Tag Archives: Hawaii Islands

Amastra praeopima Cooke

Waiahole Amastra Snail (Amastra praeopima)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at a place named Waiahole at the crest of the Ko’olau Mountains along the eastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1 to 1,2 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Leptachatina saxatilis (Gulick)

Rock-dwelling Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina saxatilis)

The Rock-dwelling Leptachatina Snail was described in 1856; it is known from Mokulē’ia near the north-western shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found under stones in open places.

The shells are only about 0.6 cm heigh; they are glass-like transparent, shining, and very finely striated.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Ciridops tenax Olson & James

Stout-legged Finch (Ciridops tenax)

This species was described in 1991 on the basis of subfossil remains that were recovered from Holocene deposits on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The biology of this species is not known.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 26.08.2022

Hylaeus gliddenae Magnacca & Daly

Glidden’s Masked Bee (Hylaeus gliddenae 

This species was described in 2003 based on a single (?) specimen, a male that had been collected sometimes in the early 20th century at an not further specified locality on the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i.

The species is known to have nested in the burrows left behind by the larvae of beetles from the genus Halcobius in the stems of kolea (Myrsine spp.).

The species differs from nearly all others by its red metasoma (the posterior part of the body), which it shares only with the Paradox Masked Bee (Hylaeus paradoxus (Schrottky)), and by its somewhat u-shaped facial markings. [1]

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References:

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020

Amastra rugulosa ssp. annosa Cooke

Aged Amastra Snail (Amastra rugulosa ssp. annosa)

The Aged Amastra Snail is one of many forms of its genus that are actually known only based on (sub)fossil material; this one was found in deposits of the Hanama’ulu plains near the eastern coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This extremely variable form is abundant in road cuttings on the coastal plain south of the Wailua river. There are several distinct forms found associated in the different deposits. The typical form described above might be considered a distinct species if it did not occur with numerous intergrades of other forms which closely approach A. rugulosa normalis. A constant differentiating character between all these specimens of annosa and normalis is the very weak, oblique, deeply situated columellar fold of the former. Some of the specimens of annosa at first glance seem to belong to the subgenus Cyclamastra but the embryonic whorls are less convex than those of any species of this subgenus.” [1]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Blackburnia menehune Liebherr & Porch

Menehune Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia menehune)

The Menehune Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, it is known from several subfossil remains, mainly head capsules and elytra, that had been recovered from the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2019

Agrotis photophila (Butler)

Light-loving Cutworm (Agrotis photophila)

The Light-loving Cutworm was described in 1879, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a wingspan of about 3,6 cm.

***

The Light-loving Cutworm obviously was a lowland species, it was always found near the sea.

The species is now extinct.

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’  

(public domain)

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edited: 22.01.2019

Orthiospiza howarthi James & Olson

Maui Upland Finch (Orthiospiza howarthi)

The Maui Highland Finch aka. Maui Upland Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that had been collected from cave deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

When alive, the species appears to have been restricted to higher elevations, its remains were never found in lowland deposits. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 29.04.2022

Amastra textilis ssp. kaipaupauensis Hyatt & Pilsbry

Kaipaupau Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. kaipaupauensis

The Kaipaupau Amastra Snail was described in 1911, as far as I understand, it is known from a single specimen that was collected at a place named Kaipaupau, which may actually be the area around the Kaipapa’u Waterfall near the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

***

… from the description.:

The shell is short, subperforate, thin, with straightly conic spire and convex whorls, the last quite rotund; dull purplish-brown, the thin cuticle yellowish on theearly whorls. Embryo finely striate; later whorls with fine, irregular sculpture of growth-wrinkles. Aperture purplish within, the lip very narrowly thickened. Columnellar lamella thin, its lower edge subhorizontal. 
….
Near The above, yet with narrower, straightly conic spire and more convex whorls. ….
” [1]

The shell has a length of 1,1 cm and reaches 0,7 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 26.04.2019

Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson

Primitive Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes)

The Primitive Koa Finch was described in 2005 based on subfossil remains that were found on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

At least on Maui the species occurred in sympatry with another closely related species, the Scissor-billed Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson), a constellation which is known also from the island of Hawai’i, where two other congeneric species, the Lesser- (Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild) and the Greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) formed mixed flocks feeding together.

The primitive Koa-Finch disappeared before the first Europeans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. 

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Euodynerus radula (Fabricius)

Kauaian Rasp Wasp (Euodynerus radula)

This species is considered the first scientifically described insect species from the Hawaiian Islands, as the first specimen was collected on the day of Cook’s landing on the island of Kaua’i on January 21, 1778.The Kauaian Rasp Wasp did not build its own nesting tubes but instead took over existing burrows into which it introduced micro butterfly caterpillars as food for its larvae.

The species was apparently last seen in 1925 and is now very likely extinct.

***

syn. Odynerus radula (Fabricius)

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’  

(public domain)

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References:

[1] James M. Carpenter: Review of Hawaiian Vespidae (Hymenoptera). Bishop Occasional Papers 99: 1-18 2008

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edited: 11.02.2024

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. lanaiensis Cooke

This form, described in 1920, was restricted to the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands.

Specimens from Lanai differ slightly from the Molokai form. The shells are slightly smaller, more conical in outline, tapering more gradually towards a somewhat acute summit; they are darker colored and with the pale zone only indicated near the aperture. There are 16 to 18 ribs on the last whorl; the embryonic whorls, under a strong lens, are distinctly, spirally striate; the columellar fold enters obliquely, is short, almost nodule-like when viewed above, and there is usually a minute basal fold, situated deep within. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5, apert. 0.92 mm.; 5 1/2 whorls.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Leptachatina turrita (Gulick)

Towered Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina turrita)

The Towered Leptachatina Snail was described in 1856; it was apparently restricted to a small area named Lihue near the southern foots of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 0.9 cm; they are translucent dark corneous and finely striated. [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Carelia anceophila Cooke

Olokeke Carelia Snail (Carelia anceophila)

This species was described in 1931; it is known from at least two specimens that were found along the so-called Olokeke trail (a place that I cannot trace) on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands; the specimens, when found, had only been dead for a short time.

The shells must have reached heights of up to 3.8 cm, maybe more. [1]

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References:  

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931

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edited: 24.01.2024

Achatinella vulpina (Férussac)

Foxy Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella vulpina)

The Foxy Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1824.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are glossy yellow, green, olive or chestnut, often banded with green or chestnut; the extremely color patterns were already mentioned by the species’ author.:

The colouring of this species is extremely variable; there is, however, but one prevailing idea in its manner of distribution. The columella is of a livid purple-rose in all the varieties.” [1]

This is one of the most common shells met with on Oahu, and passes through numerous slight variations, which have led to their description as distinct species.” [1]

***

The species was last found in 1965 along the slopes of the Pu’u ‘ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus); it is now considered extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] E. W. Thwing: Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus Achatinella. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(1): 1-196. 1907
[2] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′

(public domain)

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edited: 06.06.2021

Leptachatina scutilus (Mighel)

Slender Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina scutilus)

This species, described in 1845, was restricted to the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The type specimens appear to have been destroyed and C. Montague Cooke, while assigning some specimens to Jesse Wedgwood Mighels’ description, writes the following statement.:

It is with some hesitation that I refer shells to this species. Mighel’s description is incomplete and the types were probably lost in the fire which destroyed part of his collection as no trace can be found of this species.

My specimens are slightly larger than Mighel’s measurements and have an additional whorl. The measurements of an average specimen are: Length 7.0, diam. 2.3, alt. of ap. 2.3 mm.
” [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 14.01.2024

Achatinella apexfulva (Dixon)

Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella apexfulva)

The tree snails of the genus Achatinella are only found on the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian archipelago; 41 species are currently accepted, of which about 20 may still survive.

All species inhabit trees and shrubs where they feed on fungi by scraping them from the surfaces of leaves or trunks; the snails are hermaphroditic and give birth to live young, however, only to a few each year. The snails can live to about ten years or even more, the growth rate is very low, and they reach maturity only with about six years. 

The tree snails are very vulnerable to loss of individuals through over-collecting, but also to habitat destruction and especially to the introduction of predators like rats, or more recently the snail-eating Rosy Wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea (Férussac)). [1]

***

The Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail was indeed the first member of its genus to reach Europe – as part of a shell lei, given by native Hawaiians to George Dixon, a British ship captain in 1786, and to be scientifically described – in 1789.

The species was restricted to some of the ridges of the Ko’olau Mountains, where it was last found in 1985. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are dextral or sinistral and are quite variably colored; the embryonic whorl might be yellow, the following whorls are blackish brown to chestnut-colored, sometimes with some whitish streaks and spiral lines; the narrow suture is light-edged; the moderately thickened lip is flesh- to salmon-colored while the columellar fold is nearly white; the aperture is bluish white within. [1]

***  

The species was last seen in the wild at the Poamoho Trail and was considered extinct in the wild since then; a little captive population (brought into captivity in 1997) was all that was left of this species. This population, however, did not breed and finally was down to a last surviving individual. 

This individual, named George (see photo below), died today (1. January 2019) at the age of 14 years, an exceptional age for an invertebrate species. [2]

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993
[2] Jacina Bowler: Lonely George – A Hawaiian Tree Snail – Has Died, Taking His Species With Him. Science Alert January 9, 2019

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Photo: Brenden Holland
http://portugal.inaturalist.org/people/bholland

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus guttatus (Sharp)

Speckled Sap Beetle (Apetasimus guttatus)

The Speckled Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was apparently found near the city of Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, but is otherwise also known to have occurred on the island of Hawai’i.

The species reached a length of about 0,52 to 0,61 cm; it was brick red to nearly blackish, with some pale yellow to orange-red markings. [1]

***

The Speckled Sap Beetle was living subcortical in the wood of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray); this microhabitat was severely disrupted on all of the Hawaiian main islands by the introduction of terrestrial isopods, leading to the disappearance of nearly all invertebrates that shared the same modus vivendi. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Leptachatina accincta (Mighels)

Girded Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina accincta)

The Girded Leptachatina Snail was described in 1845; it is known to have inhabited parts of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.6 to 0.7 cm; they are “dextral, conical, horn color, smooth, polished, imperforate; whorls six, convex, with an impressed revolving line just below the suture; aperture semiovate; lip simple acute.” [1]

***

Note: This species is very often found under the name Leptachatina accineta (Mighels), which is a writing error.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Amastra textilis ssp. textilis (Férussac)

Woven Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. textilis)

The Woven Amastra Snail was described in 1824, it appears to have been quite widespread around the center of southern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and indeed has repeatedly been described independently by several authors under a bunch of different names.

The shells are quite variable and reach sizes of 1,25 to 1,8 cm in heigth and 0,8 to 0,95 cm in diameter. [1]

At least three distinct subspecies have been described.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 27.09.2020

Amastra thaanumi Hyatt & Pilsbry

Thaanum’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thaanumi

Thaanum’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911, it was restricted to a place named Ka’a’awa in the Koʻolauloa District on the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was described on the basis of a single living specimen and several dead shells.

… from the description.:

The shell is sinistral, imperforate, moderately solid, oblong, having a somewhat silky luster. Spire widely conic with somewhat convex outlines and rather obtuse summit. Embryonic whorls marked with faint, very fine growth-striae only; later whorls distinctly striate obliquely, the striae fine and somewhat thread-like. Upper whorls purplish-brown ith irregular whitish streaks, the last two whorls covered with a rich dark chestnut cuticle, yellowish next the suture, and deciduous in front of the aperture, showing a glossy light green under layer. Aperture rather oblique, livid or bluish white whithin, with a whitish callous rim within the dark-edged lip. Columella short, bearing a strong, triangular, downward-bent lamella. Parietal callus thin.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 28.09.2020

Laminella venusta (Mighels)

Graceful Laminella Snail (Laminella venusta 

The Graceful Laminella Snail was described in 1845, it was found in the Mapulehu Valley near the southeastern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This species differs from the congeneric Alexander’s Laminella Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)) and the Depicted Laminella Snail (Laminella depicta (Baldwin)) by its more swollen last whorl and the sunken black markings, which are generally coarser than in L. depicta and which do not form the characteristic patterns.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,35 cm in heigth and 0,62 to 0,73 in diameter.

The animal itself is also mentioned in the description.:

The animal … is slender, body flesh-color with black puncta down the sides; tentacles very black. When extended, two-thirds as long as the shell.” [1]

***

The Graceful Laminella Snail has three additional color morphs assigned to it, orginally described as varieties, which in fact may well be distinct subspecies: var. muscaria Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. orientalis Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. semivestita Hyatt & Pilsbry. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 01.10.2020

Amastra ricei Cooke

Rice’s Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei)

Rice’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917, apparently based on only five recently dead specimens, it was restricted to a small part of the Miloli’i Valley near the northwestern coast of Kaua’i.

The shells reached sizes of about 2,4 cm in heigth and 1,2 to 1,3 cm in diameter.

***

The author of the species also described a variety, named as var. armillata, from the same locality, based on two dead specimens (empty shells) which may be of Pleistocene age or may just have been old surface shells.

This variety differs from the normal form in the following way …:

… the fourth and fifth whorls are slightly swollen, and the surface is more coarsely but not as closely sculptured with growth-wrinkles. The periphery is distinctly carinated on the last whorl; the carina is margined along its upper edge by a deep narrow sinus. The lower halff of the last whorl descends rather rapidly, with the carina appearing slightly above the suture. The outer margin of the aperture is distinctly modified by the carina. The upper portion being flattened, the lower evenly arched. The columellar fold is weak, thread-like, very oblique and deeply situated.” [1]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Depiction from: ‘ C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 03.10.2020

Leptachatina pulchra Cooke

Beautiful Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina pulchra)

The Beautiful Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was inhabiting the slopes of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands where it was found in open country at the base of small ferns.

The shells reach heights of about 0.83 cm; they are somewhat glossy, the spire and the upper part of the last whorl are light brown, the base is darker brown with a dark brown band accompanying the sutures.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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edited: 22.01.2024

Blackburnia blaptoides (Blackburn)

Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia blaptoides)

The Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was apparently restricted to the Pu’u Konahuanui, the tallest peak of the Ko’olau Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is thought to be extinct due to predation by introduced ants. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 03.09.2019

Leptachatina anceyana Cooke

Ancey’s Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina anceyana)

This species was endemic to the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.5 cm; since they are only known based on subfossil remains, the original color is not known.

A small species unlike anything from Hawaii. … The surface is minutely and very closely striate with lines of growth. This species is rather abundant in the fossil deposits explored by Dr. Henshaw in Mana.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 14.01.2024

Hylaeus finitimus (Perkins)

Kauai Masked Bee (Hylaeus finitimus)  

This species was described in 1899, it is apparently endemic to the coastal areas of the island of Kaua’i, Hawiian Islands, only female specimens are known. 

The head and mesosoma are black, the metasoma is dark reddish brown, the legs are dark brown with a pale area on the fore tibias, the wings are yellowish colored.

The species was not recorded during recent searches and might well be extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Leptachatina vana Sykes

Hunting Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina vana)

This species was described in 1900; it is known from the slopes of Mt. Ka’ala, the highest mountain of the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.78 cm; According to the species’ author it is “a brownish horny, pyramidal shell which has no striking characters.“.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Amastra malleata Smith

Hammered Amastra Snail (Amastra malleata)

The Hammered Amastra Snail was described 1873; it was found in the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Anisolabis oahuensis Brindle

Oahu Earwig (Anisolabis oahuensis)

The Oahu Earwig was described in 1980; it is endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and is one of the four species that was split off Perkin’s Earwig (Anisolabis perkinsi Burr) during a genu revision in 1980.

The species is about 1,2 to about 1,9 cm long.

The Oahu Earwig was last recorded in the 1920s and may in fact be extinct now. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. Brindle: The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes: 12. A new species of blind troglobitic earwig (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), with a revision of the related surface-living earwigs of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Insects 21(4): 261-274. 1980

*********************

edited: 08.12.2021

Talpanas lippa Olson & James

Mole Duck (Talpanas lippa)

The Mole Duck, or Kauai Mole Duck was described in 2009 based on subfossil remains found on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was flightless and apparently had extremely small eyes and thus might have been almost blind in life, it had a distinct wide beak which it very likely used for probing the soil for invertebrates. [1]

The Mole Dock most likely disappeared, together with countless additional species, when humans first reached the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************    

References:    

[1] A. L. Iwaniuk; S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Extraordinary cranial specialization in a new genus of extinct duck (Aves: Anseriformes) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 2296: 47–67. 2009

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020

Newcombia gagei Severns

Gage’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia gagei

This species was described in 2009, it was described based on subfossil shells that were collected from the Waipoli Dune fossil deposit on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. The age of these deposit is not known but is most likely Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene.

The shells of this species reached sizes of 2,49 cm, making it one of the largest species in its genus. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Mike Severns: A new species of newcombia from the Pleistocene of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Achatinellidae). Basteria 73: 57-60. 2009

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Phyllostegia hillebrandii H. Mann ex Hillebr.

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia hillebrandii)

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia was described in 1888, it is known from two collections from eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands; one from Kula in the center -, and the other one from ‘Ulupalakua near the southern shore of the island.

The species is now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

*********************

edited: 24.09.2019

Chaetoptila sp. ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Oahu Kioea is known only from subfossil remains that were found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has not been described yet, but appears to have been distinct from the historically known Hawaiian Kioea. [1] 

*********************  
References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020

Ciridops anna (Dole)

Ula Ai Hawane (Ciridops anna)

The Ula Ai Hawane was described in 1879, the species is historically known for certain only from the island of Hawai’i, however, it is possible that two of the five existing specimens were collected on the island of Moloka’i (these two are of a supposed female and a likewise supposed immature male (see depiction below)). [2]

The species reached a size of about 11 to 12 cm; the males had a light grey head and neck, a black breast and a bright red rump, the wings were black and red as well, with the outer webs of the tertials white; the females were olive green and brown in color. [4]

Since the only two specimens that possibly come from Moloka’i differ from the other three, they might as well be interpreted as a distinct subspecies. 

***

The Hawaiian name ʻula-ʻai-hāwane means “red eating hawane”, hawane are the fruits of the endemic lo’ulu palms (Pritchardia spp.). The birds were only ever found near the lo’ulu palms and are thought to have fed on their flowers and fruits or perhaps on insects hiding in the leaf axilles. [3]

***

Subfossil remains found on Moloka’i were also assigned to this species, however, it is definitely possible that the Moloka’ian birds differed from the Hawaiians at the subspecies level. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Storrs L. Olson: William T. Brigham’s Hawaiian birds and a possible historical record of Ciridops anna (Aves: Drepanidini) from Molokai. Pacific Scenice 46(4): 495-500. 1992
[3] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005
[4] Storrs L. Olson: History, structure, evolution, behaviour, distribution, and ecology of the extinct Hawaiian genus Ciridops (Fringillidae, Carduelini, Drepanidini). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124(4): 651-674. 2012

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 18.10.2020

Blackburnia micantipennis (Sharp)

Waimea Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia micantipennis)  

The Waimea Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it occurred only at elevations of 600 to 1270 m on the leeward reaches of the Waimea Canyon on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. It is thought to have been a riparian species, since all localities, at which this species was found, are along the tributaries of the Waimea River.  

The last specimens of this species were apparently collected in 1935 and it is now thought to be possibly extinct. [1]  

********************* 

References: 

[1] J. K. Liebherr; E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii: Hawaiian Carabidae (Coleoptera), Part 1: Introduction and Tribe Platynini. University of Hawaii Press 2000

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Leptachatina captiosa Cooke

Captious Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina captiosa)

This species was described in 1911; it inhabited the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 cm; they are minutely perforate, ovate, corneous, nearly solid, scarcely glossy, faintly and closely striated with growth lines; the aperture is rather large, subovate, very slightly oblique and nearly perpendicular; the columella is nearly straight, arcuate below and bears an acute callus along its face; the outer lip is slightly arcuate and distinctly thickened; the umbilicus is very minute. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Leptachatina teres (Pfeiffer)

Terete Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina teres)

This species was described in 1855; it is thought to have been endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The Terete Leptachatina Snail appears to be very closely related to the Obtuse Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina obtusa (Pfeiffer)) and both may even be conspecific. [1]

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Leptachatina opipara Cooke

Opipara Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina opipara)

The Opipara Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was restricted to a small area in the mountainous area behind the Palolo Valley in south-eastern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.94 cm; they are thin, glossy and corneous colored.

********************* 

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi Cooke

Spalding’s Planamastra Snail (Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi

This species was described in 1933, it is restricted to Pukaloa in the Wai’anae Mountains of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

Planamastra spaldingi should be considered a very rare species. In the Museum collection are eight lots; five are from the small valley of Pukaloa. In only one of the lots are there more than two specimens, and not more than 25 to 30 shells have come to my notice.

***

This species should not be mistaken for Spalding’s Amastra Snail (Amastra spaldingi Cooke).

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

*********************

edited: 27.09.2020

Blackburnia mothra Liebherr & Porch

Mothra Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia mothra)

This species was described in 2015, it is one of several, mostly very large ground beetle species that are known exclusively from subfossil remains found in the makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Mothra Blackburnia Ground is the second-largest member of its genus, it died out shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesians on the Hawaiian Islands. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Newcombia philippiana (Pfeiffer)

Philippiana Newcombia Snail (Newcombia philippiana) 

The Philippiana Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, the species is known only from the type series which was collected on one of the Hawaiian Islands (most likely Moloka’i), its taxonomic status, however, is not fully understood.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis Sherff

Lanai Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis)

The Lanai Phyllostegia was described in 1934 based on material that had been collected in 1914, it was restricted to the Kaiholena Gulch on Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The plant is thought to have been seen sometimes in the 1980s, however, it is thought that this might rather have been the nominate form. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

*********************

edited: 24.09.2019

Omiodes giffardi Swezey

Giffard’s Leaf-roller (Omiodes giffardi)

Giffard’s Leaf-roller was described in 1921, the species was restricted to the slopes of the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a wingspan of about 2,5 cm.

The caterpillars fed on the native grass Ohe (Isachne distichophylla Munro ex Hillebr.). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

*********************

edited: 23.09.2019

cf. Chloridops sp.

Unassigned Maui Finch (cf. Chloridops sp.)

This form is known by a fragment of a cranium including the frontal and parts of the interoribital septum and maxilla, which where excavated from deposits of the Pu’u Naio Cave on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

This species was about the size of the Wahi Crosbeak (Chloridops wahi James & Olson), that is 13 to 14,5 cm, but probably was not a close relative of it.

***

There appear to exist remains of at least two additional finch forms in the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., USA, that were collected on Maui and still await their description as soon as more material is found.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 08.10.2020

Amastra pagodula Cooke

Pagoda-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra pagodula)

The Pagoda-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known only from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from late Pleistocene/early Holocene deposits at Pu’u Wa’awa’a, an ancient cinder cone in Kona on the island of Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 0,8 to about 1 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. ‘Maui’

Maui Thrush (Myadestes lanaiensis ssp.)

This form is known only from reports from the 1850s as well as from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Taken into account the fact that all known island forms of the species are considered distinct subspecies, the form that formerly inhabited the island of Maui, must also have been a distinct form.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Phyllostegia variabilis Bitter

Coastal Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia variabilis)

The Coastal Phyllostegia or Variable Phyllostegia was described in 1900, the species was originally discovered on the island of Laysan but was subsequently also found on the Kure- and Midway atolls in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Hugo H. Schauinsland wrote the first notes about this species, that he discovered in 1896.:

Phyllostegia variabilis Bitter nov. sp. Here and there on the E and W side near the beach. The numerous small flowers appear first during winter, beginning in November. It is a herbaceous plant, with few unbranched runners which I found to be 3/4 to 1 m long.” [2]

***

… In 1896 it was scattered near the beach of the west and east sides (Schauinsland, 1899: 97). It was still present in small patches in 1903, mostly on the windward side (Christophersen and Caum, 1931: 11). it disappeared from Laysan before 1911.” [1]

The species is now completely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Charles A. Ely; Roger B. Clapp: The natural history of Laysan Island, northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 171. 1973
[2] Hugo H. Schauinsland: Three months on a coral island (Laysan); translated by Miklos D. F. Udvardy. Atoll Research Bulletin 432. 1996

*********************

edited: 19.10.2020

Chaetoptila sp. ‘narrow-billed’

Narrow-billed Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Narrow-billed Kioea is known from subfossil bones that were found on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species had a much narrower bill than the Hawaiian Kioe, with which it occurred sympatrically (at least if the form known as Chaetoptila sp. ‘Maui Nui’ indeed turns out to be identical with this species) [1]. 

*********************  
References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020 

Amastra fragilis Pilsbry & Cooke

Fragile Amastra Snail (Amastra fragilis)

The Fragile Amastra Snail was found in the vicinity of a freshwater spring near a pipeline trail in Kaunakaki, a place at the southern coast of the Hawaiian island of Moloka’i, as well as some other places further east.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,9 cm in height, they were:

“… thin, fragile, perforate, narrowly ovate-conic, chestnut brown, scarcely shining, very finely, irregularely striate and with larger striae at irregular intervals; commonly dubed with faecal matter and soil.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra grayana (Pfeiffer)

Gray’s Amastra Snail (Amastra grayana)

Gray’s Amastra Snail was described in 1855, it was endemic to the Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, were it was found on the ground of the native forests.

This was a rather large species, its shells reached sizes of up to 2,1 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Hyles hawaiiensis (Rothschild & Jordan)

Hawaiian Sphinx Moth (Hyles hawaiiensis)

The Hawaiian Sphinx Moth was originally thought to be a subspecies of the Maui-nui Sphinx Moth (Hyles calida (Butler)) which itself occurs on the islands of Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu; the population of the island of Kaua’i is now known to constitute another, not yet described, distinct species. [1]

The moth reaches a wingspan of slightly over 6 cm, males and females are superficially identical.

The larvae of these genus were thought to be quite polyphagous, however, it is now known that they feed exclusively on the endemic members of the Coffee family (Rubiaceae) including Bobea spp., Coprosma spp.Gardenia spp.Kadua spp., and Psychotria spp..

***

The Hawaiian Sphinx Moth has not been recorded in recent years and is now believed to be extinct. 

***

syn. Celeria calida ssp. hawaiiensis Rothschild & Jordan, Hawaiiana calida ssp. hawaiiensis (Rothschild & Jordan), Hyles calida ssp. hawaiiensis (Rothschild & Jordan)

*********************


Photo: The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7; Macrlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Daniel Rubinoff; Michael San Jose; Anna K. Hundsdoerfer: Cryptic diversity in a vagile Hawaiian moth group suggests cmplex factors drive diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 152. 2020

*********************

edited: 04.11.2020

Amastra tenuilabris Gulick

Pauoa Amastra Snail (Amastra tenuilabris)

The Pauoa Amastra Snail was described in 1873, it comes from the Nu’uanu Valley and the small adjecent Pauoa Valley in the vicinity of the Pu’u Konahuanui in the eastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

Shell dextral, ovate-conic, hardly shining, somewhat roughly striated with growth-lines; white under a fulvous epidermis, which is generally worn off below the suture on the last whorl. Whorls 5 1/2, a little convex. Aperture subquadrate, white, not as long as the spire; peristome thin; columella straight, provided with a small median fold; lips connected by a very thin callus. length 15, diam. 8 mm.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′ 

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 05.10.2020

Amastra porcus Hyatt & Pilsbry

Piglet Amastra Snail (Amastra porcus)

The Piglet Amastra Snail was described in 1911, it was apparently restricted to the Mokuleia Valley in the northernmost part of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

A this shell of unusually swollen shape. In contour it is not unlike some of the small, subglobose individuals of A. tristis, such as occur in Moanalua, but it differs by lacking a dark deciduous outer layer of cuticle and in the sculpture of the embryonic whorls, so that the relationship cannot be thought close. its relationships are not clear to us. No other described oahu shell resembles it.” 

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Newcombia sulcata (Pfeifer)

Furrowed Newcombia Snail (Newcombia sulcata

The Furrowed Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, like most of its congeners, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of 1,1 cm in heigth.

***

This species can be confused with no other. the whorls are regularely, obsoletely, transversely striate, increasing in strength to the last whorls and disappear on the lower half of the last whorl. the color is red-brown, becoming more intense with the increase of the whorls, and on the last whorl it is quite shining dark red-brown.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Blackburnia godzilla Liebherr & Porch

Godzilla Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia godzilla)

This species was described in 2015, the species is known from several subfossil remains that had been excavated from the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Godzilla Blackburnia Ground Beetle is the largest species of its genus, it might have reached sizes of over 4 cm. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

*********************

edited: 12.02.2020

Leptachatina laevigata Cooke

Polished Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina laevigata)

The Polished Leptachatina Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the Mapulehu Ridge on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached heights of about 0.76 cm; the spires were either reddish brown above and yellowish corneous below or unicolored brownish corneous.

This species is now extinct like most of its congeners.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Amastra decorticata Gulick

Debarked Amastra Snail (Amastra decorticata)

This species was endemic to the western parts of the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it could be found in the forests under dead leaves.

The shells reached sizes of 1,5 to 1,64 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra mucronata ssp. mucronata (Newcomb)

Sharp-pointed Amastra Snail (Amastra mucronata ssp. mucronata)

The Sharp-pointed Amastra Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the Halawa-, the Mapulehu-, and the Moakea Valley in the eastern part of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,7 cm in lenght and about 0,9 cm in diameter. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Auriculella crassula Smith

Thick Auriculella Snail (Auriculella crassula)

The Thick Auriculella Snail was described in 1873, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands where it apparently was quite common.

Several varieties are known, of which some were originally described as distinct species.:

This species runs through a number of color varieties, the most common of which is an olive yellow; others have the spire dark, and the suture broadly white-bordered. The white-belted pattern, though it occurs in nearly all the species of this genus, and is fairly common in A. uniplicata, does not seem to be found in this species; at least no specimen of this color variety was found among over 1500 specimens seen, but there is sometimes a brown belt at the periphery. The spire is nearly always darker than the last whorl, and there is usually a broad white band just below the suture.” [1]

The species is now extinct like so many of the terrestrial snail species from the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916′

(public domain)

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edited: 17.11.2021

Amastra modicella Cooke

Small-sized Amastra Snail (Amastra modicella)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at elevations of 1828 m north-western Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reached average sizes of about 0,96 cm length.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Melicope wailauensis (H. St. John) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Wailau Valley Melicope (Melicope wailauensis 

The Wailau Valley Melicope was obviously restricted to the Kukuinui Ridge in the Wailau Valley on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is considered extinct.

*********************  

edited: 03.09.2020

Blackburnia ovata Liebherr & Porch

Ovate Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia ovata)

The Ovate Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, the species is known from three subfossil pronota that had been recovered from the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Amastra aurostoma Baldwin

Golden-mouthed Amastra Snail (Amastra aurostoma)

The Golden-mouthed Amastra Snail was found at a place named Ka’alele Pa’aka, which is located along the main ridge of the Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands. [2]

The species was described alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell; mantle dark slate, margined on the outer side with reddish-brown. Foot above and below very dark brown, the sides studded with large patches of darker hue, the posterior portion tinged with red. the head above and tentacles covered with almost black granulations.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911
[2] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

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edited: 15.06.2020

Cookeconcha paucilamellata (Ancey)

Hamakua Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha paucilamellata)  

The Hamakua Cookeconcha Snail was described in 1904, originally as a ‘variety’ of another species, the Mountain Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha hystricella (Pfeiffer)) from the island of O’ahu, one of probably only three species of this genus still surviving.

However, this species originates from the biggest of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawai’i itself, were it apparently inhabited the forest floor of the rainforest at the slopes of Mauna Kea. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

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Depiction from: ‘C. F. Ancey: Report on semi-fossil land shells found in the Hamakua District, Hawaii. The Journal of Malacology 11: 65-74. 1904’

(public domain)

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edited: 13.06.2020

Carelia pilsbryi ssp. pilsbryi Sykes

Pilsbry’s Carelia Snail (Carelia pilsbryi ssp. pilsbryi 

Pilsbry’s Carelia Snail was described in 1909 based on subfossil specimens.  

E. R. Sykes, the author of this species already mentioned:  

I have only seen a single specimen of C. Pilsbryi, and the species is, I should think, an extinct one, like some others of the group.” [1]  

***

The species formerly inhabited a small area from the Kalihiwai stream to a streamlet near the eastern beach of Kalihikai at the northern shore of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached lengths of averagely up to 6,5 cm, some up to 8 cm.  

***

Pilsby’s Carelia Snail apparently inhabited lowland regions, and thus was one of the first species that felt victim to the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)), which had been introduced by the Polynesian settlers.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. R. Sykes: Carelia pilsbry, n. sp., from the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 8: 204 1908-1909 
[2] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 01.04.2018

Leptachatina molokaiensis Cooke

Molokai Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina molokaiensis)

The Molokai Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was found, amongst other places, near the village of Kalua’aha in eastern Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 0.73 cm heigh, glossy light brownish corneous colored and minutely striated with growth lines.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Laminella depicta (Baldwin)

Depicted Laminella Snail (Laminella depicta)

The Depicted Laminella Snail is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it inhabited the lowland forests in the Pelekunu Valley and the Ha’upu Bay.

The shells reached sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in heigth.

***

The Depicted Laminella Snail was also treated as a subspecies of Alexander’s Amastra Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)), which, however, occurs on the island of Maui.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 12.06.2020

Branta rhuax (Wetmore)

Giant Nene (Branta rhuax)

The Giant Nene was already described in 1943, its remains were found in 1926 at a depth of 25 m under a lava flow near a place named Kaumaike’ohu in the Ka’u District on the island of Hawai’i; it was actually the first fossil bird described from the Hawaiian Islands.

This form has widely been synonymized with a very large goose, that is known from subfossil remains also found on Hawai’i Island.

The Giant Nene was the largest member of the large Hawaiian goose radiation, it was more than twice the size of the still living Nene (Branta sandvicensis (Vigors)).

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 05.05.2022

Amastra perversa Hyatt & Pilsbry

Wicked Amastra Snail (Amastra perversa)

The Wicked Amastra Snail was described in 1911, apparently on the basis of a single (sub)fossil specimen that was obtained from the Halawa Valley near the eastern end of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species appears to be very closely related to the Awkward Amastra Snail (Amastra laeva Baldwin) from eastern Maui and differs from that species only in being smoother and in having whorls of a slightly smaller caliber and a smaller aperture. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Leptachatina baldwini Cooke

Baldwin’s Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina baldwini)

Baldwin’s Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of 0.63 cm; they are “minutely perforate, elongately turrited, corneous, thin, subdiaphanous, minutely striate, especially below the suture.

This species is believed to be extinct now.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Pauahia chrysallis (Pfeiffer)

Golden Pauahia Snail (Pauahia chrysallis)

The Golden Pauahia Snail was described in 1855, it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where at least three populations are known from Wahiawa, Waialua, and the Wai’anae Mountains

The shells reached sizes of size 0,9 cm in heigth. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Branta sp. ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Nene (Branta sp.)

The Oahu Nene is known from subfossil remains that were found at Barbers Point in the southwest part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This form is quite similar to the Great Nene (Branta hylobadistes Olson & James) from Maui Island, but its hindlimb elements were generally longer and more gracile; the form shows furthermore a great variation in size, especially of the wing elements. [1]

***

The Oahu Nene occurred sympatrically with the Nene (Branta sandvicensis (Vigors)), the sole surviving species of the now extinct Hawaiian goose radiation.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 05.05.2022

Amastra flavescens (Newcomb)

Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens)

The Yellowish Amastra Snail is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Hawai’, Hawaiian Islands, it is believed to have been quite widespread with several populations occurring in nearly all forested areas of the island. [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 1,5 to 1,6 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

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edited: 15.06.2020

Hemignathus sp. ‘Maui’

Maui Hoopoe-billed Akialoa (Hemignathus sp.)  

This species, so far undescribed, is known exclusively from subfossil bones, which were excavated on the island of Maui.  

The beak morphology of the Maui Hoopoe-billed Akialoa is similar to that of the Hoopoe-billed Akialoa (Hemignathus upupirostris James & Olson), but it was smaller. [1][2]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[2] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005  

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edited: 08.04.2018

Amastra viriosa Cooke

Robust Amastra Snail (Amastra viriosa)

The Robust Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in the forests on the mountain slopes along the western coast of Hawai’i Island.

A. viriosa is unlike any species so far reported from Hawaii. Its nearest relative is probably the extinct A. senilis from Waimea. The latter is a larger species, much more roughly sculptured and has a larger perforation, besides being much broader in proportion to its length.” [1]

The shells reached average sizes of about 2 cm in height.

The species was found alive but was apparently already on the brink of extinction at that time.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra caputadamantis Hyatt & Pilsbry

Leahi Amastra Snail (Amastra caputadamantis)

This species is known from a Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposit at the Le’ahi (Diamond Head) at the southern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of 1,38 to 1,45 cm in heigth. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra violacea (Newcomb)

Violet Amastra Snail (Amastra violacea)

The Violet Amastra Snail was described in 1853, it was found in the Halawa-, the Mapulehu-, and the Pelekunu Valleys in the eastern part of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

It was one of the larger species of its genus, some shells reach sizes of 2,8 to 3 cm in lenght and 1,3 to 1,5 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

Shell dextral, ovate-oblong, solid; whorls 7, convex, strongly striate longitudinally; suture plain and deeply impressed. Aperture ovate; columella short, terminating in a twisted plait; lip simple, color violaceous with light colored striae.” [1]

*********************    

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′ 

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Perdicella thwingi Pislbry & Cooke

Thwing’s Perdicella Snail (Perdicella thwingi)  

Thwing’s Perdicella Snail was endemic to the dry Auwahi forest in eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

This was one of the largets species in its genus, the shells are up to 1,6 to 1,7 cm heigh. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Leptachatina brevicula Pease

Shortish Leptachtina Snail (Leptachatina brevicula 

The Shortish Leptachtina Snail was described in 1869, the species is known from a place named Kaholuamano at an elevation of about 1219 m on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached heights of about 0,8 cm. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

edited: 31.03.2018

Agrotis panoplias Meyrick

Kona Cutworm (Agrotis panoplias 

The Kona Cutworm was endemic to the island of Hawai’i, where it obviously was restricted to the Kona district.  

The species reached a wingspan of ca. 3,8 cm.  The biology of this species is not known.  

*********************  

References:  [1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’  

(public domain)

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edited: 07.04.2018

Aidemedia chascax James & Olson

Straight-billed Gaper (Aidemedia chascax 

The Straight-billed Gaper, described in 1991 based on subfossil remains, is known only from the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it lived sympatrically with another species of its genus, the Sickle-billed Gaper (Aidemedia zanclops James & Olson).  

These two species differed mainly in the shape and size of their beaks, and it is assumed that they may represent males and females of a single, sexually dimorphic species. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 22.03.2018

Amastra morticina Hyatt & Pilsbry

Dead Amastra Snail (Amastra morticina 

This species was described in 1911, apparently based on subfossil specimens that had been collected from sandy deposits at the Kahului Bay at the northern coast of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species was already extinct at that date, it very likely disappeared shortly after the occupation of the island by the first Hawaiian settlers.  

***

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,5 cm, those of the type specimens are dull reddish colored while others are whitish colored (see picture)  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)  

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edited: 22.03.2018

Laminella kuhnsi (Cooke)

Kuhns’ Laminella Snail (Laminella kuhnsi)

Kuhns’ Laminella Snail was described in 1908, it was originally identified as another species, Amastra erecta (Pease), but was subsequently recognized as being a distinct species (and genus).

The species was found in the vicinity of the Kahakuloa Bay at the northern north-east of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,34 cm in length, they were completely brown and had some zigzag markings in their epidermis, there appears to have also been a straw-colored variety. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Amastra (Laminella) kuhnsi. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 217-218. 1908

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Amastra (Laminella) kuhnsi. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 217-218. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 12.06.2020

Vangulifer mirandus Olson & James

Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch (Vangulifer mirandus)

The Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch is one of the many bird species that were extirpated by the first humans arriving on the Hawaiian Islands and which are known only by subfossil remains.

***

The Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch had a very strange beak, it appeared to have been to long and to weak for seed cracking, to deep and to broad for probing, and too short for nectar feeding; it had a very bluntly rounded tip; the ventral surface and the lateral edges of the upper beak were richly supplied with blood vessels and apparently also with nerve endings, a characteristic which is otherwise only known in the Apterygiformes (Kiwis).

The bird obviously used its beak to detect its food, likely living creatures like insects and other invertebrates, in some kind of substrate.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 04.10.2020

Carelia dolei ssp. isenbergi Cooke

Isenberg’s Carelia Snail (Carelia dolei ssp. isenbergi)

This taxon, described in 1931, inhabited the so-called Ha’ena plain, a lowland region in north-western Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands; it occupies a kind of intermediate position between Cuming’s Carelia Snail (Carelia cumingiana (Pfeiffer)) and the nominate form of Dole’s Carelia Snail and may in fact well be a hybrid form.

*********************  

References:  

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931

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edited: 25.01.2024

Leptachatina deceptor Cockerell

Deceiving Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina deceptor)  

The Deceiving Leptachatina Snail was described in 1927.  

The species is known from subfossil specimens that were recovered from the sandy deposits at Ha’ena on the north coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Theodore D. A. Cockerell: Two species of Leptachatina from the island of Kauai. Journal of Conchology 18(4): 117. 1927  

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edited: 31.03.2018

Wikstroemia skottsbergiana Sparre

Skottsberg’s Wikstroemia (Wikstroemia skottsbergiana)

Skottsberg’s Wikstroemia was described in 1964, it is endemic to the upper wet forests of the Lumaha’i Valley on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was apparently last seen in 2015 and its population was estimated at around 30 plants. [1]

***

Its name appears now in the IUCN Red List in the category “Possibly Extinct”, so it will be briefly mentioned here as well.

*********************

References:

[1] Kenneth R. Wood: Wikstroemia skottsbergiana (Thymelaeaceae): with notes on its habitat in upper Lumaha’i, Kaua’i, Hawai’i

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edited: 26.04.2021

Amastra conica Baldwin

Conical Amastra Snail (Amastra conica)

The Conical Amastra Snail was described 1906, it was endemic to the Hamakua Distict in the northern part of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

***

Shell fossil, dextral, minutely perforated, thin, elongately conical, apex acute; surface sculptured with fine growth-lines, apical whorls raidiately sulcated. Color of living shell unknown.” [1]

This species apparently disappeared already at the beginning of the Holocene era.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Clermontia multiflora Hillebr.

Many-flowered Clermontia (Clermontia multiflora)  

The Many-flowered Clermontia occurred in the Waihe’e Valley in western Maui and in the Ko’olau Mauntains on O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was a multi-branched shrub and reached sizes of 2 to 4 m.  

The Many-flowered Clermontia is apparently known exclusively from specimens that had been collected in 1870 and, as it was never found since, is considered extinct.  

*********************    

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)

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edited: 20.03.2018

Carelia hyattiana Pilsbry

Hyatt’s Carelia Snail (Carelia hyattiana)

This form is apparently known from only 11 specimens that all seem to be in a subfossil stage.

This species is based upon a fossil shell which was associated with C. dolei in the collection, and which evidently came from the same formation. It differs from C. dolei in wanting an angle or carina at the shoulder at all stages of growth. On the last whorl there is an obtuse but quite appreciable basal angle, which, with its shorter aperture, serves to differentiate this species from C. pilsbry Sykes.” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911
[2] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931

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edited: 25.01.2024

Leptachatina irregularis (Pfeiffer)

Irregular Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina irregularis 

The Irregular Leptachatina Snail was described in 1855. [or 1856, according to which source]  

This species, if it is accepted as one, is apparently only known from one collection [or even from only one specimen?], that was collected somewhere on the “Sandwich Islands”, the exact origin is not known.  

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The The Irregular Leptachatina Snail, however, has not been accepted by all authors, and if it has been, it was sometimes placed into the genus Amastra, it is now thought to most certainly be identical with Leptachatina fusca Newcomb. [1]  

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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edited: 31.03.2018

Phyllostegia rockii Sherff

Rock’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia rockii)

Rock’s Phyllostegia was described in 1934, it was restricted to the slopes of the Haleakala volcano on eastern Maui, Hawai’i Islands.

The species is known from only three collections, the most recent of which was made in 1912, it is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

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edited: 24.09.2019

Omiodes musicola Swezey

Maui Banana Moth (Omiodes musicola)

The Maui Banana Moth was described in 1909, the species was originally found somewhere in the forests of the ‘Iao Valley on western Maui, but was later also recorded from the neigboring island of Moloka’i.

The moth reached a wingspan of about 2,4.

The caterpillars are known to have fed on banana leaves, their native larval food plant appears to be unknown but may have been some grass species. [1]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

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edited: 23.09.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Hawai’i’ 1

Small Hawaii Crake (Zapornia sp.)  

This form is known from several subfossil remains that had been recovered from a site at Mauna Kea on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands, at an elevation of 1450.  

The Small Hawaii Crake falls within the size range of the Hawaiian Crake (Zapornia sandwichensis (Gmelin)) and may in fact turn out to be identical with that species. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Carelia paradoxa ssp. paradoxa (Pfeiffer)

Paradox Carelia Snail (Carelia paradoxa ssp. paradoxa 

The nominate of this species was described based on fresh, empty shells and subfossil ones, all other races are known from subfossil specimens alone.  

The shells reached lengths of up to 4,5 cm, they are distinctly and closely granulate, blackish brown, the spire is long and forms an acute cone above.  

The species inhabited the near-shore lowlands at the base of the Kalepa Mountains on the southern side of the Wailua river, where it met with a relict population of the Dead Carelia Snail (Carelia necra Newcomb) and formed a hybrid population that was originally described as a distinct subspecies (Carelia paradoxa ssp. thaanumi Cooke).  

This hybrid form was characterized by its embryonic whorl that was similar to that of C. paradoxa, while its adult whorls where identical to those of C. necra. [2]  

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References:  

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931 [2] Elwood Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 1, Introduction. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1947  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain) 

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edited: 01.04.2018