Tag Archives: Upolu

Pacificagrion dolorosa Fraser

Sorrowful Damselfly (Pacificagrion dolorosa

The Sorrowful Damselfly was described in the year 1953 on the basis of a male, that had been collected on the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa.  

The species is almost unknown.  

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The Sorrowful Damselfly was not found during recent field studies; however, the exact locality appears to be only insufficiently known. [2]  

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There obviously is at least one other, not yet described species on the island of Tutuila. [1][2]  

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References:  

[1] Milen Marinov; Warren Chin; Eric Edwards; Brian Patrick; Hamish Patrick: A revised and updated Odonata checklist of Samoa (Insecta: Odonata). Faunistic Studies in South-East Asian and Pacific Island Odonata 5: 1-21. 2013 
[2] Milen Marinov; Mark Schmaedick; Dan Polhemus; Rebecca L. Stirnemann; Fialelei Enoka; Pulemagafa Siaifoi Fa’aumu; Moeumu Uili: Faunistic and taxonomic investigations on the Odonata fauna of the Samoan archipelago with particular focus on taxonomic ambiguities in the “Ischnurine complex”. Journal of the International Dragonfly Fund 91: 1-56. 2015  

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edited: 23.08.2017

Cephalochetus sp. ”Upolu’

Upolu Cephalochetus Roof Beetle (Cephalochetus sp.)

This species is known only from several subfossil remains that have been recovered from samplings from the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa by Nick Porch, an Australian entomologist specialized in subfossil insect remains.

The species must have had a size of about 0,3 cm in length.

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The genus was formerly known to occur on the Fijian Islands, so this is a new record for the Samoan Islands.

The species might quite likely be still alive, but will be mentioned here for completeness.

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edited: 31.10.2020

Bryanites graeffei Liebherr

Graeffe’s Groud Beetle (Bryanites graeffei)

Graeffe’s Ground Beetle was described in 2017 based on a single male specimen that had been collected sometimes between 1862 and 1870 on the mountains near Apia, the capital of Samoa on the island of ‘Upolu. This specimen was housed in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France and was only recently rediscovered.

The species is about 1,6 cm long.

Graeffe’s Ground Beetle has never been recorded since the collection of the type and is almost certainly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] James K. Liebherr: Bryanites graeffei sp. n. (Colepotera, Carabidae): Museum rediscovery of a relict species from Samoa. Zoosystematics and Evolution 93(1): 1-11. 2017

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Photo from: ‘James K. Liebherr: Bryanites graeffei sp. n. (Colepotera, Carabidae): museum rediscovery of a reict species from Samoa. Zoosystematics and Evolution 93(1): 1-11. 2017’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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edited: 05.05.2022

Oriens alexina (Plötz)

Samoan Skipper (Oriens alexina)

The Samoan Skipper, sometimes considered a subspecies of the Fijian Skipper (Oriens augustula (Herrich-Schäffer)) (see photo) or even as a synonym of it, however, both forms differ significantly from each other.

This species is known only from the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa, but was not found there in recent years and might in fact be extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Brian H. Patrick; Jean-Pierre Policard: The butterflies of Wallis and Futuna. The Weta 49: 28-33. 2015

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Fijian Skipper (Oriens augustula (Herrich-Schäffer))

Photo: Bird explorers
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/birdexplorers
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

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edited: 11.10.2020

Sinployea clista Solem

Closed Sinployea Snail (Sinployea clista 

This species was described in the year 1983.  

The ‘species’ occurs on the islands of Tutuila and ‘Upolu, the respective populations, however, differ from each other, and with certainty represent at least distinct subspecies, or possibly even species.  

The shells reach sizes of about 0,21 to 0,29 cm in diameter. [1]  

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The population of the island of ‘Upolu was not found again during field searches in the years from 1992 to 1994, and is now most probably wiped out. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983 
[2] Robert H. Cowie; A. C. Robinson: The decline of native Pacific island faunas: changes in status of the land snails of Samoa through the 20th century. Biological Conservation 110: 55-65. 2003

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edited: 23.08.2017

Corybas betchei (F. Muell.) Schltr.

Betche’s Corybas Orchid (Corybas betchei)

Betche’s Corybas Orchid is known only from the type collection that was made in 1923 on the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa.

This was a very small, only about 5 cm large, terrestrial orchid that grew in the dense shrub layer of montane rain forests, it had a single, up to 3 cm long and 2,6 cm wide, leaf with a cordate base and a acute tip. [1]

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References:

[1] Phillip Cribb; W. Arthur Whistler: Orchids of Samoa. Kew Publishing 1996

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edited: 13.11.2021

Cyrtandra mamolea Reinecke

Upolu Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra mamolea)

This somewhat enigmatic Upolu Cyrtandra was restricted to the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa.

The species was named for the vernacular Samoan name given to several members of this genus – mamolea.

The Upolu Cyrtandra might now be extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Art Whistler: Biodiversity Conservation Lessons Learned Technical Series. 2: The Rare Plants of Samoa. Conservation International 2011

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edited: 10.09.2019

Cyrtandra campanulata Reinecke

Bell-flowered Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra campanulata)

The Bell-flowered Cyrtandra occurred in the tropical rainforests of the islands of Savai’i and ‘Upolu, Samoa. 

The species had very large, up to 4 cm long hanging, bell-shaped greenish flowers.

The Bell-flowered Cyrtandra was apparently last collected in 1905 and is now most likely extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Art Whistler: Biodiversity Conservation Lessons Learned Technical Series. 2: The Rare Plants of Samoa. Conservation International 2011

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edited: 10.09.2019

Graeffedon graeffei (Mousson)

Graeffe’s Graeffedon Snail (Graeffedon graeffei)  

This species from the Samoan island of ‘Upolu, which is known only from a handful specimens, was described in the year 1869.  

The shells reach an average size of 0,46 to 0,59 cm in diameter.  

Graeffe’s Graeffedon Snail inhabited the leaf litter of the rainforests, where it easily felt victim to introduced rats, and more so to the likewise introduced Yellow Crazy Ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes F. Smith).  

The last specimen was collected in the year 1965.  

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983 
[2] Robert H. Cowie; A. C. Robinson: The decline of native Pacific island faunas: changes in status of the land snails of Samoa through the 20th century. Biological Conservation 110: 55-65. 2003  

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 02.11.2020

Sinployea complementaria (Mousson)

Complementary Sinployea Snail (Sinployea complementaria)

This species was described in 1865; it was restricted to the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa.

The shells reach sizes of 0,43 to 0,59 cm in diameter, making it one of the largest members of its genus; they are: “Rather narrowly umbilicated, rugose, striate-costulate, with curved-back radiations of white and grayish corneous, suture subimpressed; whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last not descending, oblique, obtusely subangulated, flatly rounded below; right margin of peristome subincurved.” [1]

The species wasn’t found during recent surveys and might well be extinct.

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References:

[1] G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887
[2] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Cyrtandra funkii Reinecke

Funk’s Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra funkii)

Funk’s Cyrtandra was restricted to the rainforests of the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa.

The species was last seen in 1893 and is now extinct. [1] 

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Referenzen:  

[1] Art Whistler: The Rare Plants of Samoa. Biodiversity Conservation Lessons Learned Technical Series 2. Conservation International, Apia, Samoa 2011

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edited: 10.09.2019

Dendrobium scirpoides Schltr.

Sedge-like Dendrobium (Dendrobium scirpoides)

This species is known only from the type collection and was never found again; it might well be extinct.

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References:

[1] Phillip Cribb; W. Arthur Whistler: Orchids of Samoa. Kew Publishing 1996

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edited: 20.01.2022