Tag Archives: Lanai

Wollastonia populifolia (Sherff) Orchard

Poplar-leaved Melanthera (Wollastonia populifolia)

This species was described in 1933, originally as a variety of the Subcordate Melanthera (Wollastonia subcordata (A. Gray) Orchard) from the island of Hawai’i.

The Poplar-leaved Melanthera is known only from the type material that was collected in 1918 somewhere in the Maunalei Valley on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, it is now considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

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edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella remyi (Newcomb)

Remy’s Laminella Snail (Laminella remyi)

Remy’s Laminella Snail was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The shells reach sizes of about 1,4 cm in height; they are “… very pale buff, with some pink suffusion on the last whorl and the embryonic whorls. The first half-whorl is smooth, convex and uniform pinkish-brown; next whorl streaked, flattened ad unevenly, rather weakly costate; on part of the third whorl the costation or corrugation is stronger, more or less irregular, after that weakening. The last whorl is very finely striatulate. There are reddish streaks between the ribs on the embryonic whorls; near the end of the third whorl these give place to a few widely-spaced oblique blackish stripes; after which the angular, zigzag or netted pattern begins. This pattern is essentially like that of L. tetrao. The interior of the aperture and the columella are pink; columellar lamella simple, steeply ascending.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis Sherff

Lanai Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis)

The Lanai Phyllostegia was described in 1934 based on material that had been collected in 1914, it was restricted to the Kaiholena Gulch on Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The plant is thought to have been seen sometimes in the 1980s, however, it is thought that this might rather have been the nominate form. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

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edited: 24.09.2019

Amastra grayana (Pfeiffer)

Gray’s Amastra Snail (Amastra grayana)

Gray’s Amastra Snail was described in 1855, it was endemic to the Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, were it was found on the ground of the native forests.

This was a rather large species, its shells reached sizes of up to 2,1 cm in heigth.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra aurostoma Baldwin

Golden-mouthed Amastra Snail (Amastra aurostoma)

The Golden-mouthed Amastra Snail was found at a place named Ka’alele Pa’aka, which is located along the main ridge of the Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands. [2]

The species was described alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell; mantle dark slate, margined on the outer side with reddish-brown. Foot above and below very dark brown, the sides studded with large patches of darker hue, the posterior portion tinged with red. the head above and tentacles covered with almost black granulations.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911
[2] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

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edited: 15.06.2020

Hylaeus niloticus (Warncke)

Obscure Masked Bee (Hylaeus niloticus 

The Obscure Masked Bee is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it apparently inhabited coastal areas and dry lowland regions.

The species has not been found in recent years and might indeed be extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020

Philodoria sp. ‘Hesperomannia’

Lanai Hesperomannia-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria sp.)

The Lanai Hesperomannia (Hesperomannia arborescens A. Gray) once occurred on the islands of Maui-Nui (Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i) as well as on O’ahu; it is. however, now extirpated on the island of Lana’i; it survives today with less than 200 individuals on Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu.

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A herbarium species of this plant species that had been collected on Lana’i was found to still harbor leaf mines, pupal cases and even pupae on the adaxial leaf surfaces, which can be assigned to the genus Philodoria. [1]

This genus is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and contains about 50 known species, most of which are restricted to single islands and are adapted to a single genus of host plant.

The only species known to be mining the genus Hesperomannia are the Hesperomannia-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria hesperomaniella Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara) from Maui and O’ahu as well as a yet undescribed species from Kaua’i. [2]

***

It is thus quite clear that the moth remains found on the herbarium sheet originate from another, apparently now extinct species. [1]

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[1] C. A. Johns; N. Tangalin; K. Bustamente; A. Y. Kawahara: Evidence of an undescribed, extinct Philodoria species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) from Hawaiian Hesperomannia herbarium specimens. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 46, 55–57. 214
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. lanaiensis (Wilson)

Lanai Thrush (Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. lanaiensis)  

The Lanai Thrush was described in 1891. This thrush, which the Hawaiians called Oloma’o or Olomau, was restricted to the islands that formerly formed Maui-nui: Lana’i, Maui, and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, with each of these islands harboring its own endemic subspecies respectively.  

All of them are now extinct.  

The specimens from Lanai, the island from which Wilson’s type came, are as a rule much white below, and the majority of them have the brown of the back somewhat less bright. As the measurements of their wings show, there is also a decided tendency to longer wings in the Molokai birds, but the longest of those from Lanai surpass several of those from Molokai. There is nothing extraordinary in it if we assume that the Phaeornis, inhabiting also low-lying regions, crosses from Lanai to Molokai, and therefore is the same species on both islands … The Olomao, as it is called, both on Lanai and Molokai, is not rare on both these islands, and Palmer saw it in the lowland as well as at the highest elevations. In the stomachs he found seeds and berries of different plants. When seen on a tree they were generally shaking their wings or “trembling,” as Palmer calls it. They have that clear call-note peculiar to this group, and also another deep hoarse cry. Their song is “of a jerky nature,” and consists of several clear notes.” [1]  

***

The Lanai Thrush disappeared soon after the establishment and subsequent development of Lana’i City in the center of the island in 1923, it was last seen only 10 years later in 1933.  

***

The Oloma’o certainly also inhabited the island of Kaho’olawe, probably with another endemic subspecies, before the island was completely devastated.  

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References:  

[1] W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900  

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bird on bottom; together with Large Kauai Thrush (Myadestes myadestinus (Stejneger))

Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R.H. Porter 1890-1899’  

(not in copyright)  

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edited: 01.04.2018

Agrotis crinigera (Butler)

Poko Cutworm (Agrotis crinigera)  

The Poko Cutworm, so named for its native name Poko, was one of the moth species, that in the time after the arrival of European settlers on the Hawai’i Islands were able to adapt quite well to the new set of circumstances.  

The species reached a wingspan of about 4,9 cm.  

The natural host plants of the caterpillars were several native species of Ihi (Portulaca spp.) as well as ‘Ilima (Sida fallax Walp.), but in the meantime they also adapted themselves to introduced plant species and fed on the leaves of thorn-apple plants (Datura spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Furthermore they fed on several garden plants, especially of the legume family, e.g. beans, and therefore may not have been very welcome to gardens.  

In 1899, Hugo H. Schauinsland wrote the following notes about his observations of this species on the island of Laysan.:

Of the insects I found on Laysan, only the following … Spaelotis crinigera Butl.; the latter occurred in astonishingly hugh numbers. Its “grublike caterpillar” lives under ground on the roots of Eragrostis.” [2]

***

Even though the Poko Cutworm was distributed all over the Hawaiian main islands, it belongs to the extirpated species now, whereas the reasons for this seem still to be unknown up to date.  

The species was last seen in 1926.  

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  
[2] Hugo H. Schauinsland: Three months on a coral island (Laysan); translated by Miklos D. F. Udvardy. Atoll Research Bulletin 432. 1996

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Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 24.09.2019

Cookeconcha lanaiensis (Sykes)

Lanai Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha lanaiensis)  

The Lanai Cookeconcha Snail was, as its name implies, endemic to the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands, it was described in 1896. [1]

This species is also considered to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Kaua’i (the specimen depicted below is supposed to be from that island), however, the specimens from these islands should definetely be reinvestigated.

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

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Depiction from ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press, 1913’  

(public domain)

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edited: 13.06.2020

Apteribis sp. ‘Lana’i’

Lanai Ibis (Apteribis sp.)  

The Lanai Ibis is a hitherto undescribed form, known from a nearly complete skeleton that was found in a vaulted dry lava tube on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands.  

The find even was in a very good condition and even included some remains of contour feathers which were used to reconstruct the appearance of the bird in life. The bird was brown-black and ivory-beige resp. light brown colored, and, just like its congeners on the other Maui Nui islands (Maui and Moloka’i), completely flightless. [1]  

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References:  [1] C. J. Dove; S. L. Olson: Fossil Feathers from the Hawaiian Flightless Ibis (Apteribis sp.): Plumage coloration and systematics of a prehistorically extinct bird. Journal of Paleontology. 85(5): 892-897. 2011  

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edited: 23.03.2018

Hylaeus satelles (Blackburn)

Attendanting Masked Bee (Hylaeus satelles 

This species was known to inhabit the islands of Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it apparently was restricted to remote wet forests.

The species was last collected in the 1890s, it may already be extinct.

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edited: 11.04.2019

Dysmorodrepanis munroi Perkins

Lanai Hookbill (Dysmorodrepanis munroi)

The Lanai Hookbill was described in 1919 on the basis of a single specimen that was collected in 1913 by George Campbell Munro, a New Zealand-American botanist, entomologist, and ornithologist.

Mr. Munro’s notes give the following additions: – “Length six inches, sex not determined, the legs muscular with strong sinews, the jaw muscles more than usually developed, skull round almost like a marble, eyes large for the size of the bird, the iris dark brown, as also the upper mandible, the lower light brown, lighter beneath; legs light slate-colour, the soles of feet yellowish.”
Hab. Lanai. “This specimen, the only one of the species that I know of, was taken in the Kaiholena valley, Lanai, at an elevation of about 2000 ft. The stomach and throat were full of the ripe berries of Urera glabra, which is common in the locality” (Munro).
Mr. Munro, who has now for some years been permanently resident on Lanai, writes further that though he thoroughly explored the forest on thet island in the years 1914, 1915, 1916, and subsequently, he has only twice come across birds that he suspects of being the smae species as the one described. “On March 17th, 1916, further up the same valley, where it is very densely wooded, I heard two or three birds calling to one another, the cry being less sweet and not so loud as that of the Ou (Psittirostra), and I watched one on the bare branch of a tree-top a short distance away. It called regularely at intervals and kept moving its head, stretching its neck and turning on its perch without chanching its place on the branch. It looked smaller than an Ou and more active, but less so than Chlorodrepanis. The form of the bill could not be made out, but it was not that of the latter.”
“On Aug. 12th, 1918, in a patch of dry forest on the south-west side of the mountain, at about the same elevation as that where the original specimen was obtained, I saw another bird, and was near enough to note the light colouring round the eye, but not the form of the beak. Some of its notes were like those of Psittirostra, but others new to me, especially a low squeak or whistle, and it was too small for that bird, not so thick-set and with a very short tail. So I feel sure it was the other.”
” [1]

The native forests of Lana’i were almost completely destroyed at that time, and the birds seen by G. C. Munro very probably were the last surviving individuals of that species.

***

For some time this very enigmatic form was thought to represent an aberant female Ou (Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin)), but was finally considered a distinct species in 1989 and is now widely accepted as such. [2]

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References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: On a new genus and species of bird of the family Drepanididae from the Hawaiian Islands. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology 9(3): 250-252. 1919
[2] Helen F. James; Richard L. Zusi; Storrs L. Olson: Dysmorodrepanis munroi (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), a valid genus and species of Hawaiian finch. The Wilson Bulletin 101(2): 159-367. 1989

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edited: 09.10.2020

Partulina crassa (Newcomb)

Thick Partulina Snail (Partulina crassa 

The Thick Partulina Snail was described in 1853, it was apparently restricted to a place named Kohele on the Hawaiian island of Lana’i, a place that now is so to say completely overgrown with foreign, invasive vegetation.

The shells of this rather large species reached sizes of 1,8 to 2,2 cm in heigth. [1]

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References:

[1] G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

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edited: 17.06.2020

Helicoverpa confusa Hardwick

Hawaiian Bollworm (Helicoverpa confusa)

This species was described in 1965.  

The Hawaiian capsule owl was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu and is considered extinct, the reasons for this are not known (to me).

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References:

[1] D. F Hardwick: The corn earworm complex. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 40: 1-247. 1965

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edited: 02.05.2021

Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin)

Ou (Psittirostra psittacea)

 

The Ou was described in 1789; it was already mentioned in an enumeration of birds found on the island of Hawai’i during Cook’s last voyage.

Originally, the species inhabited all of the Hawaiian main islands where it originally was very common and widespread, the birds undertook wide wanderings, likely even between islands, to exploit seasonally available food resources. They generally fed on fruits, mainly of the native ‘ie’ie (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.) but they also fed upon insects

The species reached a size of about 17 cm; it showed a marked sexual dimorphism; both sexes were generally olive-green, had pink legs and feet and beaks, but the males had a bright yellow head.

The Hawaiian name of the bird was ‘ō’ū. [1]

***

The last populations of the Ou survived on the islands of Hawai’i, where they were last seen in 1987 in the Ōla’a area and on Kaua’i, where they finally were last seen in 1989 on the Alaka’i plateau; no real efforts had been undertaken to save the last populations. [1]

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 01.08.2022