Author Archives: Alang

Glaucidium mooreorum da Silva, Coelho & Pedreira

Pernambuco Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium mooreorum)

The Pernambuco Pygmy Owl was described in 2002, it is/was restricted to the state of Pernambuco in eastern Brazil.

The species was restricted to an extremely small range when it was described, and the population was estimated to count only about 50 birds or perhaps even less.

***

The Pernambuco Pygmy Owl is now considered extinct, since the only known habitat of the species is now nearly completely destroyed. [1]

***

The photo below shows a related taxon, the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum (Gmelin)), a species that occurs also in Pernambuco, Brazil.

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Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum); nominate form

Photo: Gustavo Sandres
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/sandres
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

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References:

[1] Stuart H. M. Butchart; Stephen Lowe; Rob W. Martin; Andy Symes; James R. S. Westrip; Hannah Wheatley: Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18. 2018

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edited: 18.02.2024

Amphorella leacociana (Lowe)

Ribeira de Joao Gomes Amphorella Snail (Amphorella leacociana)

The Ribeira de Joao Gomes Amphorella Snail was described in 1852; it is known only from a few regions on the island of Madeira, Portugal, where it was found “under stones, very rare“. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 3.7 in height; they were described as follows.:

The shell is very small, oblong-turrite, widest near the base, very thin and fragile, subtransparent, yellowish-corneous, glossy, with a very narrow gray subsutural margin edged below with a light line. The spire has slightly convex outlines and obtuse summit. Whorls 5 1/2 slowly widening to the last which descends more rapidly. The aperture is small, piriform, very narrow above. Outer lip thin, strongly arched forward in the middle, deeply excised or retracted to the suture above. Columella rather wide, projecting into the aperture, truncate at base.” [1]

***

syn. Achatina leacociana Lowe, Ferussacia leacociana (Lowe)

***

This species can also be found named as Amphorella leacockiana (Lowe), which, of course, is wrong.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 19. Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908’

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 19. Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908

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edited: 15.02.2024

Amastra anthonii (Newcomb)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail (Amastra anthonii)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail was described in 1888, it was endemic to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, however, the exact locality appears to be unknown.

… from the original description.:

Shell conically ovate, solid, blackish-brown, longitudinally striate. Whorls 6, inflated, suture moderately impressed. Apex obtuse. Aperture obliquely ovate, subangulate below. Lip simple, thickened within. Columella short, straight, with a somewhat callous plication below the middle. White-banded below the suture, and of a dirty white in the umbilical region.” [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 1,6 to 1,8 cm in height.

***

syn. Achatinella anthonii Newcomb

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 06.10.2020

Haliclona innominata (Kirkpatrick)

Nameless Sponge (Haliclona innominata)

This species was described and – yes – also named thereby, in 1900; it is only known from the sea surrounding Christmas Island, Australia.

Sponge incrusting; colour pale brown with a faint reddish tinge; texture soft and elastic.

The species has never been found since its description and is now believed to be possibly extinct. [1]

***

syn. Reniera innominata Kirkpatrick

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Depiction from: ‘R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 15.02.2024

Sphyrospermum spruceanum Sleumer

(Sphyrospermum spruceanum)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the type that was found in 1860 near the foot of Mt. Chimborazo in central Ecuador.

The species was an epiphyte with subterete twigs and small elliptic leaves; it was superficially quite similar to the Boxwood-leaved Sphyrospermum (Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl.)

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Boxwood-leaved Sphyrospermum (Sphyrospermum buxifolium)

Photo: Mariu Avila
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/mariubio
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 17.01.2024

Philodoria spilota (Walsingham)

Haleakala Philodora Moth (Philodoria spilota)

This species was described 1907; it is known only from the forested slopes at elevations of about 1530 m above sea level of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 cm; the head and the thorax are brownish fuscous, the abdomen is fuscous; the forewings are bronze fuscous with silvery white spots, the hindwings are brownish fuscous.

The biology and the host plant of this species remain completely unknown.

The unique holotype is a faded, damaged female and not a male as Walsingham stated in his original description. Walsingham said that the type was “injured when being described”. It is badly broken – the hindwings and abdomen are glued to the fore part of the body; the head is badly abraded and glued to the thorax; the left antenna is missing.” [1]

***

syn. Elachista spilota Walsingham

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Pantanodon sp. ‘Manombo’

Manombo Lampeye (Pantanodon sp.)

The Manombo Lampeye, which does not yet have a scientific name, is only known from a single specimen collected from a small swamp area in the Manombo Special Reserve in the Atsimo-Atsinanana region of southeastern Madagascar, where the species inhabited an area of ​​only approx. 10 km² inhabited. 

This swamp area has apparently now been converted into rice fields and the fish species, which was last seen in 1997 (?), is therefore probably extinct. 

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edited: 07.01.2012

Cinnamomum trintaense Kosterm.

Trinta Cinnamon (Cinnamomum trintaense)

This species is, or was, restricted to the state of Perak in Peninsular Malaysia, where it was found growing in dense limestone forests at rather low altitudes; it is known only from material that was collected in 1883 and, having never been recorded subsequently, might now well be extinct. [1]

***

The photo below shows an congeneric species, the Javan Cinnamon (Cinnamomum javanicum Blume), which has a wide distribution that includes parts of Indonesia but also Peninsular Malaysia.

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Javan Cinnamon (Cinnamomum javanicum)

Photo: plantboyofsingapore
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/plantboyofsingapore
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References:

[1] R. P. J. de Kok: A revision of Cinnamomum Schaeff. (Lauraceae) for Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 71(1): 89-139. 2019

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edited: 25.02.2024

Clelia sp. ‘Guadeloupe’

Guadeloupe Mussarana (Clelia sp.)

The Guadeloupe Mussarana is a snake species that is known from some subfossil remains (?) that were found on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean.

The status of this form is not known yet; it might be extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert Powell; Robert W. Henderson: Island list of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(2): 87-168. 2012

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edited: 17.08.2022

Mussaenda sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’

Marquesan Mussaenda (Mussaenda sp.)

This form is known from subfossil seeds that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.

The next relative is most likely the Raiatean Mussaenda (Mussaenda raiateensis J. W. Moore) (see photo below), which is still found in other parts of Polynesia, including the Society Islands; the seeds of the Marquesan form, however, differ from the living one and thus represent a distinct, now extinct form that most likely was endemic to the archipelago. [1]

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Photo:  Peter de Lange
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/pjd1
(public domain)

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References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

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edited: 26.01.2024

Alosa vistonica Economidis & Sinis

Thracian Shad (Alosa vistonica)

The Thracian Shad, described in 1986, is, or was, restricted to a single shallow lake, Lake Vistonida in Greece.

The species is highly threatened by sewage, industrial effluents, as well as the destruction of its spawning sites by agricultural development and increased salinity following the opening of a canal into the sea. The species is most likely already extinct.

***

The photo below shows another congeneric species from the Mediterranean, the Twait Shad (Alosa fallax (Lacepede)).

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Twait Shad (Alosa fallax)

Photo: Paulo C. Alves
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/pcalves
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 14.01.2024

Leytea leytensis (Pfeiffer)

Fragile Chloraea Snail (Leytea leytensis)

The Fragile Chloraea Snail was described in 1841; it is apparently endemic to the island of Leyte in the Philippines.

The species is thought to be extinct.

***

syn. Chloraea fragilis (Sowerby), Helix leytensis Pfeiffer

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Depiction from: ‘H. Grosse: Note sur l’Helix Leytensis, Pfeiffer, des Philippines. Journal de Conchyliologie. 3e série – Tome XVe. Vol. 23: 133-136. 1875

(public domain)

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edited: 12.02.2024

Cinnamomum englerianum Schewe

Engler’s Cinnamon (Cinnamomum englerianum)

This species is known from only two collections that were obtained at the early 1900s from a single locality along the Sepik river in Papua New Guinea.

The lowland areas in that region are now highly disturbed due to deforestation and this species might indeed be extinct now.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species (Cinnamomum sp.) that was photographed in Papua New Guinea.

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unspecified Cinnamon species (Cinnamomum sp.)

Photo: Kellie Uyeda
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/kuyeda
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 24.02.2024

Quercus pinbianensis (Y. C. Hsu & H. Wei Jen) C. C. Huang & Y. T. Chang

Pinbian Oak (Quercus pinbianensis)

The Pinbian Oak is known only from a small region in Yunnan, China; however, the locality where this species was originally found, has high intensity agriculture now.

The species was last seen in 1953 and is believed to be possibly extinct. 

***

The photo below shows another species of that genus, the very widespread Ring-cupped Oak (Quercus glauca Thunb.) which also occurs naturally in many parts of China.

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Ring-cupped Oak (Quercus glauca)

Photo: Ran Dai
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/randai
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 05.05.2022

Aylacostoma guaraniticum (Hylton Scott)

Guaranita Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma guaraniticum)

This species was described in 1954, it inhabited highly oxygenated freshwater habitats near the Yacyretá-Apipé rapids in the high Paraná river at the border area between Argentinia and Paraguay.

It shared this habitat with two other species from the same genus, the Green Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma chloroticum Hylton Scott) and the Stigmated Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma stigmaticum Hylton Scott), all described by the same author at the same time.

The habitat of these three species was destroyed by the building of dams and by the filling of the Yacyretá reservoir in the early 1990s, leading to the extinction of at least two of the three species, including the Guaranita Aylacostoma Snail. [1]

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References:

[1] Roberto E. Vogler; Ariel A. Beltramino; Juana G. Peso; Alejandra Rumi: Threatened gastropods under the evolutionary genetic species concept: redescription and new species of the genus Aylacostoma (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) from High Paraná River (Argentina–Paraguay). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 501-520. 2014

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edited: 24.11.2018

Pararrhaptica chlorippa (Meyrick)

Green Kolea Leafroller (Pararrhaptica chlorippa)

This species was described in 1928; it is only known from the slopes of the Pu’u Ohia (Mt. Olympus) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae are known to feed on the Hawaiian endemic kōlea lau nui (Myrsine lessertiana A. DC.).

The species was last recorded in 1911 and is now believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscoveries and presumed extinctions of Hawaiian leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 55: 11-27. 2023

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edited: 03.12.2023

Dupontia affouchensis Griffiths

L’Affouche Dupontio Snail (Dupontia affouchensis)

This species was described in 2000 on the basis of a single subfossil specimen that had been found in 1997 in limestone scree of the Caverne L’Affouche on the island of Rodrigues; the specimen was found together with the bones of tortoises (Cylindraspis sp.) and the Solitaire (Pezophas solitarius (Gmelin)) which both are now likewise extinct. Additional specimens were subsequently found in other caves in the south-west of Rodrigues.

The shells reach heights of about 0.55 cm; they are depressed, thin and pale glossy white with a thin brown band bordering the suture and continuing on the last whorl just above the rounded periphery.

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References:

[1] Owen Lee Griffiths: Nine new species of Mascarene land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molluscan Research 20(2): 37-50. 2000

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edited: 29.01.2024

Edolisoma coerulescens ssp. alterum Wardlaw-Ramsay

Cebu Blackish Cicadabird (Edolisoma coerulescens ssp. alterum)

The Blackish Cicadabird (Edolisoma coerulescens (Blyth)) is endemic to the Philippines, where three subspecies are recognized, of which two again are now considered extinct, leaving only the nominate race which inhabits the islands of Catanduanes and Luzon in the northern part of the Philippines.

***

The Cebu Blackish Cicadabird, which was endemic to the island of Cebu, was described in 1881, originally as a distinct species.

The form was not recorded since 1906 and probably died out sometimes after that date due to the extreme deforestation of its habitat.

***

syn. Coracina coerulescens ssp. altera (Wardlaw-Ramsay), Edolisoma alterum Wardlaw-Ramsay

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Blackish Cicadabird (Edolisoma coerulescens); nominate form

Photo: Forest Botial-Jarvis
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/tiluchi
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 06.02.2024

Aptostichus lucerne Bond

Deadman’s Trapdoor Spider (Aptostichus lucerne)

The Deadman’s Trapdoor Spider was described in 2012 during a genus revision; it is known only from two male specimens that were collected in 1957 at a place named as Deadman’s Point in the Lucerne Valley in San Bernardino County, California, USA.

The species has never been found since the collection of the type material and is considered probably extinct. [1]

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Photo from: ‘Jason E. Bond: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252: 1-209. 2012’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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References:

[1] Jason E. Bond: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252: 1-209. 2012

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edited: 08.08.2022

Rallidae gen. & sp. ‘Ilha da Trindade’

Trindade Rail (Rallidae gen. & sp.)

The Ilha da Trindade is a volcanic island that is located in the Atlantic Ocea, about 1150 km offshore the Brazilian eastern coast.

The island harbors some sea birds but is surprisingly lacking any land birds, a situation that is highly unlikely, not only in my own opinion ….:

In my opinion, it is highly unlikely that there was not an endemic species of rail (Rallidae) on Trindade in the past, as there was ample habitat and these birds successfully colonized all the other South Atlantic islands …. That I was unable to find any fossil remains of such a bird may perhaps be attributed to my usual good fortune temporarily running out. The great abundance of land crabs on Trindade may also have reduced the chances of any rail carcasses surviving long enough to be preserved, although this did not prevent rail bones from being fossilized on Fernando de Noronha, where land crabs also occur.” [1]

If there have been any land birds living on the island (and there surely have), they must have become extinct very shortly after the discovery of the island in 1502, followed by the inevitable introduction of cats, mice (but fortunately no rats) and several kinds of grazing mammals.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson: Natural history of vertebrates on the Brazilian islands of the mid South Atlantic. National Geographic Society Research Reports 13: 481-492. 1981

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edited: 03.05.2022

Nactus sp. ‘Rodrigues’

Giant Rodrigues Night Gecko (Nactus sp.)

This is one of two species of the genus that formerly inhabited the island of Rodrigues in the Mascarene Islands.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers in the early 16th century. [1]

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References:

[1] Anthony Cheke; Julian P. Hume: Lost Land of the Dodo: The ecological history of Mauritius, Réunion, and Rodrigues. Yale University Press 2008

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edited: 04.05.2022

Thyrocopa sapindiella Swezey

Aulu Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa sapindiella)

This species was described in 1913; it is known exclusively from specimens that were found in the Niu Valley near the southeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1.8 cm; the head is whitish brown; the thorax and the abdomen are very light whitish brown; the forewings are mainly very light whitish brown with a few brown scales scattered throughout and a very small, faint brownish spot in the cell; the hindwings are very light whitish brown.

The caterpillars are thought to feed on the leaves of the Hawaiian endemic ko’oloa (Abutilon spp.) and āulu (Sapindus spp.).:

The caterpillars were quite numerous on some trees. The small ones feed on the under surface of the leavs [sic], each producing a web covered with frass under which it feeds, eating off the surface of the leaf. The larger ones hide in rolled-together leaves, often several leaves in a bunch fastened together and there may be two or more caterpillars, each in a silken tunnel.

Pupa 9 mm. … The pupa is formed within the spun-together leaves where the caterpillar fed.
” [1]

***

This species is now possibly extinct.

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References: 

[1] O. H. Swezey: One new genus and eighteen new species of Hawaiian moths. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 269-280. 1908-1913
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009 

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edited: 18.02.2024

Branta hylobadistes Olson & James 

Great Nene (Branta hylobadistes)

The Great Nene was described in 1991 based on subfossil bones found on the island of Maui (it may also have lived at least on the neighboring islands of Lana’i and Moloka’i). 

The extinct species was slightly larger than the Hawaiian Nene (Branta sandvicensis (Vigors)) (see photo below) but was otherwise quite identical to that species.

*** 

Some of the bones, that are assigned to this species, come from individuals that were still volant while others appear to have been flightless. [1]

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Hawaii Geese (Branta sandvicensis)  

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr  
http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

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edited: 05.05.2022

Turdus sp. ‘Gymnesian Islands’

Gymnesian Thrush (Turdus sp.)

This form is known from fossil remains that were found on the island of Mallorca, Spain and that are of Late Paleistocene/Early Holocene age.

They appear to be at least 10% larger than corresponding compariative material of the largest known Turdus spp. and may be identical with another large thrush species that was described in 2004 as Meridiocichla salotti Louchart. [1]

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References:

[1] Antoine Louchart: An extinct large thrush (Aves: Turdidae) from the late Quaternary of Mediterranean Europe. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 233(2): 257-296. 2004

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edited: 02.01.2023

Acalypha fragilis Pax & K. Hoffm.

Fragile Copperleaf (Acalypha fragilis)

This species was described in 1937; apparently based on material that had been collected three years prior.

The Fragile Copperleaf is a tree that had a very restricted distribution in the Caatinga (a semi-arid tropical vegetation typical for interior north-eastern Brazil) in the Crato region in the state of Ceará, north-eastern Brazil.

The species was never found since and is believed to be possibly extinct.

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edited: 28.01.2024

Hyperaulax ramagei (E. A. Smith)

Ramage’s Noronha Snail (Hyperaulax ramagei)

Ramage’s Noronha Snail was described in 1890; it is only known from the main island of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago offshore north-eastern Brazil, where they were found to be “imbedded in sandy mud on a raised reef and have a semi-fossilized appearance”. [1]

The species must have gone extinct somewhat prior to their description as many specimens appeared quite fresh and still were bearing an intact periostracum (see photo below).

***

The genus contains one additional species, also endemic to the same archipelago, Ridley’s Noronha snail (Hyperaulax ridleyi (E. A. Smith)); this species is still alive today. [2][3]

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Photo from: ‘Rodrigo B. Salvador; Daniel C. Cavallari: Taxonomic revision of the genus Hyperaulax Pilsbry, 1897 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Odontostomidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 95(2): 453-463. 2019’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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References:

[1] H. N. Smith: Mollusca. In: Ridley HN, ed. Notes on the Zoology of Fernando Noronha. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 473-570. 1890
[2] A. V. L. Freitas; M. S. Miranda; f. D. Passos: Land snails of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. American Malacological Bulletin 37: 66-69. 2019
[3] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Daniel C. Cavallari; Carl C. Christensen; André V. L. Freitas; Marcel S. Miranda; Flávio D. Passos: The endemic land snails of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brasil. Tentacle 30: 6-8. 2022

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edited: 22.01.2024

Strabomantis cadenai (Lynch)

Nutibara Robber Frog (Strabomantis cadenai)

The Nutibara Robber Frog is known from a single specimen that was found in 1982 in the vicinity of the Alto Río Cuevas near the City of Frontino at the western flanks of the Cordillera Occidental in Colombia.

The species has not been found subsequently and might now be extinct.

***

The photo below shows another species of that genus, Ruiz’s Robber Frog (Strabomantis ruizi (Lynch)); this species is also endemic to Colombia and is threatened but not yet extinct.

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Ruiz’s Robber Frog (Strabomantis ruizi)

Photo: Thibaud Aronson
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/thibaudaronson
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

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edited: 11.02.2024

Anoma gossei (Pfeiffer)

Gosse’s Anoma Snail (Anoma gossei)

Gosse’s Anoma Snail was described in 1846, the species is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Jamaica.

The shells are about 1,8 to 2,1 cm heigth, they appear quite thin, have up to 16 whorls and are somewhat translucent bluish white. [1] 

The species is considered probably extinct.

***

syn. Cylindrella gossei Pfeifer, Macroceramus pfeifferi Martens

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Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904

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edited: 22.09.2020

Cirrospilus nireus Walker

Saint Helena Eulophid Wasp (Cirrospilus nireus)

This species was described in 1839, it is apparently known only from material that was collected on the island of Saint Helena but was never recorded since. 

It is, however, “a doubtful species, as Francis Walker is well known for re-naming species that had previously been described.” [1]

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References:

[1] James K. Wetterer; Xavier Espadaler; N. Philip Ashmole; Howard Mendel; Chris Cutler; Judith Endeman: Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37. 2007

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edited: 29.05.2021

Peperomia beckeri E. F. Guim. & R. J. V. Alves

Becker’s Peperomia (Peperomia beckeri)

Becker’s Peperomia was described in 1998 “from an old but well preserved herbarium specimen” that had been collected in 1965; it was endemic to the Ilha da Trindade some 1500 km offshore the eastern coast of Brazil, an island that suffered extremely from the introduction of feral mammals, especially goats that had been introduced already in 1700. These goats ate away nearly the whole vegetation of the island, leading to the complete loss of the former forest.:

Before 1821, however, something or some event had killed them – killed them all – leaving a weird landscape of standing corpses. It was, in the words of one who saw it, “a forest of desolation, as if nature had at some particular moment ceased to vegetate.”” [1]

When the goats were finally removed from the island in 2005, the flora recovered very quickly, especially the fern species, which apparently survived in the form of spores in the ground. Becker’s Peperomia, however, was never found again, despite field searches. [3]

***

The species was believed to have been rediscovered in 2009, however, these plants later turned out to have been another, misidentified species. [2][3]

*********************

References:

[1] Richard H. Eyde; Storrs L. Olson: The dead trees of Ilha da Trindade. Bartonia 49: 32-51. 1983
[2] R. J. V. Alves; N. G. da Silva; A. Aguirre-Muñoz: Return of endemic plant populations on Trindade Island, Brazil, with comments on the fauna. In: C. R. Veitch; M. N. Clout; D. R. Towns (eds.): Island Invasives: Eradication and Management. pages 259-263. 2011
[3] Nílber Gonçalves da Silva; Ruy José Válka Alves; Lana da Silva Sylvestre; Ruy Barreto dos Santos: Two rediscoveries and one extinction for the flora of Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Survey 140(2): 230-235. 2013

*********************

edited: 03.05.2022

Nesopupa sp. ‘Majuro’

Majuro Nesopupa Snail (Nesopupa sp.)

This form is known exclusively from a single specimen that was discovered during excavations on the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

The genus is in need of a revision, and this might have been a widespread species, introduced to the atoll by humans, but it might also have been an endemic, now extinct species and is thus mentioned here. [1] 

*********************

References:

[1] Carl. C. Christensen; Marshall I. Weisler: Land snails from archaeological sites in the Marshall Islands, with remarks on prehistoric translocations in tropical Oceania. Pacific Science 67(1): 81-104. 2013

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Hymenophyllum sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Filmy-Fern (Hymenophyllum sp.)

This genus almost certainly once occurred on Rapa Nui; I personally have no idea if there are spore findings to prove that or if this name appears in the listing mentioned below just as a hypothetical account. [1] 

*********************  

References:  

[1] Jean-François Butaud: Inventaire des espèces natives de l’île de Pâques, pp. 138-139. In: l’île de Pâques. Le nombril du monde? MUSEO Éditions 2018

*********************

edited: 21.01.2022

Eugenia minguetii Urb.

Minguet’s Eugenia (Eugenia minguetii)

Minguet’s Eugenia is, or maybe was, endemic to the Massif du Nord, Haiti on the island of Hispaniola.

The area is subject to ongoing heavy deforestation and the plant, which was last seen in 1924, may well already be extinct.

***

The photo below shows a closely related yet far mor widespread species, the Boxleaf Stopper (Eugenia foetida Pers.) which is also found in some regions of Haiti.

*********************

Boxleaf Stopper (Eugenia foetida)

Photo: Juan Gabriel
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/juan_7
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Nesoenas picturata ssp. rostrata (Bonaparte)

Seychelles Turtle Dove (Nesoenas picturata ssp. rostrata)

The Seychelles Turtle Dove is a subspecies of the Madagascar Turtle Dove (Nesoenas picturata (Temminck)); as its name implies, it inhabited to Seychelles Islands in the Indian Ocean. It is known to have inhabited at least the islands of Cousin and Cousine, Mahé and Praslin, as well as Aride- and Bird Island, where the last pure-bred birds were found.

The form is sometimes considered a full species; it disappeared du to hybridization with (nominate) Madagascar Turtle Doves, that somehow reached the Seychelles, either by themselves or with human aid. No pure-bred birds are known to exist now; however, their genes live on in the turtle dove population that now inhabits the Seychelles.
***

syn. Streptopelia picturata ssp. rostrata (Bonaparte)

*********************

References:

[1] Julian P. Hume: Extinct Birds. 2. Edition. Bloomsbury Natural History 2017

*********************

edited: 07.05.2022

Psychotria sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Psychotria (Psychotria sp.)

The Rapa Nui Psychotria is known from subfossil pollen that was collected from deposits on the island of Rapa Nui. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Catherine Orliac: Données nouvelles sur la composition de la flore de l’île de Pâques. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 107: 135-143. 1998

*********************

edited: 03.09.2020

Heligmonevra insularis Engel

Seychelles Robber Fly (Heligmonevra insularis)

The Seychelles Robber Fly was described in 1927.

The species was endemic to the forested areas of the Seychelles Islands, where it actively hunted for other insects, especially for other fly species.

The species disappeared due to changes in its habitat due to large-scaled deforestation.

*********************

References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Red Listing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phesluma 20: 9-22. 2012

*********************

edited: 25.04.2022

Cryptocarya sumbawaensis Kosterm.

Sumbawa Cryptocarya (Cryptocarya sumbawaensis)

The Sumbawa Cryptocarya is known from a single locality on the island of Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands in southern Indonesia, where it was found in 1961.

The species might possibly be extinct.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed on the island of Java, Indonesia.

*********************

unspecified Cryptocarya species (Cryptocarya sp.)

Photo: Ganjar Cahyadi
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/ganjarcahyadi
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 26.02.2024

Carex vicinalis Boott

Neighboring Sedge (Carex vicinalis)

This sedge was described in 1867; it is known only from the type material that was collected somewhere in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu, India.

The species might be extinct.

*********************

edited: 15.08.2022

Ranunculus fraelensis Dunkel

Sonodrio Buttercup (Ranunculus fraelensis)

This species was described in 2010 during a revision of its genus; it was restricted to a locality near Sonodrio, a city in the Lombardy region of Italy.

The only known site of occurrence was inundated in 1953 after the construction of a dam. [1]

The Sonodrio Buttercup is a member of the Goldilocks Buttercup (Ranunculus auricomus L.) aggregation (see depiction below) which contains many hundreds more, very similar so-called agamospecies.

*********************

Goldilocks Buttercup (Ranunculus auricomus s. str.)

Depiction from: ‘Jacob Sturm: Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Nürnberg, gedruckt auf Kosten des Verfassers 1798-1862’

(public domain)

*********************

References: 

[1] Franz G. Dunkel: The Ranunculus auricomus L. complex (Ranunculaceae) in Northern Italy. Journal of Plant Taxonomy and geography 65(2): 179-227. 2010
[2] Thomas Abeli; Giulia Albani Rocchetti; Zoltan Barina; Ioannis Bazos; David Draper; Patrick Grillas; José María Iriondo; Emilio Laguna; Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz; Fabrizio Bartolucci: Seventeen ‘extinct’ plant species back to conservation attention in Europe. Nature Plants 7: 282-286. 2021

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Gomphandra lancifolia Merr.

Lance-leaved Gomphandra (Gomphandra lancifolia)

The Lance-leaved Gomphandra is known only from its type locality in dry lowland forest at Mt. Dingalan on the island of Luzon, Philippines.

The species was described in 1920.:

A glabrous tree, about 6 m high. 

A species well characterized by its lanceolate, subcaudate-acuminate, few-nerved leaves which are subequally narrowed to both base and apex, as well as by its rather large fruits.
” [1]

The whole region of the type locality has been logged since the 1990s, thus it is highly unlikely that this regional endemic species still survives, it is very likely extinct now.

***

The photo below shows a congeneric taxon, the Luzon Gomphandra (Gomphandra luzoniensis (Merr.) Merr.), a rather widespread species that also occurs naturally in the Philippine Islands.

*********************

Luzon Gomphandra (Gomphandra luzoniensis)

Photo: Ah Jin
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/yctsai0602
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Elmer D. Merrill: New or noteworthy Philippine plants, XVI. The Philippine Journal of Science 17: 239-325. 1920

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Acalypha flaccida Hook. f.

Flaccid Copperleaf (Acalypha flaccida)

The Flaccid Copperleaf is known only from the type material that was collected in the middle of the 19th century on Isla Santiago, Galápagos Islands by Charles Darwin himself.

The species is, or maybe was, an erect annual herb with hirsute stems and about 2 to 4 cm long and 1,5 to 3 cm wide leaves. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] I. Loren Wiggins; D. M. Porter; E. F. Anderson: Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press 1971 

*********************

edited: 11.06.2020

Triclisia hypochrysea Diels

Round-leaved Climber (Triclisia hypochrysea)

This species is only known from the type material which was collected in 1890 in the surroundings of Libreville in Gabon.

The species has never been found since and is thought to be extinct.

*********************

edited: 29.01.2024

Plectostoma tenggekensis Liew, Vermeulen, Marzuki & Schilthuizen

Tenggek Karst Snail (Plectostoma tenggekensis)

The Tenggek Karst Snail was described in 2014; it is only known from the type locality: Bukit Tenggek in Pahang, central Peninsular Malaysia.

The shells reach sizes of 0.16 to 0.17 cm in height; the apical spire is depressed, the basal spire is conical and the whorl periphery is moderately convex, the umbilicus is open.

The only known locality where this species was known to occur, is now completely destroyed by limestone quarrying.

*********************

Photo from: ‘Thor-Seng Liew; Jaap Jan Vermeulen; Mohammad Effendi bin Marzuki; Menno Schilthuizen: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393: 1-107. 2014’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Thor-Seng Liew; Jaap Jan Vermeulen; Mohammad Effendi bin Marzuki; Menno Schilthuizen: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393: 1-107. 2014

*********************

edited: 01.03.2024

Helenoconcha perarmata (Smith)

Well-armed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha perarmata)

The Well-armed Saint Helena Snail was described in 1893; it was restricted to the island of Saint Helena, where it was found on Diana’s Peak, the island’s highest mountain.

The species is apparently known from only two specimens, which differ from each other in the height of their spire; they reach sizes of about 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

This form might be identical with the Six-toothed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha sexdentata (Smith)), with which it was described. 

As mentioned under that species, the Saint Helena Gastropoda species are in urgent need of a proper revision! 

***

syn. Patula perarmata Smith

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Edgar A. Smith: Descriptions of two new species of Patula from St. Helena. The Conchologist 2(7): 164-165. 1893’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

Edgar A. Smith: Descriptions of two new species of Patula from St. Helena. The Conchologist 2(7): 164-165. 1893

*********************

edited: 30.05.2021

Carposina sp. ‘new species 3’

Oahu Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

This species is basically known only from an account made in 1913 by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey.:

The larvae mine the leaves of Rollandia racemosa [Cyanea humboldtiana (Gaudich.) Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma]. They feed largely in the midrib, following it outwardly, but eat lateral tunnels out into the mesophyll on both sides as they proceed. Usually there is but one larva in a leaf. I have found this in but one locality so far, on Mt. Olympus, Oahu. The leaves of the shrub were very commonly attacked by it. The leaves are quite large and are not entirely killed by the injury, but many may be seen with the injured portion decayed away leaving an irregular hole or space in mid-portion of leaf. The full-grown larva emerges and passes below to pupate in a slight cocoon amongst dead leaves or trash.” [1]

There appears to have also existed at least one specimen, but it seems to have been lost; because no leaf-mining species of that genus is found today in the type locality or on O’ahu, to be precise, this species is considered extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

*********************

edited: 21.01.2022

Xyleborus exsectus Perkins

Cut-off Bark Beetle (Xyleborus exsectus)

The Cut-off Bark beetle was described in 1900; it is known only from some male specimens that were collected on the slopes of the Haleakalā volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is only known from the type series that was collected in 1894 and 1896 respectively, it is possibly extinct.
***

However, it is possible that this taxon is not valid at all and in fact is identical with the Molokai Bark Beetle (Xyleborus molokaiensis Perkins) which is more widespread and of which only female specimens ae known. [1]

Otherwise, there is also the possibility that it might be rediscovered as it has happened with at least two other congeneric species. [2][3]

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981
[2] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of an Enigmatic Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Coleopterists Bulletin 72(4): 811-815. 2018
[3] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; David Honsberger; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of the Hawaiian endemic bark beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuleson, 1981 on Moloka‘i, with records of three new exotic bark beetles for the island (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Journal of Natural History 53(23-24): 1481-1490. 2020

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Azurina eupalama Heller & Snodgrass

Galapagos Damsel (Azurina eupalama)

The Galapagos Damsel was, as its name implies, endemic to the Galápagos Islands.

The species was formerly common in localized aggregations in the waters surrounding the islands of Española, Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, and Santiago but begun to decline in 1983 during a devastating El Niño year and was finally not seen again since.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Edmund Heller; Robert E. Snodgrass: Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1898-1899. XV. New fishes. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 5: 189-229. 1903’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Graham J. Edgar; Stuart A. Banks; Margarita Brandt; Rodrigo H. Bustamantes; Angel Chiriboga; Lauren E. Garske; Peter W. Glynn; Jack S. Grove; Scott Henderson; Cleve P. Hickman; Kathy A. Miller; Fernando Rivera; Gerald M. Wellington: El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology 16: 2876-2890. 2010

*********************

edited: 29.11.2018

Alseodaphne micrantha Kostermans

Small Alseodaphne (Alseodaphne micrantha)

This species is known from specimens that were collected during the first half of the 20th century at a single locality along a road in the state of Johor, Malaysia.

The species has not been found since and might well be extinct now.

***

The photo below shows another unspecified species of the same genus.

*********************

unspecified Alseodaphne species (Alseodaphne sp.)

Photo: ytt
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/ytt
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Megalomma sp. ‘Rodrigues 1’

Rodrigues Tiger Beetle (Megalomma sp.)

This species is known from subfossil material (at least one prothorax), which shows that the species apparently was shiny coppery-colored in life.

***

The genus Megalomma contains at least six recent species, all endemic to the Mascarene Islands.

***

The photo below shows a closely related species from the nearby island of Mauritius, the Shining Megalomma Tiger Beetle (Megalomma fulgens (W. Horn))

*********************

Shining Megalomma Tiger Beetle (Megalomma fulgens)

Photo: CORDENOS Thierry
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/thierrycordenos
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 06.02.2024

Lepidocephalus pahangensis (de Beaufort)

Pahang Spirit Loach (Lepidocephalus pahangensis)

The Pahang Spirit Loach was described in 1933; it is only known from a small part of the Pahang River on the Malaysian Peninsula.

The species reaches, or reached, a length of only about 3.58 cm; it has eyes and a dark-pigmented, pinkish grey-brown body and can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of scales on top of the head. [1]

The species’ habitat was subject to extensive habitat degradation; the Pahang Spirit Loach has never been found since 1933 despite extensive surveys, it is very likely extinct now.

***

syn. Acanthophthalmus pahangensis de Beaufort

*********************

References:

[1] Gridsana Deein; Weerapongse Tangjitjaroen; Lawrence M. Page: A revision of the spirit loaches, genus Lepidocephalus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae). Zootaxa 3779(3): 341-352. 2014

*********************

edited: 24.02.2024

Agaricus hahashimensis S. Ito & S. Imai

Hahajima Horse Mushroom (Agaricus hahashimensis)

The Hahajima Horse Mushroom was collected in 1936 on the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara group, Japan and was described in 1940.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

*********************  

edited: 30.08.2020

Xyleborus littoralis Perkins

Littoral Bark Beetle (Xyleborus littoralis)

The Littoral Bark Beetle was described in 1900; it is only known from areas at sea level on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last seen in 189, when the type material was collected, it is possibly extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Philydor novaesi Teixeira & Gonzaga

Alagoas Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor novaesi)

The Alagoas Foliage-Gleaner was described in 1983, it was restricted to the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil, where it preferablky inhabited tropical lowland forest but was also found in second-growth forest at elevations of up to 400 to 550 m.

The species apparently was most closely related to the Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus (Wied)) (see photo), it reached a size of about 18 cm and was mainly inconspicuously brown colored.

The Alagoas Foliage-Gleaner has disappeared from its former distribution area due to habitat destruction mainly by forest clearance for agricultural purposes, since 2018 it is considered most likely extinct.

********************

Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus)

Photo: Dario Sanches
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

********************

edited: 01.09.2019

Ampelocissus helferi (M. A. Lawson) Planch.

Helfer’s Ampelocissus Wine (Ampelocissus helferi)

This climbing wine was described in 1887; it inhabits the forests of the Andaman Islands in the north-eastern Indian Ocean.

The species is known from only two collections that were both made around the same time; it might be still existing but is mentioned here for the sake of completeness.

***

syn. Vitis helferi M. A. Lawson

*********************

edited: 15.08.2022

Mellissius popei Endrödi

Pope’s Scarab Beetle (Mellissius popei)

This species was described in 1972, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species reaches a length of about 1,7 to 1,8 cm; it is mainly brown colored and differs from its close relative, the Eudoxus Scarab Beetle (Mellissius eudoxus Wollaston) in some characters including a less arched pronotum. [1]

The species was apparently not found during the most recent field searches and is probably extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] S. Endrödi: Monographie der Dynastinae (Col. Lamellicornia, Melolonthidae) 4. Tribus: Pentodontini der äthiopischen Region, III. In: Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Frey Tutzing bei München 27: 118-282. 1976

*********************

edited: 26.05.2021

Selaginella cataractarum Alston

Down-pouring Spikemoss (Selaginella cataractarum)

This species is known from Tamil Nadu, India; it is now apparently extinct.

***

The photo below shows some unspecified Spikemoss species that was photographed in Tamil Nadu, India.

*********************

unspecified Spikemoss species (Selaginella sp.)

Photo: Deepika
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/vpdeepika
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References: 

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Christopher Roy Fraser-Jenkins; Barbara S. Parris; Xian-Chun Zhang; Yue-Hong Yang; Wen-Liang Chiou; Ho-Ming Chang; Stuart Lindsay; David Middleton; Masahiro Kato; Titien Ngatinem Praptosuwiryo; Victor B. Amoroso; Julie F. Barcelona; Rajapaksha Haddokara Gedara Ranil; Chan-Ho Park; Noriaki Murakami; Akihiko Hoya: Rare and Threatened Pteridophytes of Asia 1. An Enumeration of Narrowly Distributed Taxa1. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Ser. B 38(3): 93–119. 2012

*********************

edited: 12.02.2024

Dreissena elata Andrusov

Triangular Mussel (Dreissena elata)

The Triangular Mussel was described in 1897; the species was endemic to the shores of the Caspian Sea.

Between 1917 and 1919, the Dwarf Mussel was introduced to the Caspian Sea; this invasive species multiplied successfully and replaced the native mussel banks.

The Triangular Mussel was last found alive in 1957, it is now extinct. [1]

***

syn. Dreissena polynorpha var elata Andrusov

*********************

References:

[1] Frank P. Wesselingh; Thomas A. Neubauer; Vitaliy V. Anistratenko; Maxim V. Vinarski; Tamara Yanina; Jan Johan ter Poorten; Pavel Kijashko; Christian Albrecht; Olga Yu. Anistratenko; Anouk D’Hont; Pavel Frolov; Alberto Martínez Gándara; Arjan Gittenberger; Aleksandre Gogaladze; Mikhail Karpinsky; Matteo Lattuada; Luis Popa; Arthur F. Sands; Sabrina van de Velde; Justine Vandendorpe; Thomas Wilke: Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list. ZooKeys 827: 31-124. 2019

*********************

edited: 18.11.2021

Dicliptera maclearii Hemsley

Maclear’s Dicliptera (Dicliptera maclearii)

Maclear’s Dicliptera was described in 1890; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was originally found to be “common on [the] shore platform” [1] but has not been seen since the 1960s and might now be extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 18.02.2024

Leuctra laura Hitchcock

Hampshire Needlefly (Leuctra laura)

The Hampshire Needlefly was described in 1969; it is known only from two specimens, a male and a female, that were collected on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, USA.

The species might be extinct; however, its taxonomic validity is questioned.

*********************

edited: 17.02.2024

Sylvietta chapini Schouteden

Chapin’s Crombec (Sylvietta chapini)

This species, also known as the Lendu Crombec, described in 1947, was restricted to the Lendu Plateau in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The species is often considered a subspecies of the White-browed Crombec (Sylvietta leucophrys Sharpe) (see photo below) but differs significantly from that species and should indeed be treated as distinct. [1]

Chapin’s Crombec has not been recorded in recent times and seems to be extinct.

***

syn. Sylvietta leucophrys ssp. chapini Schouteden

*********************

White-browed Crombec (Sylvietta leucophrys)

Photo: Nik Borrow
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/nikborrow
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] L. D. C. Fishpool; N. J. Collar: The taxonomic and conservation status of Chapin’s Crombec Sylvietta (leucophrys) chapini. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13(2): 130-135. 2006
[2] Stuart H. M. Butchart; Stephen Lowe; Rob W. Martin; Andy Symes; James R. S. Westrip; Hannah Wheatley: Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18. 2018

*********************

edited: 17.01.2024

Orobophana berniceia ssp. ‘Wailua’

Wailua Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia ssp.)

This supposed geographical race, or subspecies of the Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceira(Pilsbry & Cooke)) is known from several shells that were found south of the Wailua River at the western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These shells were nearly all of equal size and in average reached sizes of about 0,27 cm in height and 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

The Wailua Orobophana Snail, whatever its taxonomic status might be, is clearly extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Amarygmus funebris Arrow

Dark Darkling Beetle (Amarygmus funebris)

The Dark Darkling Beetle was described in 1900 based on nine specimens that had been collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a length of about 0,9 cm; “the colour is black, tinged with a deep purplish or greenish hue, especially upon the head, thorax, and anterior part of the elytra. Some specimens present a slightly sericeous bloom upon the upper surface. Underneath it is a shining black, with the abdominal segment striated longitudinally.” [1]

The Dark Darkling Beetle was not found since the 1930s and is considered very likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 27.04.2022

Erpornis zantholeuca ssp. saani Chasen

Sumatran Erpornis (Erpornis zantholeuca ssp. saani)

This taxon was described in 1939; it is apparently known from a single specimen that had been obtained somewhere in north-western Sumatra, Indonesia as well as from three additional records.

The Sumatran birds differ from the other subspecies by their greenish back and a slightly darker crest.

This taxon might well be extinct now.

***

The photo below shows another subspecies, the Greyish Erpornis (Erpornis zantholeuca ssp. canescensDelacour & Jabouille) which is endemic to the island of Borneo, Indonesia.

*********************

Bornean Erpornis (Erpornis zantholeuca ssp. brunnescens)

Photo: Spark
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/sparkn
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 24.01.2024

Tetramolopium conyzoides (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Horseweed-like Pamakani (Tetramolopium conyzoides)

This species is an upright shrub with copious pubescence, it was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands but is thought to be extinct now.

It was probably restricted to dry forests which are now largely destroyed by introduced ungulates. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986

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edited: 15.01.2019

Camponotus fabricator (F. Smith)

Saint Helena Carpenter Ant (Camponotus fabricator)

The Saint Helena Carpenter Ant was described in 1858 on the basis of at least a single worker (?), which was supposedly collected at an unknown date somewhere on the island of Saint Helena.

The species was repeatedly reclassified as a subspecies of other, African or European, species but was finally accepted as being valid in 1914. [1]

***

There are no recent records of this form, and it is believed to be extinct; however, it might in fact not even be native to Saint Helena but might have been an introduced form brought to the island with imported goods. [1]

***

syn. Formica fabricator F. Smith

*********************

References:

[1] James K. Wetterer; Xavier Espadaler; N. Philip Ashmole; Howard Mendel; Chris Cutler; Judith Endeman: Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37. 2007

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Leiothrix lutea ssp. astleyi Delacour

Astley’s Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea ssp. astleyi)

Astley’s Red-billed Leiothrix, described in 1921, is apparently known from two specimens, a male and a female that were found in an aviary somewhere in China.

This form differs from the other subspecies by its forehead and crown being strongly tinged with orange-scarlet instead of being olive green; by the eyebrows and ear coverts being likewise strongly tinged with orange-scarlet instead of being greyish or greenish white; the breast is said to be strongly scarlet instead of yellow and orange; the female is paler and has the ear coverts are yellowish orange. 

According to this description these birds were superficially obviously quite similar to the one depicted below.

Astley’s Red-billed Leiothrix, whose taxonomical status is disputed, has never been recorded since its description and, if indeed it is a distinct taxon, is now extinct. [1]

***

syn. Leiothrix astleyi Delacour

*********************

Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea ssp.) unspecified subspecies, photographed in Japan where it has been introduced and is now feral

Photo: Alpsdake
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Julian P. Hume: Extinct Birds. 2. Edition. Bloomsbury Natural History 2017

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Lupinus cusickii ssp. abortivus (Greene) B. J. Cox

Sewage Lupine (Lupinus cusickii ssp. abortivus)

Cusick’s Lupine (Lupinus cusickii S. Watson) (see photo below), an Oregon endemic, is a small, blue-purple flowering species that prefers to grow on eroding mountain slopes. The species can be divided into at least three varieties, all of which are critically endangered. 

***

This variety, named for the type location (near stinking water), was endemic to northern Harney County, where the last plants were found in 1896; it is now very likely extinct.

***

syn. Lupinus aridus var. abortivus (Greene) C. P. Sm.

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Cusick’s Lupine (Lupinus cusickii); nominate form

Photo: Carmel Cameron
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/carmel34
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

********************* 

References: 

[1] Robert J. Meinke: Threatened and endangered vascular plants of Oregon: An illustrated guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Endangered Species, Region 1. 1982 

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula Cooke

Maunaloa Amastra Snail (Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula)

The Maunaloa Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the northern shore of Molokai’, Hawaiian Islands.

A very few imperfect specimens were found by Pilsbry and Cooke in 1913 at Moomomi where this variety is extremely rare. Further west, especially in the shifting sands, it occurs more abundantly but is not a common species in any locality. it has been found sparingly in all the known fossil deposits from Puukapele west to the shifting sands. This variety is readily separated from the typical form by its less tumid last whorl, more cylindrical form and malleate surface.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height.

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’

Nuku Hiva Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This interesting taxon is known only on the basis of two subfossil remains that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. [1]

Within the Polynesian region, this genus now very likely contains more species known only from subfossil remains than living ones.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

*********************

edited: 20.02.2024

Amastra montivaga Cooke

Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail (Amastra montivaga)

The Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found on the Kalihi Ridge, which is a mountainous region on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

“A. montivaga is undoubtedly a dirivative [sic] of A. textilis. It differs from the latter species by its smaller size, thinner shell, more convex whorls (which are shouldered below), deeper sutures, etc.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of 1,2 to 1,6 cm in height.

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 6’

Maui Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

We know of the former existence of this taxon only by an account made by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey in 1954, mentioned later by Elwood C. Zimmerman.:

Carposina new species 6.
“Heterocrossa sp., near bicincta” Swezey, 1954: 116

Endemic. Maui (Haelaau)
Hostplant: Clermontia kakeana and arborescens. The larvae mine the leaves.
” [1]

The specimen or specimens that were reared from the caterpillars collected from its host plants are now apparently lost; the species was never recorded again and is thus considered extinct. 

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

*********************

edited: 21.01.2022

Miocalles sp. ‘Nuku Hiva1’

Nukuhiva Miocalles Weevil (Miocalles sp.)

The genus is occurring in French Polynesia with more than 100 species, all of which are endemic to a single island; however, only three of them are found on the Marquesan Islands. This number must once have been larger as being indicated by subfossil findings.

This taxon is one of two that are known from subfossil remains (two in that case) that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

*********************

edited: 20.02.2024

Laemophloeidae gen. & sp. ‘Nuku Hiva 1’

Nuku Hiva Lined Flat Bark Beetle (Laemophloeidae gen. & sp.)

This taxon is known from subfossil material that was recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.

Today, no indigenous member of this family is known to inhabit the Marquesas; however, two genera with one species each are known to be indigenous to the Society Islands which represents the geographically closest region in French Polynesia.

*********************

left elytron

Photo from: ‘Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

*********************  

References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

*********************

edited: 27.01.2024

Breonia richardsonii Razafim.

Richardson’s Breonia (Breonia richardsonii)

This species has been described in 2002 on the basis of herbarium material that had been collected in 1965 from a lowland forest in the Maroantsetra District in the Toamasina Province of Madagascar.

This species is very different from other species of Breonia because of its tubular, ap- pressed inflorescence bracts with 3 to 4 broadly triangular lobes and post-anthesis fusion of adjacent ovaries.” [1]

The species has not been recorded since the type material was collected and is either extremely rare or even already extinct.

***

The photo below shows a related species, Perrier’s Breonia (Breonia perrieri Homolle), which is likewise endemic to Madagscar.

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Perrier’s Breonia (Breonia perrieri)

Photo: merveille
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/bmerveille
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison: A systematical revision of Breonia (Rubiaceae-Naucleeae). annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89(1): 1-37. 2002

*********************

edited: 26.02.2024

Tylomys tumbalensis Merriam

Tumbala Climbing Rat (Tylomys tumbalensis)  

The Tumbala Climbing Rat was described in 1901; it is known from a single specimen that was collected from the tropical forest that formerly covered the area that today is occupied by the town of Tumbalá in Chiapas, Mexico.

The locality is now more or less completely deforested, thus the species’ habitat is lost, making the survival of the The Tumbala Climbing Rat highly improbable, it is very likely extinct.

***

The closest relative of the Tumbala Climbing Rat is Peter’s Climbing Rat (Tylomus nudicaudus (Peters)) that is quite widespread and is found in most of Central America, it is depicted below.

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Peter’s Climbing Rat (Tylomus nudicaudus)

Photo: Daniel Dorantes
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/danieldorantes7
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 19.02.2024

Psychotria cuneifolia DC.

Wedge-leaved Psychotria (Psychotria cuneifolia)  

This species is known only by the type material that was collected in the Guayaquil area of the Guayas province in Ecuador.

The area where this species was known from is relatively well collected, yet this species was apparently never found again since the type collection more than 180 years ago

The species is considered most likely extinct.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed in the same locality.

*********************

unspecified Psychotria (Psychotria sp.)

Photo: Raúl Tomalá
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/rault_bosqueseco
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************  

edited: 03.09.2020

Orobophana juddii (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana juddii)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found in sand dunes on the beaches in the Koloa District in southern Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were semiglobose with a flattened base and a rounded periphery, they reached sizes of about 0,42 cm in height and 0,46 cm in diameter, the original colors are not preserved. [1]

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

***

syn. Helicina juddii Pilsbry & Cooke

*********************

Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Ericaceae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

(Ericaceae gen. & sp.)

Some member of the heath family (Ericaceae) formerly occurred on Rapa Nui, it is either known based on subfossil wood remains or from subfossil pollen.

This may have been a species from the genus Leptecophylla.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Jean-François Butaud: Inventaire des espèces natives de l’île de Pâques, pp. 138-139. In: l’île de Pâques. Le nombril du monde? MUSEO Éditions 2018

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edited: 21.01.2022

Drimia polyphylla (Hook. f.) Ansari & Sundararagh

Many-leaved Drimia (Drimia polyphylla)

The Many-leaved Drimia was described in 1980; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the hill slopes of the Deccan Plateau in Maharashtra, India.

The species was not seen since over 120 years and might well be extinct.

***

syn. Indurgia polyphylla (Hook. f.) Speta, Thuranthos polyphyllus (Hook. f.) Speta, Urginea polyphylla Hook. f.


*********************

edited: 20.08.2022

Araliaceae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

(Araliaceae gen. & sp.)

This taxon is apparently known from subfossil remains (pollen?) that were found on the island of Rapa Nui.

There are several endemic genera of this family found in Polynesia, it is thus possible that Rapa Nui too had its own endemic genus, at least its own endemic species.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Jean-François Butaud: Inventaire des espèces natives de l’île de Pâques, pp. 138-139. In: l’île de Pâques. Le nombril du monde? MUSEO Éditions 2018

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edited: 13.01.2024

Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawaii Nukupuu’

Hawaii Nukupuu (Hemignathus sp.)

The island of Hawai’i today is the home of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni (Rothschild)) (see depiction below), the last of the so-called hetero-billed finches, a group of Hawaiian drepenidine finches with extremely strange bills in which the lower beak is short and, depending on the species, curved up- or downwards, and the upper beak significantly longer and down curved.

This species is depicted below.

The island of Hawai’i, however, once also harbored at least two other hetero-billed finch species, namely the so-called Giant Nukupuu (Hemignathus vorpalis Olson & James), known only by subfossil remains, and the ‘actual’ Nukupuu (Hemignathus aff. lucidus), which is known by a single historical specimen, and which most certainly represented a full and endemic species.

More about this enigmatic form follows below.:

***

Hemignathus lucidus subspp. indet.

A historic specimen of this species, of indeterminate race, was collected on the island of Hawaii by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1840 or 1841, but the species was never again taken on that island. A fossil almost certainly of this species was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.
” [2]

The authors treat all Nukupuu forms as a single species, thus this somewhat misleading statement –  the fossil from Moloka’i, of course, is more closely related to the Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) from Maui.

This sole Hawaii Nukupuu specimen very likely constitutes a sub-adult individual, its plumage appearing to had been in the stage of molting into a yellower garb; the dorsum, the crown and the wings are dull olive with a grayish cast; the underparts are creamy whitish; yellow feathers appear on the lower cheeks and on the midline of the throat and the sides of the upper breast, forming a sort of inverted Y; it also had a faint yellow superciliary line. [1]

This is perhaps one of the most enigmatic of the many Hawaiian drepanidine finches and is shows that these islands have lost an unimaginable precious treasure trove of diversity!

*********************

Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni)

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’      

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: A specimen of Nuku pu’u (Aves: Drepanidini: Hemignathus lucidus) from the island of Hawai’i. Pacific Science 48(4): 331-338. 1994
[2] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

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edited: 09.10.2020

Amastra seminigra Hyatt & Pilsbry

Coal-black Amastra Snail (Amastra seminigra)

The Coal-black Amastra Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the vicinity of Wahiawa and Waimano near Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

It was a quite large species whose shells reached heights of up to 2,12 cm.

The species is very similar to the Sorrowful Amastra Snail (Amastra tristis (Férussac)) and differs from that species only by its narrower shape at all stages of growth.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 05.10.2020

Cynolebias elegans Costa

Elegant Bahia Killifish (Cynolebias elegans)

The Elegant Bahia Killifish was described in 2017; it is known only from a single locality, a temporary pool in the Verde Grande River drainage in Bahia, Brazil where in 2005 the five now known specimens were found.

All subsequent searches (in 2009, 2020, and 2017) found the habitat to be severely modificated, especially due to cattle ranching, and all failed to find the species.

The Elegant Bahia Killifish is now sadly extinct.

*********************

Photo from: ‘Wilson J. E. M. Costa: Description of two endangered new seasonal killifish species of the genus Cynolebias from the São Francisco River basin, Brazilian Caatinga (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 93(2): 333-341. 2017

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Wilson J. E. M. Costa: Description of two endangered new seasonal killifish species of the genus Cynolebias from the São Francisco River basin, Brazilian Caatinga (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 93(2): 333-341. 2017

*********************

edited: 15.02.2024

Garcinia klabang Miq.

Bangka Garcinia (Garcinia klabang)

The Bangka Garcinia was described in 1861; it is endemic to the island of Bangka, offshore eastern Sumatra, Indonesia.

The species appears to be extinct now.

*********************

edited: 31.01.2024

Orobophana cookei Neal

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana cookei)

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1934, it was apparently restricted to a cliff on the west side of the beautiful and often photographed Kalalau Valley on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this quite large species reach sizes of about 0,56 cm in height and 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

***

Since all Kauaian helicinid snails are now thought to be extinct altogether, this species must be considered extinct too. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Chloridops regiskongi Olson & James

King Kong Finch (Chloridops regiskongi)

The King Kong Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This species had the biggest and heaviest beak of all seed-eating Hawaiian finches.

***

This species very likely constitutes a distinct genus.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

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edited: 04.01.2024

Agelanthus guineensis Polhill & Wiens

Guinea Mistletoe (Agelanthus guineensis)

This species, described in 1997, is, or was, restricted to the forests in northern Guinea in West Africa; it is apparently known only from the type material which was collected in 1956.

The species was never found since the collection of the type and is believed to be extinct.

***

The photo below shows an additional congeneric species, the Dodonaea-leaved Mistletoe (Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill & Wiens), a species that also occurs in Guinea.

*********************

Dodonaea-leaved Mistletoe (Agelanthus dodoneifolius)

Photo: Rob Palmer
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/rob_palmer
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Typhlobleus auriculatus de Pinna & Zuanon

Ear-bearing Pencil Catfish (Typhlobleus auriculatus)  

The Ear-bearing Pencil Catfish was described in 2013; it was found near a marginal sand bank in the lower Rio Xingù in central Brazil.

The species is only about 3 cm long; it can be distinguished from all of its congeners by the absence of an anal fin as well as by the presence of a well-defined lateral pit immediately posterior to the head, representing a modified (ear-like) pseudotympanus connected by a superficial groove to a pit entering the skull. [1]

The type locality is now probably destroyed due to the building of the Belo Monte dam, which will be the world’s third-largest hydroelectric dam when it is finished; this will lead to the extinction not only of this strange kind of fish ….

*********************

References:

[1] M. C. C. de Pinna; J. Zuanon: The genus Typhlobelus: Monopoly and taxonomy, with description of a new species with a unique pseudotympanic structure (Teleostei: Trichomycteridae). Copeia 2013(3): 441-453. 2013

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edited: 19.02.2024

Rhododendron wilhelminae Hochr.

Wilhelmina’s Rhododendron (Rhododendron wilhelminae)

Wilhelmina’s Rhododendron, described in 1925, is known from only a single locality in the vicinity of the crater of Mt. Salak in the Gunung Halimun Salak National Park on the island of Java, Indonesia, where it was found growing amongst other shrubs at an elevation of about 1350 m.

The taxon was not found since its description and may be extinct now.

However, it may, however, not be a real species but instead a natural hybrid of the Javan Rhododendron (Rhododendron javanicum (Blume) Benn.) and the Malayan Rhododendron (Rhododendron malayanum Jack) (see photo below), which obviously both grow at the same locality.

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Malayan Rhododendron (Rhododendron malyanum)

Photo: Dick Culbert
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.de

*********************

edited: 19.02.2023

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. baldwiniana Cooke

Lanai Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. lanaiensis)

This form, described in 1920, was restricted to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Specimens from West Maui agree very closely with the type form in shape, color, etc., but are slightly smaller. They differ mainly in that the embryonic whorls are much more finely striate spirally, and in the presence of a minute basal fold and the more axially seated columellar fold. There are usually about two more ribs on the last whorl, which is furnished with from 15 to 17. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5, apert. 1.0 mm.; 51/4 whorls.

From L. r. lanaiensis it is separated by its more convex and swollen whorls, lighter color and much more finely spirally striate embryonic whorls.
” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Pseudolibera solemi Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Solem’s Pseudolibera Snail (Pseudolibera solemi)

Solem’s Pseudolibera Snail was described in 2014 based on subfossil shells, it was endemic to the raised coral island Makatea in French Polynesia.

The shells reach sizes of less than 0,8 cm in diameter, they are depressed to subdepressed, dome-shaped to trigonal, they are white with regularly spaced and bear amber-colored flammulations on the periphery. [1]

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References:

[1] A. F. Sartori; O. Gargominy; B. Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1): 1–68. 2014

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edited: 13.06.2020

Trachycystis rariplicata (Pfeiffer)

Greenpoint Snail (Trachycystis rariplicata)

The Greenpoint Snail, described in 1849, is known exclusively from Green Point, today a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa.

This species is now extinct, and its extinction is sometimes attributed to the introduction of an invasive Mediterranean snail species, the Mediterranean Coastal Snail (Theba pisana (Müller)), which is now very abundant in that region. However, the true reasons for its disappearance are rather found in the massive habitat destruction by swamp drainage, building of sports fields, houses and other extensive transformations.

***

syn. Helix rariplicata Pfeiffer, Pella rariplicata (Pfeiffer)


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edited: 22.08.2022

Asteraceae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Shrubby Aster (Asteraceae gen. & sp.)

At least six (!) different types of Asteraceae pollen are known from Easter Island’s deposits, most of which were recovered from the Rano Aroi crater at the Ma’unga Terevaka volcano, the largest and tallest of Rapa Nui’s volcanoes. This material, however, can only be assigned to a tribe within the family Asteraceae, to the Tubuliflorae, now known as Asteroideae, a group that is represented in the Polynesian region mainly by the very large genus Bidens.

This genus occurs with as many as at least 59 species, subspecies and varieties all over central, eastern and northern Polynesia. The place closest to Rapa Nui, the Pitcairn Islands, harbor at least two endemic species, the Henderson Island Beggarticks (Bidens hendersonensis Sherff) and the Pitcairn Beggarticks (Bidens mathewsii Sherff). Thus, it is absolutely possible that additional species also once inhabited Rapa Nui.

It appears that this species, or these species, disappeared quite recently, maybe shortly before the island was discovered by European seafarers. [1][2]

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References:

[1] J. R. Flenley; Sarah M. King: Late Quaternary pollen records from Easter Island. Nature 307: 47-50. 1984
[2] J. R. Flenley; Sarah M. King; Joan Jackson; C. Chew; J. T. Teller; M. E. Prentice: The Late Quaternary vegetational and climatic history of Easter Island. Journal of Quaternary Science 6(2): 85-115. 1991

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edited: 22.06.2020

Zebina acicula Laseron

Needle-like Zebina Snail (Zebina acicula)

The Needle-like Zebina Snail was described in 1956; it is restricted to the sea around Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916, when the type material was collected.

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References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Sinployea sp. ‘Bora Bora’

Bora Bora Sinployea Snail (Sinployea sp.)

This species, which has not been described so far, is known on the basis of a single subadult specimen that was found on the slopes of a mountain ridge on the island of Bora Bora, Society Islands.

This form might well be extinct now.

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References:  

[1] Justin Gerlach: Land and Freshwater Snails of Tahiti and the other Society Islands. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge 2017

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edited: 02.08.2022