wollastonia subcordata (A. Gray) Orchard) from the island of Hawai’i.

The Poplar-leaved Melanthera is known only from the type material that was collected in 1918 somewhere in the Maunalei Valley on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, it is now considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

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edited: 04.06.2021

Crax sp. ‘Mituporanga’

Mituporanga (Crax sp.)

The Mituporanga is known only from a very old painting (see below), drawn by Eckhout Hoflössnitz sometimes between 1653 and 1659, which in fact might just depict a Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata Spix) or indeed a completely distinct species that is now lost. This painting is included in a book that depicts some birds from the former Dutch colony of Dutch Brazil, an area that today is covered mainly by the federative units of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe. [1]

Ornithologists have not recorded a species of Crax in the Northern Mata Atlântica. Thus, the plate and other paintings from the same time, and oral testimonies from old hunters are unambiguous evidence for either the historic disappearance of a disjunct population of the similar-looking bare- faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) or an undescribed species.” [2]

********************

References:

[1] Dante Martins Teixeira: Os quadros de aves tropicais do Castelo de Hoflössnitz na Saxônia e Albert Eckhout (ca. 1610–1666), artista do Brasil Holandês. Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros 49: 67-90. 2009
[2] Alexander C. Lees; Stuart L. Pimm: Species, extinct before we knew them? Current Biology 25(5): 177-180. 2015

********************

Depiction by Eckhout Hoflössnitz, between 1653 and 1659

(public domain)

********************

edited: 25.04.2021

Longitarsus helenae Wollaston

St. Helena Leaf Beetle (Longitarsus helenae)

The Saint Helena Leaf Beetle was endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species is associated with the likewise endemic Saint Helena Lobelia (Lobelia scaevolifolia Roxb.), which is apparently is main food plant.

The greenish-brassy alutaceous surface and pale elongate limbs of this little Longitarsus, in conjunction with the broad, largely-developed basal joint of its four anterior male feet, will sufficiently characterize it. A single specimen only was taken by Mr. Bewicke. It is quite distinct from any species with which I am acquainted; and Mr. Waterhouse, who has been working lately at the Halticidae, assures me that he knows nothing at all like it.” [1]

***

The Saint Helena Leaf Beetle wasn’t found during the most recent field surveys and is feared to be extinct. [2] 

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: On certain Coleoptera from St. Helena. The Journal of Entomology: descriptive and geographical 1(4): 207-216. 1861
[2] Howard Mendel; Philip Ashmole; Myrtle Ashmole: Invertebrates of the Central Peaks and Peak Dale, St. Helena. Report for the St Helena National Trust, Jamestown 2008

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edited: 26.05.2021

Sinployea peasei Solem

Pease’s Sinployea Snail (Sinployea peasei)

Pease’s Sinployea Snail was described in 1983; it is known from the slopes of Mt. Maungaroa and several other mountainous areas on the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, it was formerly quite common and widespread.

The shells reached sizes of 0,29 to about 0,4 cm in diameter.

The species is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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edited: 02.08.2022

Trukrhysa pachystoma ssp. dubloni (Baker)

Chuuk Chronos Snail (Trukrhysa pachystoma ssp. dubloni)

This form was described in 1941; it is known from the forested areas of Mt. Tonomwan on Tonowas Island as well as from Mt. Tonnachau on Weno Island, both in the east of the Chuuk lagoon in Micronesia. [1]

The name of this form does appear in listings of extinct mollusks; thus, I will mention it here as well. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid Landsnails from Pacific islands; parts 3 and 4. Bishop Museum Bulletin 166: 201-370. 1941
[2] Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine: Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1-6. 2015

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edited: 22.01.2022

Otomys cheesmani Taylor, Lavrenchenko, Carleton, Verheyen, Bennett, Oosthuizen & Maree

Cheesman’s Vlei Rat (Otomys cheesmani)

This species was described in 2011 based on the dried skin and skull of an adult male that had been collected in 1937; it was apparently restricted to a small area at Mt. Choqa in north-western Ethiopia

It is believed that the species was last seen in 1968; it might now be extinct.

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edited: 29.04.2022

Acanthobrama tricolor (Lortet)

Damascus Bream (Acanthobrama tricolor)  

The Damascus Bream was described in 1883; it was restricted to water bodies on the Golan Heights in Syria; most of which are now either dried up or heavily polluted.

The last specimens were found in the late 1980s in the Masil al Fawwar river system, it might now be completely extinct.

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edited: 30.04.2021

Peloriolus brunneus (F. H. Waterhouse)

Brown Riffle Beetle (Peloriolus brunneus)

This species was described in 1879, it is apparently known only by the material that was collected by Charles Darwin himself in 1836, allegedly on the island of Saint Helena, where it has never been found again.

The species might be extinct, or, which is in fact more likely, it was just mislabeled and did in fact originate from southern Africa, where all other species of that genus live, and where Darwin had been just prior to his arrival at Saint Helena. [1] 

*********************

References:

[1] C. Hänel; M. A. Jäch: Beetles of the Tristan da Cunha Islands: Poignant new findings, and checklist of the archipelagos species, mapping an exponential increase in alien composition (Coleoptera). Koleopterische Rundschau 83: 257-282. 2013

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edited: 29.05.2021

Dicolpomys fossor Winge

Digging Spiny Rat (Dicolpomys fossor)

This species was described in 1887 on the basis of fossils that were found in Pleistocene deposits in Brazil; additional material was later also found in deposits that could be dated to the Early Holocene.

The same species, however, was recently recorded based on subfossil remains from the Late Holocene of Argentinia, thus it appears to have survived there and was then extirpated by humans, maybe even after the arrival of the first European settlers in the 15th century. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Diego H. Verzi; A. Itarí Olivares; Patricia Hadler; Juan C. Castro; Eduardo P. Tonni: Occurrence of Dicolpomys (Echimyidae) in the late Holocene of Argentinia: The most recently extinct South American caviomorph genus. Quaternary International 490: 123-131. 2018

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edited: 19.08.2022

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Vinodolia fluviatlis (Radoman)

River Mudsnail (Vinodolia fluviatlis)

This species is known from the Zrmanja river, where it is now extinct; an additional population might still exist in the lower parts of the Neretva River, where it is restricted to freshwater habitats close to the estuary into the Adriatic Sea.

The plan to build a sluice at this site certainly will lead to the destruction of this last population. [1]

***

I have no idea if this species is now already extinct and thus will mention it here only briefly.

*********************

References:

[1] Dr. Jörg Freyhof: Threatened freshwater fishes and molluscs of the Balkan, potential impact of hydropower projects. Unpublished report, ECA Watch Austria & EuroNatur 2012

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edited: 16.05.2021