Tag Archives: Oahu

Philodoria opuhe Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Opuhe-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria opuhe)

This species was described in 2021; it is apparently known from the Pu’u ‘Ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus) in the Ko’olau Mountains as well as from the Wai’anae Mountains both on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to mine the leaves of the endemic ōpuhe spp. (Urera glabra (Hook. & Arn.) Wedd. and Urera kaalae Wawra).

***

The species was originally included in the description of the Urera-mining Philidoria Moth (Philodoria ureraella(Swezey)), from which it, however, differs in several characters.

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[1] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Amastra pellucida Baldwin

Translucent Amastra Snail (Amastra pellucida)

The Translucent Amastra Snail was described in 1895, it was restricted to the Wai’anae Valley on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is named for the thin pellucid (translucent) texture of its shell, and it is one of only a few of which we know at least a little bit about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform brown color; the head above and tentacles of a darker shade. the action of the heart is plainly visible through the thin texture of the shell. When first collected the pulsations were about fifty per minute, growing slower and fainter from day to day until the animal died.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 28.09.2020

Philodoria costalis Swezey

Makaha Philodoria Moth (Philodoria costalis)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the forests of the Makaha Ridge at elevations of about 915 m above sea level on the western side of Mt. Ka’ala on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 to 0,8 cm; the head, the thorax and the abdomen are tawny brown; the forewings are tawny brown and bear orange-colored patches.

The species is known to have mined the leaves of endemic māmaki species (Pipturus sp.); the sole description of its biology is the following sentence.:

The larvae form “oval brown cocoons on the surface of the leaves ….” (Swezey, 1934: 525.)” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during recent field work and might be extinct. [2]

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[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes Cooke

Small Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes)

This form differs from the nominate form by its smaller size, its compact and closely coiled spire, but especially in its smoother surface marked with finer and more distantly spaced growth-wrinkles. [1]

This is an exceedingly rare form of Amastra. the results of five findings are six whole and three broken specimens. Among the large number of Amastras that have been taken in the Manoa fossil deposits, from the beginning of Oahu Avenue to Awapuhi Street, this form was only taken from four “pockets”.” [1]

These deposits appear to be actually Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

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edited: 04.05.2022

Laminella straminea (Reeve)

Straw-colored Laminella Snail (Laminella straminea)

The Straw-colored Laminella Snail was described in 1850; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from several valleys, including the Makiki-, Nu’uanu-, Palolo-, Pauoa, and Waiala’e nui Valleys. The species was almost entirely found on the leaves of the endemic olonā (Touchardia latifolia Gaudich.). [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 to 2,4 cm in height; they are “acuminately oblong, sinistral, whorls convex, obliquely striated, columella strongly twist-plaited; straw-colored, unspotted.” [1]

We have a little information about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform light flesh color, oral aperture margined with a line of orange.” [1]

***

This species is now considered most likely extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta Cooke

Carved Amastra Snail (Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta)

The Carved Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in the forests of Punalu’u near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

The shells reach sizes of 1,4 to 1,7 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra rubida Gulick

Glowing Red Amastra Snail (Amastra rubida)

The Glowing Red Amastra Snail was found at a place named Kahuku, probably in the northeastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found on the ground in the forest. [1]

… from the original description.: 

It is allied to Am. elliptica Gk., but differs in being more elongate in form, thicker iin structure, and for the most part destitute of epidermis. It is always dextral.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

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edited: 06.10.2020

Achatinella pupukanioe Pilsbry & Cooke

Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella pupukanioe)

This species was described in 1914.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,6 cm in height; they are glossy white or ivory yellow with a white sutural line, or either of these tints with a burnt sienna band immediately above a wider and darker band. [1] 

***

The species was last found in 1980 in the forest along the Aiea Ridge Trail in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most likely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 08.06.2021

Amastra forbesi Cooke

Forbes’ Amastra Snail (Amastra forbesi)

Forbe’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known only from (sub)fossil remains found in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the Makua beach at the foot of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The material on which this species is based consists of two whole adult specimens and the lower portion of two additional specimens. all the specimens were taken by Mr. Forbes in a single pocket in sand deposits along the railroad track north of Makua. On a later visit by Mr. Forbes and the author, no additional specimens were found though all the exposed surfaces of the sand pockets along the track were carefully gone over. These pockets consist of beach sand covered by talus.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1,3 to 1,4 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Leptachatina cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina cookei)

Cooke’s Leptachatina Snail was described in 1914, it is known only from subfossil specimens that had been found at a few scattered locations in western O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

This was apparently a coastal, respectively lowland species and thus disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers.

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References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

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edited: 22.04.2019

Amastra cornea (Newcomb)

Horn-like Amastra Snail (Amastra cornea)

This species inhabited the forests of the Mt. Ka’ala and parts of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the species’ description.:

Shell irregularely, acutely conical, the apex ponted; last whorl inflated; thin, corneous, with minute longitudinal striae; whorls 7, rounded; aperture subovate; lip thin, translucent; columella straight, white, and armed with a transverse plaited tooth. Color uniform dark horn, columella and tooth white.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of 1,1 to 1,75 in heigth and up to 0,85 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.11.2020

Achatinella taeniolata Pfeiffer

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1846; like all members of its genus, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height; they are dextral, ovate-oblong, spiro-conic, solid, striatulate, more obsolete toward the apex and with slightly convex whorls; glossy white, ornamented with varying brown bands; the white columella is strongly toothed above and the margin is dilated, reflexed and appressed; the white aperture is irregularly semioval; the peristome is narrowly thickened outside and strongly lipped within. [1] 

***

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was last seen in 1966 at the Hawai’iloa- and the Kuliouou Ridges in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most like exinct. [1]

***

According to some authors, this species is actually a subspecies of the Green Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella viridans Mighels), as there seems to be a complete integration between them. [1] 

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 08.06.2021

Amastra praeopima Cooke

Waiahole Amastra Snail (Amastra praeopima)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at a place named Waiahole at the crest of the Ko’olau Mountains along the eastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1 to 1,2 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Agrotis photophila (Butler)

Light-loving Cutworm (Agrotis photophila)

The Light-loving Cutworm was described in 1879, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a wingspan of about 3,6 cm.

***

The Light-loving Cutworm obviously was a lowland species, it was always found near the sea.

The species is now extinct.

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’  

(public domain)

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edited: 22.01.2019

Amastra textilis ssp. kaipaupauensis Hyatt & Pilsbry

Kaipaupau Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. kaipaupauensis

The Kaipaupau Amastra Snail was described in 1911, as far as I understand, it is known from a single specimen that was collected at a place named Kaipaupau, which may actually be the area around the Kaipapa’u Waterfall near the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

***

… from the description.:

The shell is short, subperforate, thin, with straightly conic spire and convex whorls, the last quite rotund; dull purplish-brown, the thin cuticle yellowish on theearly whorls. Embryo finely striate; later whorls with fine, irregular sculpture of growth-wrinkles. Aperture purplish within, the lip very narrowly thickened. Columnellar lamella thin, its lower edge subhorizontal. 
….
Near The above, yet with narrower, straightly conic spire and more convex whorls. ….
” [1]

The shell has a length of 1,1 cm and reaches 0,7 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 26.04.2019

Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson

Primitive Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes)

The Primitive Koa Finch was described in 2005 based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

At least on Maui the species occurred in sympatry with another closely related species, the Scissor-billed Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson), a constellation which is known also from the island of Hawai’i, where two other congeneric species, the Lesser- (Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild) and the greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) formed mixed flocks feeding together.

The primitive Koa-Finch aka. Oahu Koa-Finch disappeared before the first Europeans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. 

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Achatinella vulpina (Férussac)

Foxy Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella vulpina)

The Foxy Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1824.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are glossy yellow, green, olive or chestnut, often banded with green or chestnut; the extremely color patterns were already mentioned by the species’ author.:

The colouring of this species is extremely variable; there is, however, but one prevailing idea in its manner of distribution. The columella is of a livid purple-rose in all the varieties.” [1]

This is one of the most common shells met with on Oahu, and passes through numerous slight variations, which have led to their description as distinct species.” [1]

***

The species was last found in 1965 along the slopes of the Pu’u ‘ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus); it is now considered extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] E. W. Thwing: Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus Achatinella. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(1): 1-196. 1907
[2] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′

(public domain)

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edited: 06.06.2021

Achatinella apexfulva (Dixon)

Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella apexfulva)

The tree snails of the genus Achatinella are only found on the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian archipelago; 41 species are currently accepted, of which about 20 may still survive.

All species inhabit trees and shrubs where they feed on fungi by scraping them from the surfaces of leaves or trunks; the snails are hermaphroditic and give birth to live young, however, only to a few each year. The snails can live to about ten years or even more, the growth rate is very low, and they reach maturity only with about six years. 

The tree snails are very vulnerable to loss of individuals through over-collecting, but also to habitat destruction and especially to the introduction of predators like rats, or more recently the snail-eating Rosy Wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea (Férussac)). [1]

***

The Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail was indeed the first member of its genus to reach Europe – as part of a shell lei, given by native Hawaiians to George Dixon, a British ship captain in 1786, and to be scientifically described – in 1789.

The species was restricted to some of the ridges of the Ko’olau Mountains, where it was last found in 1985. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are dextral or sinistral and are quite variably colored; the embryonic whorl might be yellow, the following whorls are blackish brown to chestnut-colored, sometimes with some whitish streaks and spiral lines; the narrow suture is light-edged; the moderately thickened lip is flesh- to salmon-colored while the columellar fold is nearly white; the aperture is bluish white within. [1]

***  

The species was last seen in the wild at the Poamoho Trail and was considered extinct in the wild since then; a little captive population (brought into captivity in 1997) was all that was left of this species. This population, however, did not breed and finally was down to a last surviving individual. 

This individual, named George (see photo below), died today (1. January 2019) at the age of 14 years, an exceptional age for an invertebrate species. [2]

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993
[2] Jacina Bowler: Lonely George – A Hawaiian Tree Snail – Has Died, Taking His Species With Him. Science Alert January 9, 2019

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Photo: Brenden Holland
http://portugal.inaturalist.org/people/bholland

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus guttatus (Sharp)

Speckled Sap Beetle (Apetasimus guttatus)

The Speckled Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was apparently found near the city of Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, but is otherwise also known to have occurred on the island of Hawai’i.

The species reached a length of about 0,52 to 0,61 cm; it was brick red to nearly blackish, with some pale yellow to orange-red markings. [1]

***

The Speckled Sap Beetle was living subcortical in the wood of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray); this microhabitat was severely disrupted on all of the Hawaiian main islands by the introduction of terrestrial isopods, leading to the disappearance of nearly all invertebrates that shared the same modus vivendi. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra textilis ssp. textilis (Férussac)

Woven Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. textilis)

The Woven Amastra Snail was described in 1824, it appears to have been quite widespread around the center of southern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and indeed has repeatedly been described independently by several authors under a bunch of different names.

The shells are quite variable and reach sizes of 1,25 to 1,8 cm in heigth and 0,8 to 0,95 cm in diameter. [1]

At least three distinct subspecies have been described.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 27.09.2020

Amastra thaanumi Hyatt & Pilsbry

Thaanum’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thaanumi

Thaanum’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911, it was restricted to a place named Ka’a’awa in the Koʻolauloa District on the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was described on the basis of a single living specimen and several dead shells.

… from the description.:

The shell is sinistral, imperforate, moderately solid, oblong, having a somewhat silky luster. Spire widely conic with somewhat convex outlines and rather obtuse summit. Embryonic whorls marked with faint, very fine growth-striae only; later whorls distinctly striate obliquely, the striae fine and somewhat thread-like. Upper whorls purplish-brown ith irregular whitish streaks, the last two whorls covered with a rich dark chestnut cuticle, yellowish next the suture, and deciduous in front of the aperture, showing a glossy light green under layer. Aperture rather oblique, livid or bluish white whithin, with a whitish callous rim within the dark-edged lip. Columella short, bearing a strong, triangular, downward-bent lamella. Parietal callus thin.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 28.09.2020

Blackburnia blaptoides (Blackburn)

Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia blaptoides)

The Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was apparently restricted to the Pu’u Konahuanui, the tallest peak of the Ko’olau Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is thought to be extinct due to predation by introduced ants. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 03.09.2019

Anisolabis oahuensis Brindle

Oahu Earwig (Anisolabis oahuensis)

The Oahu Earwig was described in 1980; it is endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and is one of the four species that was split off Perkin’s Earwig (Anisolabis perkinsi Burr) during a genu revision in 1980.

The species is about 1,2 to about 1,9 cm long.

The Oahu Earwig was last recorded in the 1920s and may in fact be extinct now. [1]

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References:

[1] A. Brindle: The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes: 12. A new species of blind troglobitic earwig (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), with a revision of the related surface-living earwigs of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Insects 21(4): 261-274. 1980

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edited: 08.12.2021

Chaetoptila sp. ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Oahu Kioea is known only from subfossil remains that were found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has not been described yet, but appears to have been distinct from the historically known Hawaiian Kioea. [1] 

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 13.09.2020

Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi Cooke

Spalding’s Planamastra Snail (Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi

This species was described in 1933, it is restricted to Pukaloa in the Wai’anae Mountains of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

Planamastra spaldingi should be considered a very rare species. In the Museum collection are eight lots; five are from the small valley of Pukaloa. In only one of the lots are there more than two specimens, and not more than 25 to 30 shells have come to my notice.

***

This species should not be mistaken for Spalding’s Amastra Snail (Amastra spaldingi Cooke).

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

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edited: 27.09.2020

Amastra tenuilabris Gulick

Pauoa Amastra Snail (Amastra tenuilabris)

The Pauoa Amastra Snail was described in 1873, it comes from the Nu’uanu Valley and the small adjecent Pauoa Valley in the vicinity of the Pu’u Konahuanui in the eastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

Shell dextral, ovate-conic, hardly shining, somewhat roughly striated with growth-lines; white under a fulvous epidermis, which is generally worn off below the suture on the last whorl. Whorls 5 1/2, a little convex. Aperture subquadrate, white, not as long as the spire; peristome thin; columella straight, provided with a small median fold; lips connected by a very thin callus. length 15, diam. 8 mm.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′ 

(public domain)

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edited: 05.10.2020

Amastra porcus Hyatt & Pilsbry

Piglet Amastra Snail (Amastra porcus)

The Piglet Amastra Snail was described in 1911, it was apparently restricted to the Mokuleia Valley in the northernmost part of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

A this shell of unusually swollen shape. In contour it is not unlike some of the small, subglobose individuals of A. tristis, such as occur in Moanalua, but it differs by lacking a dark deciduous outer layer of cuticle and in the sculpture of the embryonic whorls, so that the relationship cannot be thought close. its relationships are not clear to us. No other described oahu shell resembles it.” 

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Amastra decorticata Gulick

Debarked Amastra Snail (Amastra decorticata)

This species was endemic to the western parts of the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it could be found in the forests under dead leaves.

The shells reached sizes of 1,5 to 1,64 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Pauahia chrysallis (Pfeiffer)

Golden Pauahia Snail (Pauahia chrysallis)

The Golden Pauahia Snail was described in 1855, it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where at least three populations are known from Wahiawa, Waialua, and the Wai’anae Mountains

The shells reached sizes of size 0,9 cm in heigth. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Branta sp. ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Nene (Branta sp.)

The Oahu Nene is known from subfossil remains that were found at Barbers Point in the southwest part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This form is quite similar to the Great Nene (Branta hylobadistes Olson & James) from Maui Island, but its hindlimb elements were generally longer and more gracile; the form shows furthermore a great variation in size, especially of the wing elements. [1]

***

The Oahu Nene occurred sympatrically with the Nene (Branta sandvicensis (Vigors)), the sole surviving species of the now extinct Hawaiian goose radiation.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 05.05.2022

Amastra caputadamantis Hyatt & Pilsbry

Leahi Amastra Snail (Amastra caputadamantis)

This species is known from a Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposit at the Le’ahi (Diamond Head) at the southern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of 1,38 to 1,45 cm in heigth. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Aidemedia chascax James & Olson

Straight-billed Gaper (Aidemedia chascax 

The Straight-billed Gaper, described in 1991 based on subfossil remains, is known only from the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it lived sympatrically with another species of its genus, the Sickle-billed Gaper (Aidemedia zanclops James & Olson).  

These two species differed mainly in the shape and size of their beaks, and it is assumed that they may represent males and females of a single, sexually dimorphic species. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 22.03.2018

Clermontia multiflora Hillebr.

Many-flowered Clermontia (Clermontia multiflora)  

The Many-flowered Clermontia occurred in the Waihe’e Valley in western Maui and in the Ko’olau Mauntains on O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was a multi-branched shrub and reached sizes of 2 to 4 m.  

The Many-flowered Clermontia is apparently known exclusively from specimens that had been collected in 1870 and, as it was never found since, is considered extinct.  

*********************    

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 20.03.2018

Achatinella caesia Gulick

Cutted Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella caesia)

This species was described in 1858.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 cm in height; the shining shell is so streaked with white and fawn brown as to have a gray appearance. [1]

The species was already rare in the 1900s and is now considered extinct.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’

*********************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

edited: 07.06.2021

Amastra crassilabrum (Newcomb)

Thick-lipped Amastra Snail (Amastra crassilabrum)

The Thick-lipped Amastra Snail is known from the dense rainforests near Mt. Ka’ala, the highest mountain on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,5 cm in heigth.

***

A very distinct, easily recognized species. The brown color of the spire often extends over the front of the last whorl. There is generally a light line just above the suture on the penult. whorl. Many specimens from two localities, including specimens from Newcomb, show but little variation.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra antiqua Baldwin

Antique Amastra Snail (Amastra antiqua) 

The Antique Amastra Snail  was described in 1895, it is known only from subfossil shells.

We received this species from Prof. A. B. Lyons, of Oahu College. He reports that he found at Ewa a singular accumulation of these and other fossil land shells, huddled together in one spot in a bed of soft tufa-like material, at an altitude not far above sea-level. The existence of living examples of this and the following species now, or within any recent period, is highly improbable.” [1][2]

The shells are about 2 cm heigh.

The Antique Amastra Snail very likely was a Pleistocene species that disappeared at the beginning of the Holocene era when the sea levels were rising.

*********************

References:

[1] D. D. Baldwin: Descriptions of new species of Achatinellidae from the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 47: 214-236. 1895
[2] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.09.2020

Lyropupa ovatula Cooke & Pilsbry

Egg-shaped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa ovatula 

This species was described in 1920, it was restricted to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached sizes of about 0,22 cm.  

***

The Egg-shaped Lyropupa Snail was apparently already extinct when it was described.:  

The specimens are all dead, apparently being Holocene fossils. They vary in color from vinaceous-cinnamon to cartridge-buff, or of the former tint with a cartridge-buff median zone. …” [1]  

***

An additional form, Lyropupa ovatula ssp. kona Pilsbry & Cooke, was described in 1920 as a subspecies based on (sub)fossil specimens from Hawai’i and Moloka’i, which, however, most likely represent two distinct species.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’  

(public domain)


*********************  

edited: 04.11.2017

Endodonta lamellosa (Férussac)

Lamellar Disc Snail (Endodonta lamellosa)

The Lamellar Disc Snail was described in 1822, originally as coming from “Islands of the South Sea“, it was, however, endemic to Mt. Konahuanui, the highest peak of the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. 

***

The Lamellar Disc Snail is now, like most of its congeners, extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

Depiction from: ‘H. A. Pilsbry; E. G. Vanatta: Hawaiian species of Endodonta and Opeas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 57: 783-786. 1905’  

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 06.09.2019

Lyropupa perlonga (Pease)

Koko Head Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa perlonga)  

This species was described in 1871.  

The Koko Head Lyropupa Snail was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, and was said to be very abundant and widespread as a fossil in the 19th century, but was rarely found alive.  

The shells reached sizes of about 0,24 cm in heigth and were uniformly brown.  

***

The author of the species writes a bit about its geographical distribution.:  

Very abundant in pleistocene and holocene deposits on the coastal plain of Oahu, Diamond Head eastward; Kailua; living examples from Koko Head.” [1]  

***

There are at least two additional forms that were assigned as subspecies to this species: Lyropupa perlonga ssp. filocostata Cooke & Pilsbry, from Kaua’i and Ni’ihau, which most likely is a distinct species, and Lyropupa perlonga ssp. interrupta Pilsbry & Cooke. [1]  

***

The Koko Head Lyropupa Snail is now considered extinct.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’  

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 22.04.2019

Omiodes epicentra Meyrick

Oahu Swamp Leaf-roller (Omiodes epicentra)

The Oahu Swamp Leaf-roller was described in 1899, the species inhabited swampy lowland areas on the northwestern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The moth reached a wingspan of about 2 cm.

The The Oahu Swamp Leaf-roller already disapperaed at the beginning of the 20th century after the draining of its habitat for housebuilding. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Otto H. Swezey: The sugar cane leaf-roller (Omiodes accepta): with an account of allied species and natural enemies. Report of work of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association. Entomological series. Bulletin 5: 1-60. 1907′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 23.09.2019

Achatinella rosea Swainson

Rosy Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella rosea)

The Rosy Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1828, the species inhabited the Helemano- and Poamoho Ridges and adjacent places at the western slopes of the Ko’olau Mountains in eastern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached heights of about 1,9 to 2,2 cm, they are white or pale rosy to strong pink or sometimes brown, unicolored or multicolored striped; many, but yet not all individuals of this species have a strong pink colored shell aperture (mouth).  

We also have some information about the appearance of the actual animal.:

Animal, when young, of a bright straw yellow, with ocular appendages tinged with brown. In the adult, the color is a uniform light gray, with mantle and tentacles dark brown.” [1]

This is also considered some kind of variety or maybe subspecies of the Bulimus-like Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella bulimoides Swainson).

***

The last record for this species was the sighting of a single individual at the Helemano Ridge in 1949, since then the species is considered extinct. [2]

***

Parts of the former range of the Rosy Oahu Tree Snail are still inhabited today by another tree snail species, Sowerby’s Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella sowerbyana Pfeiffer) that somehow still manages to survive in the wild.  

*********************

References:

[1] E. W. Thwing: Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus Achatinella. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(1): 1-196. 1907
[2] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 08.06.2021

Hemignathus ellisianus (Gray)

Oahu Akialoa (Hemignathus ellisianus)  

The Oahu Akialoa is known for a certainty on the basis of only two specimens, which were collected sometimes during the 1830s, when the species was already very close to extinction.  

The bird reached a size of about 19 cm.  

The species was known locally as ‘akialoa or kipi, the term ‘akia is a standardised term for green birds wird curved bills, loa, meaning large, regards to the large size of the bird, thus, the name of the bird can be translated as “Large Curve-billed Green Bird”.  The meaning of the term kipi, however, is not known to me.  

Other names were iiwi or iwi. [2]

***

The last confirmed sighting was in 1892, when Robert C. L. Perkins, the famous naturalist, who often was the last eyewitness for several of the drepanidid species, saw a pair in the Nu’uanu Valley, he shot one of the two birds, however, could not detect the unlucky fellow.:

However, on one occasion, I saw a pair of this species, the one chasing the other over a narrow ridge high up in the mountains. The leading bird passed over this ridge and down into the deep gulch on the other side, squeaking as it flew, the other alighted in an Ohia tree on the top of the ridge about 10 yards in front of me. The latter when I shot dropped over the steep edge and after much searching I was unable to find it. I distinctly nopticed the sombre plumage of the upper parts, which in no way approached the yellowe colour of the other species with which I was then familiar.” [2]

There are some subsequent records, yet not confirmed, dating to 1937, 1939 and 1940 respectively, indicating that the species may have survived for a while longer.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Notes on Collecting in Kona. The Ibis 6(5): 101-111. 1893 
[2] R. C. L. Perkins: Vertebrata. in: Fauna Hawaiiensis 1(4): 365-466. 1899-1913
[3] D. Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986 
[4] H. D. Pratt; P. L. Bruner; D. G. Berrett: A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press 1987 
[5] E. Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987 
[6] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005    

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’    

(public domain)

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edited: 09.10.2020

Scotorythra nesiotes (Perkins)

Koolau Giant Looper Moth (Scotorythra nesiotes)  

The Koolau Giant Looper Moth was described in 1901, it is known only from the type specimen, which was found in the northwest part of the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species reached a wingspan of 4,9 cm. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

*********************  

edited: 31.03.2018

Achatinella stewartii (Green)

Stewart’s Oahu Tree-Snail (Achatinella stewartii)

Stewart’s Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1827.

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 to 2,7 cm in height; they are usually very variably colored.:

„… the ground colour is usually greenish or some shade of yellow, sometimes a single blackish coloured band accompanies the suture, sometimes this band is doubled and of different shades, and on many specimens there are two bands, one at the suture and one in the middle of the whorls. In some varieties the base of the body whorl is dark brown, the rest of the shell being of a dark form, and not unfrequently the whole shell is without any markings whatever; in which case the colour is yellow, the aperture, when inverted is ear-shaped, the truncation of the columella is rounded and thickened in a remarkable manner at its edge; along the inner margin of the outer lip there is a strong callous ridge, as in most of the species of this genus, which gradually attenuates towards the edge of the lip, which is this and sharp inside, white and pinkish round the columella.“ [1]

***

The species was last found in 1961 somewhere on the slopes of the Pu’u ‘ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus); it is now extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] E. W. Thwing: Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus Achatinella. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(1): 1-196. 1907
[2] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 09.06.2021

Hemignathus upupirostris James & Olson

Hoopoe-billed Akialoa (Hemignathus upupirostris)  

The Hoppoe-billed Akialoa, so named for the structure of its beak, is known only on the basis of well-preserved subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Kaua’i and O’ahu, and which can apparently be assigned to one and the same species.  

The morphology of the beak shows that the bird had a quite short tongue, in contrast to the other historically known akialoa forms, which all had their tongues about as long as their beaks., thus the Hoopoe-billed Akialoa is thought to have had a somewhat distinct, possibly in some way specialized feeding behavior. [1][2]  

***

Subfossil remains of this, or a closely related form, are now known from other islands of the Hawaiian chain as well.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[2] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005  

*********************  

edited: 21.09.2017

Hylaeus nalo Magnacca & Daly

Lost Masked Bee (Hylaeus nalo)  

The Lost Masked Bee was described in 2003, it is known from only a single specimen, a male that was collected in 1914 somewhere on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, nothing else is known about it.

The species might be extinct. [1] 

*********************  

References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Achatinella phaeozona Gulick

Gray-banded Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella phaeozona)

The Gray-banded Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1856.

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 cm in height; They are sinistral and scarcely perforate, oblong-ovate and solid; the apex is subacute and the spire convexly conical; the suture is marginate and moderately impressed; they are glossy white with one to six black or chestnut bands varying in width; the whorls are moderately convex; the strong central columellar fold is white with a dilated, adnate or sometimes slightly detached margin; the aperture is slightly oblique and lunately rounded; the peristome is acute and well thickened within. [1]

***

The species was originally widespread on the island, as is proven by subfossil shells that were recovered from the soil of a coconut plantation near the shore; it was last seen in 1974 in the Ka’alakei Valley near the southeastern coast of O’ahu; it is now considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 08.06.2021

Agrotis crinigera (Butler)

Poko Cutworm (Agrotis crinigera)  

The Poko Cutworm, so named for its native name Poko, was one of the moth species, that in the time after the arrival of European settlers on the Hawai’i Islands were able to adapt quite well to the new set of circumstances.  

The species reached a wingspan of about 4,9 cm.  

The natural host plants of the caterpillars were several native species of Ihi (Portulaca spp.) as well as ‘Ilima (Sida fallax Walp.), but in the meantime they also adapted themselves to introduced plant species and fed on the leaves of thorn-apple plants (Datura spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Furthermore they fed on several garden plants, especially of the legume family, e.g. beans, and therefore may not have been very welcome to gardens.  

In 1899, Hugo H. Schauinsland wrote the following notes about his observations of this species on the island of Laysan.:

Of the insects I found on Laysan, only the following … Spaelotis crinigera Butl.; the latter occurred in astonishingly hugh numbers. Its “grublike caterpillar” lives under ground on the roots of Eragrostis.” [2]

***

Even though the Poko Cutworm was distributed all over the Hawaiian main islands, it belongs to the extirpated species now, whereas the reasons for this seem still to be unknown up to date.  

The species was last seen in 1926.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  
[2] Hugo H. Schauinsland: Three months on a coral island (Laysan); translated by Miklos D. F. Udvardy. Atoll Research Bulletin 432. 1996

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’ 

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 24.09.2019

Tetramolopium tenerrimum (Less.) Nees

Koolau Pamakani (Tetramolopium tenerrimum)

The Koolau Pamakani was a small decumbent perennial shrublet that appears to have been restricted to the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has never been recorded since the 19th century and is thus considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986

*********************

Depiction from: ‘E. Drake del Castillo: Illustrationes florae insularum Maris Pacifici. Parisiis: G. Masson 1886’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.01.2019

Cyrtandra crenata H. St. John & Storey

Notched Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra crenata)

The Notched Cyrtandra was known to occur in the rainforests of the Waikane-Kahana area in the windward Wai’anae Mountains as well as in the Ko’olau Mountains of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last recorded in 1934 (or 1947 according to other sources) and is now thought to be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] J. K. Obata: Threatened and endangered native flora of O’ahu. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 27(2): 39-82. 1988

*********************

edited: 10.09.2019

Amastra subrostrata (Pfeiffer)

Subrostrate Amastra Snail (Amastra subrostrata)  

This species was described in 1859, it was found on the island of O’ahu, however, an exact locality has apparently not been recorded.  

The shell reached a size of about 1,5 cm.  

This species may be a somewhat elongated form of the White-lipped Amastra Snail (Amastra albolabris (Newcomb)).  

*********************  

edited: 30.09.2017

Carex wahuensis ssp. herbstii T. Koyama

Herbst’s Oahu Sedge (Carex wahuensis ssp. herbstii)

The Oahu Sedge (Carex wahuensis C.A. Mey.) (see photo) is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands where it seems to be quite common and widespread.

One of the three recognized subspecies, however, was obviously restricted to a single locality in the Moanalua Valley in the Ko’olau Mountains on O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and appears to be known by only a single collection.

This form is now considered extinct.

*********************

Oahu Sedge (Carex wahuensis C. A. Mey.); nominate form

Photo: Damon Tighe
https//www.inaturalist.org/people/damontighe

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 21.09.2020

Phyllostegia micrantha H. St. John

Small Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia micrantha)

The Small Phyllostegia was described in 1987, it is known only from the type that was collected in 1910 at a place named Popouwela on the eastern side of the Wai’anae mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawai’i Islands.

The species is the smallest in its genus, it has small, elliptic, hirsute, 6 to 10 cm long leaves, the calyx of its flowers was only about 0,26 cm long. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

*********************

edited: 24.09.2019

Xestospiza fastigialis James & Olson

Ridge-billed Finch (Xestospiza fastigialis)

The species was described in 1991, together with numerous other endemic Hawaiian birds now extinct.

The Ridge-billed Finch was apparently very widespread, remains of the species were recovered from the islands of Maui, Moloka’i, as well as O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, it very probably also inhabited the islands of Kaho’olawe and Lana’i, which, however, don’t have rich (sub)fossil deposits.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers on the Hawaiian Islands. [1]

***

The two species assigned to the genus Xestospiza most likely do not belong into the same genus. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

*********************

edited: 19.06.2020

Campsicnemus charliechaplini Evanhuis

Charlie Chaplin Long-legged Fly (Campsicnemus charliechaplini)

The Charlie Chaplin Long-legged Fly was described in 1996.:

This species is named in honor to the great silent movie comedian, Charlie Chaplin, because of the curious tendency of this fly to die with its midlegs in a bandy-legged position.” [1]

***

The species was endemic to the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawai’i Islands, where it inhabited small, quiet pools of freshwater along the edges of the upper reaches of the Halenau stream near the summit of Mt. Ka’ala. It was a water-skating species that fed upon small invertebrates that fell onto the water surface, including carcasses of its own conspecifics.

The Charlie Chaplin Long-legged Fly reached a length of about 0,2 to 0,25 cm, it was more or less completely brown colored, the legs were brown to yellowish brown, its wings were 0,28 to 0,29 cm long. [1]

***

The former habitat of the species is now overrun by the introduced weed Maui Pamakani (Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. E. Robins), which, despite its trivial name is in no way native to the Hawaiian Islands.

The Charlie Chaplin Long-legged Fly was last seen in 1997, it is almost certainly completely extinct – only one year after its description. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Neal L. Evenhuis: New species of Campsicnemus from the Waianae Range of Oahu, Hawaii (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 45: 54-58. 1996
[2] Neal L. Evenhuis: Lectotype Designations for Hawaiian Campsicnemus Haliday (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 95. 17-37. 2007

*********************

edited: 03.12.2018

Endodonta fricki (Pfeiffer)

Frick’s Disc Snail (Endodonta fricki)

Frick’s Disc Snail was described in 1858, it was apparently distributed over the whole Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, some of the specimens included in here, however, are probably geographical subspecies or even distinct species. 

The shells of this species reached sizes of about 0,26 to 0,38 cm in heigth. [1]

***

Frick’s Disc Snail is now, like most of its congeners, extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Paroreomyza maculata ssp. maculata (Cabanis)

Oahu Alauwahio (Paroreomyza maculata ssp. maculata)  

The Oahu Alauwahio was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it formerly inhabited almost all wooded areas at all altitudes. Its population, however, broke down around 1890, and the species was since restricted to the higher elevations of the Ko’olau- and Wai’anae Mountains.  

The species reached a length of about 12 cm, males and females differed from each other in coloration.  

The Oahu Alauwahio was often observed in small family groups consisting of about six birds. Like its next living relative, the Maui Alauwahio (Paroreomyza montana ssp. newtoni (Rothschild)), it fed on insects and their larvae, which it searched for under the bark of dead branches.  

The last individuals were seen in 1985. [1][2]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987 [2] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 23.03.2018

Anomis vulpicolor (Meyrick)

Fox-colored Owlet Moth (Anomis vulpicolor 

The Fox-colored Owlet Moth was described in 1928.  

The species, which had a wingspan of 4,4 cm, is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Moloka’i, and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, but certainly inhabited the islands of Kaua’i and Maui too.  

The caterpillars fed on ‘Ulei (Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (Sm.) Lindl.), a plant species that actually is still very common, even today. [1]  

***

The Fox-colored Owlet Moth is considered probably extinct since the last records took place sometimes before 1960 [?].  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

*********************  

edited: 10.04.2018

Cookeconcha contorta (Ferrussac)

Contorted Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha contorta)  

This species was originally described in 1824, it is obviously known from only four specimens, it apparently inhabited some place in the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 13.06.2020

Partulina montagui Pilsbry

Montagui’s Partulina Snail (Partulina montagui)  

This species was described in 1913, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells are quite large, about 2,5 to 2,7 cm.  

***

The species was apparently already extinct when it was discovered and described.:  

The shells occur in the humus near the surface, along the roadside, and are very rare, apparently lying in “pockets” which have been filled and covered by the wash down the slope. Probably the forest disappeared from where the shells are found not much than hundred years ago.” [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22. 1912-1914  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

********************* 

edited: 08.10.2017

Zapornia ziegleri (Olson & James)

Ziegler’s Swamphen (Zapornia ziegleri)  

This species was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains which had been found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species is one of the smallest members of its genus, reaching a length of only about 13 cm, but was still undercut by other Hawaiian species. [1]  

***

This, and other closely related species were certainly among the first to disappear after the introduction of dogs and rats to the Hawaiian Islands by the first Polynesian settlers.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Euphorbia celastroides var. tomentella (Boiss.) Oudejans

Waianae Spurge (Euphorbia celastroides var. tomentella 

This plant, one of eight varieties within this species, was endemic to the Wai’anae Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawai’i Islands.  

It is now considered extinct.  

***

The several varieties of some of the Hawaiian spurge species (Euphorbia celastroides Boiss., Euphorbia multiformis Hook. & Arn., Euphorbia remyi A. Gray ex Boiss., Euphorbia skottsbergii Sherff) are not accepted by all botanists and are sometimes included within the respective nominate forms.

*********************

edited: 05.09.2020

Blackburnia tantalus (Blackburn)

Tantalus Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia tantalus)

The Tantalus Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1877, it was very abundant at that time and was found along both the Ko’olau –  as well as the Wai’anae Mountain Ranges in central O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species possessed a well-developed flight apparatus, it appears to have not been specialized in any way, most specimens were collected at elevations between 445 to 600 m, mostly in moss mats on tree trunks as well as under the bark of dead trees. 

The Tantalus Blackburnia Ground Beetle was not recorded during any of the more recent surveys and is now feared to be extinct. [1][2]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Dan A. Polhemus: Comparisons to the century before: The legacy of R. C. L. Perkins and Fauna Hawaiiensis as the basis for a long-term ecological monitoring program. Pacific Science 51(4): 490-504. 1997
[2] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006 

*********************

edited: 02.09.2019

Blackburnia oceanica (Blackburn)

The Oceanic Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia oceanica)

The Oceanic Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1877, the species was endemic to the Ko’olau mountains on the island of O’ahu.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and ist thought to be most likely extinct.

********************* 

edited: 02.09.2019 

Rhyncogonus extraneus Perkins

Strange Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus extraneus)

The Strange Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1910, it was restricted to the lowlands below the Wai’anae Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, a region that is now mostly covered with introduced vegetation. 

The species was not seen since 1941, when it was last collected; it is very likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

*********************

edited: 02.06.2021

Genophantis leahi Swezeyi

Leahi Pyralid Moth (Genophantis leahi)

The Leahi Pyralid Moth was described in 1910; it is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae fed on the leaves of several native spurge species (Euphorbia spp.).

*********************

Photo: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

edited: 23.04.2022

Zapornia ralphorum (Olson & James)

Ralph’s Crake (Zapornia ralphorum)  

This species, one of the largest of the many Hawaiian crake species, is known from subfossil remains that were found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, and exclusively at lowland areas near the coast.  

The species probably disappeared as one of the first straight after the arrival of men.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Delissea laciniata Hillebr.

Torn-leaved Delissea (Delissea laciniata)  

The Torn-leaved Delissea was endemic to a place named Wailupe in the Ko’olau Mounatins of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species disappeared due to habitat loss caused by cattle farmers that destroyed whole forests for the benefit of their business.  

*********************    

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 21.03.2018

Leptachatina subcylindracea Cooke

Subcylindric Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina subcylindracea)

The Subcylindric Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911, it is known only from subfossil specimens found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it appeares to have been quite widespread. [1] 

This was a coastal respectively lowland species and thus disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers.

***

The species has also been reported from Kaho’olawe and Moloka’i, however, this may be an error. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Achatinella casta (Newcomb)

Casta Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella casta)

The Casta Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1853; it was found in the forests along he ridges north of Pearl Harbor on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,67 cm in height; they have six whorls, which are rounded and margined above; the simple lip is thickened within and the short columella has a strong plaited brownish tooth; they are glossy white or yellowish with extremely variable transverse bands of brown, pink or white, variously arranged. [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 09.06.2021

Campsicnemus mirabilis (Grimshaw)

Koolau Spur-winged Long-legged Fly (Campsicnemus mirabilis 

The Koolau Spur-winged Long-legged Fly was described in 1902 based on several specimens that had been collected in 1900. It is one of about nine species of Hawaiian long-legged flies with absent or reduced wings, some of which were placed in a distinct genus, Emperoptera, but were later assigned to the genus Campsicnemus. [2]  

***

The Koolau Spur-winged Long-legged Fly was endemic to an area at Mt. Tantalus n the Ko’olau Mountains of O’ahu, where it inhabited leaf litter on the forest floor.  

The species reached a size of only about 0,15 to 0,18 cm, the wings were extremely reduced to merely just the costal vein and bore black seta on their apex. [1]  

***

Big-headed Ants (Pheidole megacephala Fabricius), which were accidentally introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in the 19th century, are accountable for the extinction of this species, as well as for the extinction of many additional endemic insect species. [1]  

***

The only proof for the former existence of this species are three very poorly preserved specimens that are kept in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Hawai’i’s capital, Honolulu. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Neal L. Evenhuis: Review of flightless Dolichopodidae (Diptera) in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 53: 1-29. 1997 
[2] Neal L. Evenhuis: Morphological and molecular evidence support the synonymy of Emperoptera Grimshaw with Campsicnemus Haliday (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Records of the Hawaii Biological Suvery for 2008. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Lucius G. Eldredge. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 108: 35-44. 2010  

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 02.04.2018

Amastra irwiniana Cooke

Irwin’s Amastra Snail (Amastra irwiniana)

Irwin’s Amastra Snail was described in 1908, it was restricted to the summit of Pu’u Lanihuli in the Ko’olau Range of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

The shells reach sizes of about 1,12 cm in length and 0,59 cm in diameter, the upper whorls and the base of the last whorl were light brown with a slightly yellowish tinge, the upper portion of the last whorl was dark chestnut. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Three new species of Amastra from Oahu. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 213-216. 1908

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Cookeconcha sp. ‘Barbers Point’

Kalaeloa Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha sp.)

The Kalaeloa Cookeconcha Snail is an undescribed species that is known exclusively from subfossil specimens that were recovered from coastal deposits at Kalaeloa (Barber’s Point) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Telespiza persecutrix James & Olson

Kauai Finch (Telespiza persecutrix)  

The Kauai Finch was described based on subfossil remains which were collected from deposits on the islands of Kaua’i and O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands. 

This extinct species shared its habitat with the two still surviving species of the genus, the Laysan Finch (Telespiza cantans (Wilson)) (see photo) and the Nihoa Finch (Telespiza ultima (Bryan)). [1]

***

The Laysan Finch today is restricted to the island of Laysan in the far northwest of the Hawaiian Islands chain but was far more widespread in prehistorical times as is proven by finds of subfossil remains on the islands of Moloka’ and O’ahu, the same applies to the Nihoa Finch, which today only survives on the tiny island of Nihoa, but whose subfossil remains were also recovered from the island of Moloka’i. 

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************

Laysan Finch (Telespiza cantans)  

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr  

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 17.06.2020

Lobelia remyi Rock

Remy’s Lobelia (Lobelia remyi)  

This species was described in 1919, it is known only from the type that was collected sometimes between 1851 and 1855.  

This species, which has not been re-collected, is described from a specimen, collected by Jules Remy on Oahu, in the herbarium in Paris [see depiction]. It is at once distinguished from the other Hawaiian Lobelias in the compact short raceme and the small grayish woolly leaves. It comes evidently close to Lobelia tortuosa Heller, with which it has the tomentose leaves in common. The specimen possesses old flowers, and is already in the fruiting stage. ” [1]  

***

The reasons for its extinction are certainly the same as for the other Hawaiian lobelioid species: complete destruction of the habitat and predation by introduced animals like cattle and rats.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918  

*********************    

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’ 

(public domain)  

*********************  

edited: 04.04.2018

Cyrtandra pruinosa H. St. John & Storey

Frosted Cyrtandra (Cyrtandra pruinosa)

The Frosted Cyrtandra is apparently known only from one collection that was made in 1933 off the ‘Aiea trail in the Ko’olau Mountains of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is now considered probably extinct. [1]

*********************

References: 

[1] J, K. Obata: Rare, threatened and endangered native flora of O’ahu. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society 27(2): 39-82. 1988

*********************

edited: 10.09.2019

Delissea lauliiana Lammers

Small-leaved Delissea (Delissea lauliiana)  

The Small-leaved Delissea was described in 1919, it was originally described as a variety of another species, the Fringed Delissea (Delissea laciniata Hillebr.), but differs from that species by its much smaller leaves.  

The species occurred in the Wailupe Valley in the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]  

***  

The Small-leaved Delissea is said to have been last seen in 1872.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918  

*********************    

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 04.04.2018

Chloridops wahi James & Olson

Wahi Grosbeak (Chloridops wahi)  

This species was described in 1991 from subfossil bones that were recovered from the Pu’u Naio Cave on Maui, as well as from Barber’s Point at the southwestern tip of O’ahu, and from the crater deposits at Ulupau Head, Mokapu Peninsula on the southeastern coast of O’ahu.  

The species certainly inhabited the islands of Kaho’olawe, Lana’i, and Moloka’i as well.  

The Wahi Grosbeak was closely related to the Kona Grosbeak (Chloridops kona Wilson), but was smaller, reaching a size of about 13 to 14,5 cm. [1]  

***  

The birds may have fed on the very hard seeds of the Hawaiian endemic a’e trees (Zanthoxylon spp.), whose subfossil seeds were found in the same deposits. [2]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[2] Storrs L. Olson:  A hard nut to crack: rapid evolution in the Kona Grosbeak of Hawaii for a locally abundant food source (Drepanidini: Chloridops kona). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126(1): 1-8. 2014  

*********************  

edited: 30.10.2017

Amastra albolabris (Newcomb)

White-lipped Amastra Snail (Amastra albolabris)  

This species was described in 1853, it was restricted to the Wai’anae Mountains in western O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it appears to have been quite common and widespread.  

The shells reached sizes of about 1,3 to 1,6 cm.  

The White-lipped Amastra Snail is now considered extinct, like most of its congeners.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.09.2017

Amastra thurstoni Cooke

Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni)

Thurston’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits at Manoa in the south-east of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height.

This extremely rare and interesting species is entirely distinc [sic] from any other species of Amastra. The Pleistocene deposits in Manoa are rather interesting as the shells do not occur in layers as in most deposits but in rather small pockets, containing from a few cc. to maybe half a liter. These pockets are literally full of shells, mostly in fragments, and belong to a number of genera.
A. thurstoni differs from all the other species of Cyclamastra by its proportionately long and slender spire and distinct plicate surface. It is not closely related to A. fragilis of Molokai, with which it agrees in having a narrow perforation and attenuated spire. It differs, however, in having more whorls, the spire is proportionately more attenuate and the surface more distinctly plicate.
” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Myadestes woahensis (Bloxam)

Oahu Thrush (Myadestes woahensis)

The Oahu Thrush, locally known as ‘āmaui, was described in 1899; it was restricted to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The only record of the species in life comes from the diary of Andrew Bloxam, a naturalist that was on board of the HMS Blonde which anchored off the coast of the island of O’ahu in 1825; he also took the only specimen that apparently still survives until today.:

We soon began to ascend the pass the sun rising at the time amid the chirping of small birds and the melodious notes of a brown thrush, the only songster on the islands.

The Oahu Thrush was never found again since.

*********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Agrotis cremata (Butler)

Maui Cutworm (Agrotis cremata)  

The genus Agrotis contains about 90 species which are distributed almost all over the world. The Hawaiian Islands are (or were) home to about 26 species, some are found on all main islands while others are restricted to single islands, yet 11 of these species are considered extinct now.  

***

The Maui Cutworm is one of these extinct forms. This species is known from the islands of Maui and O’ahu, but very probably inhabited other islands as well.  

The reasons for its extinction are unknown, the same applies to the exact extinction date.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958 
[2] F. G. Howarth; W. P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

*********************

edited: 07.02.2012

Achatinella buddii Newcomb

Budd’s Oahu Tree-Snail (Achatinella buddii)

Budd’s Oahu Tree-Snail was described in 1853; it was apparently restricted to the Palolo Valley on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach a size of about 2 cm in height; they are yellowish or cinnamon-colored, slate or fawn, the columella and aperture are white. [1]

***

This species appears to have gone extinct shortly after 1900, however, an exact extinction date is not known. [1]

*********************

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 09.06.2021

Amastra spaldingi Cooke

Spalding’s Amastra Snail (Amastra spaldingi)

Spalding’s Amastra Snail was described in 1908, it was restricted to the summit of the Pu’u Konahuanui Peak on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

***

This species should not to be confused with Spalding’s Planamastra Snail (Planamastra spaldingi Cooke).

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Three new species of Amastra from Oahu. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 213-216. 1908

[2] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology.

Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 28.09.2020

Amastra extincta (Pfeiffer)

Extinct Amastra Snail (Amastra extincta)

The Extinct Amastra Snail was scientifically named for the fact that it was already extinct for a long time when it was described in 1855.

The species is known exclusively from subfossil specimen collected somewhere on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

Shell perforate, ovate-turrite, solid, striatulate, chalky. Spire long, tapering upwards, acute. Whorls 7, scarcely convex, the last less than one-third the total length, somewhat compressed around the perforation. Aperture slightly oblique, rhombic-oval, angular at the base. Columellar fold compressed, ascending almost from the base. Peristome simple, unexpanded, the margins joined by a thick, somewhat nodiferous callus, columellar margin dilated, free.” [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 1,6 cm in length. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘W. D. Hartman: A bibliographic and synonymic catalogue of the genus Achatinella. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 40: 16-56. 1888’

(public domain)

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edited: 27.09.2020

Amastra davisiana Cooke

Konahuanui Amastra Snail (Amastra davisiana)  

This species was described in 1901.  

The species was apparently endemic to the summit of the Pu’u Konahuanui, a mountain in the Ko’olau Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached sizes of about 1,44 to 1,65 cm.  

The Konahuanui Amastra Snail is now considered extinct.  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)

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edited: 30.09.2017

Blackburnia insignis Sharp

Remarkable Ground Beetle (Blackburnia insignis)

The Remarkable Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is thought to have been completely wiped out by introduced ants. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 03.09.2019

Blackburnia metromenoides (Perkins)

Waianae Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia metromenoides)

The Waianae Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1917, it was apparently endemic to the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu.

The species was not found during recent field searches and is believed to be extinct.

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edited: 02.09.2019 

Endodonta marsupialis Pilsbry & Vanatta

Marsupial Disc Snail (Endodonta marsupialis)

The Marsupial Disc Snail was described in 1905, it was already restricted to a tiny population back then, living in a small area on the western slope of Mt. Tantalus on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reached sizes of about 0,36 to 0,38 cm in height and up to 0,82 cm in diameter. [1]

***

The Marsupial Disc Snail is now, like most of its congeners, extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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Depiction from: ‘H. A. Pilsbry; E. G. Vanatta: Hawaiian species of Endodonta and Opeas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 57: 783-786. 1905’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 08.05.2019

Spherillo albospinosus (Dollfus)

White-spined Woodlouce (Spherillo albospinosus)

The White-spined Woodlouce was described in 1900; it was only known from a single male specimen that was collected near the north-western coast of the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. An additional female specimen from Kaumakani (than known as Makaweli) near the south-western coast of Kaua’i was also assigned to that species.

The species has basically never been seen since and, like so many other Hawaiian endemic species, is quite surely extinct.

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References:

[1] Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913

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edited: 07.08.2022

Helicoverpa confusa Hardwick

Hawaiian Bollworm (Helicoverpa confusa)

This species was described in 1965.  

The Hawaiian capsule owl was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu and is considered extinct, the reasons for this are not known (to me).

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References:

[1] D. F Hardwick: The corn earworm complex. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 40: 1-247. 1965

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edited: 02.05.2021

Planamastra spaldingi ssp. koolauensis Cooke

Koolau Planamastra Snail (Planamastra spaldingi ssp. koolauensis)

The Koolau Planamastra Snail is known from fossil or subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits at Kahuku and Punalu’u near the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, which can be dated to Pleistocene to probably Early Holocene age. [1]

This form may indeed be the ancestor of the form that is now considered the nominate form of the smae species: Spalding’s Planamastra Snail (Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi Cooke).

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

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edited: 26.09.2020

Haliaeetus sp. ‘Hawai’i Islands’

Hawaiian Eagle (Haliaeetus sp.)  

This form is known only based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.  

The Hawaiian Eagle was the largest predator on the Hawaiian Islands and was capable of killing even the largest Hawaiian birds, the so-called Moa-nalo (Ptaiochen, and Tambetochen). [1]  

The eagle appears to have become extinct before humans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. [2]  

***

The Hawaiian form was originally thought to be identical with the Eurasian White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla L.), but is now thought to represent a morphologically similar but genetically distinct form. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991 
[2] Frank Hailer; Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson; Robert C. Fleischer: Distinct and extinct: Genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 83: 40-43. 2015  

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edited: 23.10.2016

Ciridops sp. ‚O’ahu‘

Oahu Palmcreeper (Ciridops sp.)  

This form is known only from subfossil remains collected at Barber’s Point on the island of O’ahu.  

The Oahu Palmcreeper probably reached a size of about 12 cm, it was quite like the Ulaaihawane (Ciridops anna (Dole)) from Hawai’i and Moloka’i, but was slightly smaller and had an even more plump body structure. [1]  

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

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edited: 24.09.2017

Pseudisidora rubella (Lea)

Reddish Lymnaea Snail (Pseudisidora rubella)

The Reddish Lymnaea Snail was described in 1841; the species was originally found on all of the Hawaiian main islands where it mainly inhabited streams but was also found in pools or on the wet rocky surfaces below waterfalls. Its biology is not well-known, but it probably fed on algae.

The shells of this species are dextral, they reach heights of up to 1,3 cm.

The Reddish Lymnaea Snail is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Carl C. Christensen: Type species designation for Pelagolimnaea Germain, 1928, and a correction regarding the type species of Pseudisidora Thile, 1931 (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 53–56. 2015

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edited: 01.08.2022

Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin)

Ou (Psittirostra psittacea)

 

The Ou was described in 1789; it was already mentioned in an enumeration of birds found on the island of Hawai’i during Cook’s last voyage.

Originally, the species inhabited all of the Hawaiian main islands where it originally was very common and widespread, the birds undertook wide wanderings, likely even between islands, to exploit seasonally available food resources. They generally fed on fruits, mainly of the native ‘ie’ie (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.) but they also fed upon insects

The species reached a size of about 17 cm; it showed a marked sexual dimorphism; both sexes were generally olive-green, had pink legs and feet and beaks, but the males had a bright yellow head.

The Hawaiian name of the bird was ‘ō’ū. [1]

***

The last populations of the Ou survived on the islands of Hawai’i, where they were last seen in 1987 in the Ōla’a area and on Kaua’i, where they finally were last seen in 1989 on the Alaka’i plateau; no real efforts had been undertaken to save the last populations. [1]

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 01.08.2022

Achatinella pulcherrima Swainson

Beautiful Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella pulcherrima)

The Beautiful Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1828.

The shells reached heights of about 1,8 to 2 cm, they are generally deep chestnut and orange colored and was decorated with one to three fulvous, orange, white or yellow bands; the margin of the lip is brown. [1]

***

The Beautiful Oahu Tree Snail was last seen alive in 1974 at a place named Helemano somewhere in the center of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′ 

(public domain)

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edited: 08.06.2021

Hypena plagiota (Meyrick)

Lovegrass Owlet Moth (Hypena plagiota 

The Lovegrass Owlet Moth, which was described in 1899, occurred on the islands of Kaua’i and O’ahu, where it inhabited areas at higher elevations, the species probably also occurred on Hawai’i and Maui.  

The quite variable colored species reached a wingspan of about 3 cm.  

The caterpillars fed on several grass species from the genera Eragrostis, among them Eragrostis fosbergii Whitney, Eragrostis grandis Hillebr., and Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich.) Steud.. [1]  

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 31.03.2018