Tag Archives: Japan

Agaricus hahashimensis S. Ito & S. Imai

Hahajima Horse Mushroom (Agaricus hahashimensis)

The Hahajima Horse Mushroom was collected in 1936 on the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara group, Japan and was described in 1940.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 30.08.2020

Canis hodophilax Temminck

Japanese wolf (Canis hodophilax)

The Japanese wolf, the smallest form of wolf, lived on the Japanese islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku. Some of the native names were Nihon OkamiOkami and Yamainu.

***

The end of the Japanese wolf began with the ever-increasing deforestation for agriculture and livestock breeding but came to a head with the introduction of rabies to Japan in 1732, which killed countless individuals. But there were also targeted extermination programs against the alleged ‘cattle killer’ using poisoned bait. The last known Japanese Wolf was killed in the Nara Prefecture on the island of Honshu in 1905.

***

The Japanese island of Hokkaido was home to a different form of wolf, which is genetically closer to the common Wolf (Canis lupus L.) which can therefore be assigned to it as a subspecies. 

***

syn. Canis japonicus Nehring, Canis lupus ssp. hodophilax Temminck, Canis lupus ssp. japonicus Nehring

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Depiction from: ‘S. F. Harmer; A. E. Shipley: The Cambridge Natural History. London, Macmillan and Co., Limited 1895-1909’ 

(public domain)

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References: 

[1] Alexandra van der Geer; George Lyras; John de Vos; Michael Dermitzakis: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons 2010 
[2] N. Ishiguro; Y. Inoshima; N. Shigehara; H. Ichikawa; M. Kato: Osteological and genetic analysis of the extinct Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan. Zoological Science 27(4): 320-324. 2010 

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edited: 16.03.2012

Entoloma japonense Blanco-Dios

Japanese Entoloma Fungus (Entoloma japonense)

The Japanese Entoloma Fungus is known only from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

***

syn. Leptonia brunneola S. Ito & S. Imai, Rhodophyllus brunneolus (S. Ito & S. Imai) S. Ito

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom species thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 30.08.2020

Lepiota boninensis S. Ito & S. Imai

Bonin Islands Lepiota Mushroom (Lepiota boninensis)  

This species is known only from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom species thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Circulocolumella hahashimensis (S. Ito & S. Imai) S. Ito & S. Imai in Imai

Hahajima Circulocolumnella Mushroom (Circulocolumella hahashimensis)

The Hahajima Circulocolumnella Mushroom was described in 1957, it is the sole member of its genus.

The species appears to be extinct now. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Psathyrella boninensis (S. Ito & S. Imai) S. Ito

Bonin Islands Brittlestem (Psathyrella boninensis)

The Bonin Islands Brittlestem is known only from one locality on Hahajima Island in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 30.08.2020

Celastrina ogasawaraensis (Pryer)

Ogasawara Holly Blue (Celastrina ogasawaraensis)

The Ogasawara Holly Blue, described in 1886, is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, where it appears to have been quite common until the 1970s, when its populations began to crash, mainly caused by the loss of their preferred host plant species due to the native vegetation being overrun by introduced invasive alien plants and because of increasing predation by likewise introduced Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis Voigt), whose populations are now as high as about 6 million individuals. [1]

The species appears to be extinct in the wild since 2018, when the last individuals were seen.

For some time there had been attempts to establish a captive program: the species was kept in captivity since 2005, once in the Tama Zoological Park and then in the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden, both in Tokyo, Japan.

However, these efforts apparently failed, and the last individuals apparently died in 2020.

The Ogasawara Holly Blue is now feared to have been lost.

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References:

[1] Yasuhiro Nakamura: Conservation of butterflies in Japan: status, actions and strategy. Journal of Insect Conservation 15: 5-22. 2011

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female

Photo: コミスジ空港

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0


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edited: 02.11.2020

Camarophyllus microbicolor S. Ito

Two-colored Waxy Cap (Camarophyllus microbicolor)

This species is known from specimens that were collected on the islands of Chichijima and Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

It is considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Crepidotus subpurpureus S. Ito & S. Imai

Purple Crepidotus (Crepidotus subpurpureus)

This species is known from a single locality on the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 02.09.2021

Albatrellus cantharellus (Lloyd) Pouzar

Sendai Polypore (Albatrellus cantharellus)

This species was described in 1915; it is apparently known from an unspecified area in the vicinity of the city of Sendai on the island of Honshu, Japan.

The species appears to haven’t been recorded since and is thought to be possibly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 26.04.2022

Pluteus daidoi S. Ito & S. Imai

Daido Shed Fungus (Pluteus daidoi)  

This species, described in 1940, is known only from one locality on Hahajima Island in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 30.08.2020

Campanella boninensis (S. Ito & S. Imai) Parmasto

Bonin Islands Campanella Mushroom (Campanella boninensis)  

This species is known from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara group, Japan. 

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Hirasea katoi Habe

Kato’s Hirasea Snail (Hirasea katoi)

Kato’s Hirasea Snail was described in 1973 based on only two specimens that were collected from dune deposits of probably Pleistocene age on the island of Minamijima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells reached sizes of 0,3 cm in height, they were very flat, opercular in shape with an extremely depressed spire and a sharply marginated periphery. [1]

***

The species probably disappeared sometimes at the end of the Pleistocene or the beginning of the Holocene.

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References:

[1] Tadashige Habe: Fossil land snails from Minami-jima, Bonin Islands. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Special Volume 6 (Hatai Memorial Volume): pages 51-53. 1973

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edited: 11.05.2019

Pluteus horridilamellus S. Ito & S. Imai

Hahajima Shed Fungus (Pluteus horridilamellus 

The Hahajima Shed Fungus, which was described in 1940, is known only from one locality on the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 30.08.2020

Yakuena hachijoensis (Kuroda)

Hachijojima Snail (Yakuena hachijoensis)

The Hachijojima Snail was described in 1945; it is, or maybe was, restricted to the island of Hachijojima in the Izu Islands group, Japan.

The species is considered extinct since 2016. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

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edited: 08.05.2022

Hirasea eutheca Hirase

Straight Hirasea Snail (Hirasea eutheca)

The Straight Hirasea Snail was described in 1907; it is, or maybe was, restricted to the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,2 cm in height and about 0,3 cm in diameter; the spire is low-conic and the base very convex.

The species is now likely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

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Depiction from: ‘The Conchological Magazine 1907’

(public domain)

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edited: 17.05.2022

Pluteus okabei S. Ito & S. Imai

Okabe’s Shed Fungus (Pluteus okabei)

This species was described in 1940; it is known only from a small area at Mt. Asahiyama on Chichijima Island in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The species wasn’t found during recent field searches and is thought to be possibly extinct.

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References:

[1] Takahito Kobayashi: Type studies of the new species of Pluteus described by Seiya Ito and Sanshi Imai from Japan. Mycoscience 43: 411-415. 2002

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edited: 26.04.2022

Craspedacusta iseana (Oka & Hara)

Tsu Freshwater Medusa (Craspedacusta iseana)

This species of freshwater medusa is known from three specimens that were collected in 1921 in a spring in the city of Tsu in the Mie Prefecture on the island of Honshu, Japan.

The species was closely related to the widespread Sowerbi’s Freshwater Medusa (Craspedacusta sowerbiiLankester) (see photo below) but differed from that species by its smaller umbrella and in having less tentacles.

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Sowerbi’s Freshwater Medusa (Craspedacusta sowerbii)

Photo: Alexander Mrkcicka
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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References:

[1] Cheryl Lewis; Masao Migita; Hiroshi Hashimoto; Allen G. Collins: On the occurrence of freshwater jellyfish in Japan 1928-2011: eighty-three years of records of mamizu kurage (Limnomedusae, Olindiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125(2): 165-179. 2012

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edited: 05.02.2024

Hygrocybe macrospora (S. Ito & S. Imai) S. Ito

Great-spored Waxcap (Hygrocybe macrospora)  

This species is known only from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom species thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Lactarius ogasawarashimensis S. Ito & S. Imai

Ogasawara Milk-Cap (Lactarius ogasawarashimensis)

The Ogasawara Milk-Cap was described in 1940; it is known only from the island of Chichijima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan, where it was found growing amongst the roots of Luchu Pines (Pinus luchuensis Mayr), a tree species that is actually not native to the Ogasawara Islands, thus it is quite possible that this fungus might as well not be a native form. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 26.04.2022

Conacmella vagans (Hirase)

Rambling Conacmella Snail (Conacmella vagans)

This species was described in 1907; it is restricted to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

I could not yet find any additional information, and the species is mentioned here only because of the fact that its name appears in listings of extinct life forms. 

***

syn. Acmella vagans Hirase

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edited: 19.08.2022

Hirasea insignis Pilsbry & Hirase

Remarkable Hirasea Snail (Hirasea insignis)

This species was described in 1904; it is, or maybe was, restricted to the island of Mukojima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

This is a very small species; the shells reach sizes of about 0,2 cm in height and about 0,3 cm in diameter. “Shell imperforate, depressed, with low-conic spire and convex base, impressed in the center. Brown. Very finely and regularly striate radially above, smooth below. Whorls 5, convex, very slowly widening. Aperture crescentic, narrow, the lip strengthened by a strong white rib within, abruptly stopping short of the upper insertion. A long, erect callous lamina stands at the edge of the parietal callous.” [1]

The species might now be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; Y. Hirase: Descriptions of new land snails of the Japanese Empire. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 56: 616-638. 1904
[2] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

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Depiction from: ‘The Conchological Magazine 1907’

(public domain)

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edited: 17.05.2022

Russula boninensis S. Ito & S. Imai

Bonin Milk-Cap (Russula boninensis)

The Bonin Milk-Cap was described in 1940; it is known only from Chichijima Island in the Ogasawara islands, Japan.

The species was found amongst the roots of the Luchu Pine (Pinus luchuensis Mayr), a tree species that is not native to the Ogasawara Islands but was artificially introduced from the Ryukyu Islands; thus the fungus might in fact also be native to these island group. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 26.04.2022

Satsuma fausta (Pilsbry)

Mikuriya Satsuma Snail (Satsuma fausta)

The Mikuriya Satsuma Snail, described in 1902, was found in the Shizuoka Prefecture on the island of Honshu, Japan.

The species is officially considered endangered or vulnerable but is apparently already extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

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edited: 21.04.2022

Gymnopilus noviholocirrhus S. Ito & S. Imai

Hahajima Gymnopilus (Gymnopilus noviholocirrhus)
 
This species was described in 1940; it is known only from a single locality on the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, where it was found growing on the Bonin Islands Hackberry (Celtis boninensisKoidz.).

The species was apparently not found again since and is considered most likely extinct. [1]


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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 26.04.2022

Mandarina ogasawarana Chiba

Ogasawaran Mandarina Snail (Mandarina ogasawarana)

This species was described in 1999, it is known exclusively from Holocene deposits at Nankinhama on southern Hahajima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The Ogasawaran Mandarina Snail was a medium-sized member of its genus, reaching average shell heigths of about 2 cm, they were characterized by a flat spire and a relatively large body whorl with a weak peripheral angulation and other characters.

The species disappeared at around 2000 BCE, most likely because of environmental changes due to natural climatic changes that resulted in a rise of temperatures creating a dryer climate. [1]

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References:

[1] Satoshi Chiba: A new species of land snail of the genus Mandarina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from Hahajima of the Bonin Islands, Western Pacific: a species that became extinct after 2000 yr. B.P.. Bulletin of the National Science Museum (C) 25(3-4): 121–127. 1999

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edited: 19.04.2019

Collybia matris S. Ito in S. Ito & S. Imai

Matrice Collybia Fungus (Collybia matris)

This species was described in 1939; it is known from the islands of Chichima and Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The species was not recorded during recent field studies and might be extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 26.04.2022

Chara globularis var. hakonensis H. Kasaki

Hakone Stonewort (Chara globularis var. hakonensis)

The Hakone Stonewort was described in 1965, originally as a full species, this freshwater alga was endemic to Lake Ashi, also known as Ashi-no-ko, a crater lake in the Hakone area of the Kanagawa Prefecture on the island of Honshu, Japan.

This alga apparently disappeared due to water pollution which lead to a decrease of sunlight, which again lead to the dieback of the algae meadows. 

***

The species was apparently locally known as Hakone-syazikumo.

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edited: 14.09.2019

Hirasea profundispira Pilsbry

Deep-coiled Hirasea Snail (Hirasea profundispira)  

The strange-looking Deep-coiled Hirasea Snail was described in 1902.  

The species comes from the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara island group, Japan and is considered most likely extinct.  

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Depiction from: ‚Henry August Pilsbry: Papers on Mollusca of Japan. Philadelphia 1901-12 ‘  

(not in copyright)  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Gastrocopta chichijimana Pilsbry

Chichijimana Whorl Snail (Gastrocopta chichijimana)

The Chichijimana Whorl Snail was described in 1916; it is only known from the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells reach heights of about 0.24 cm; they are rimate, ovate-conic, pale olive buff and almost smooth but hardly shining, the aperture has eight teeth of which three are on the parietal wall.

The species disappeared sometimes during the middle 20th century.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 24, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae), 1916-1918’  

(public domain) 

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edited: 22.01.2024

Zoothera terrestris (Kittlitz)

Bonin Thrush (Zoothera terrestris)

This species was discovered in 1828 when it was apparently still quite common and five specimens were collected … they are all that remains of this species today.

The Bonin Thrush was only ever found on a single island, Chichijima in the Ogasawara archipelago; however, it may well have been more widespread but no records exist. It inhabited coastal forests and was usually found on the forest floor, it may also have bred on the ground.

The species was about 23 cm large; it was warm brown colored and showed darker streaks on its upper side.

***

syn. Cichlopasser terrestris (Kittlitz), Geocichla terrestris (Kittlitz), Turdus terrestris Kittlitz

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Depiction from: ‘Henry Seebohm; R. Bowdler Sharpe: A Monograph of the Turdidae or family of thrushes. London: Henry Sotheran 1902’   

(public domain)

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edited: 02.01.2024

Hirasea minamijimana Habe

Minamijima Hirasea Snail (Hirasea minamijimana) 

The Minamijima Hirasea Snail was described in 1973 based on five specimens that were collected from probably Pleistocene deposits on the island of Minamijima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan. 

The shells reached sizes of about 0,56 to 0,64 cm in heigth, they were ashy white and their surface was ribbed by distantly placed rough growth lines. [1]

***

I do not know for sure when this species actually disappeared, but I assume it to be a Pleistocene/Holocene border extinction.

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References:

[1] Tadashige Habe: Fossil land snails from Minami-jima, Bonin Islands. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Special Volume 6 (Hatai Memorial Volume): pages 51-53. 1973

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edited: 11.05.2019

Hirasiella clara Pilsbry

Clara’s Hirasiella Snail (Hirasiella clara)

Clara’s Hirasiella Snail was described in 1902; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,3 cm in height; “Shell sub-perforate, glossy and smooth, yellowish, elevated with convex outlines, bullet-shaped, the periphery rounded, base very convex.” [1]

The species is now possibly extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] H. A. Pilsbry: Notices of new land shells of the Japanese Empire. Nautilus 15: 141-142. 1902
[2] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

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Depiction from: ‘Henry August Pilsbry: Papers on Mollusca of Japan. Philadelphia 1901-12’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 17.05.2022

Hygrocybe miniatostriata (S. Ito & S. Imai) S. Ito

Small-striped Waxcap (Hygrocybe miniatostriata)  

This species is known only from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Coprinus boninensis S. Ito & S. Imai

Bonin Islands Ink Cap (Coprinus boninensis 

This species is known from a single locality on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara group, Japan, where it was growing on decaying herbs.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Lentinus lamelliporus Har. & Pat.

Tokyo Lentinus Fungus (Lentinus lamelliporus)

This species was described in 1902; it is apparently known only from a small area within Tokyo, the Japanese capital on the island of Honshu.

The species could not be traced during recent searches and might well be extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 26.04.2022

Hirasea planulata Pilsbry & Hirase

Planulate Hirasea Snail (Hirasea planulata) 

The Planulate Hirasea Snail was described in 1903, it is or was endemic to the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands of Japan.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,18 cm in heigth and about 0,32 cm in diameter, they are yellowish brown, dull and very densely, very finely radially striatea above, becoming smooth and glossy beneath. [1]

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References:

[1] H. A. Pilsbry; Y. Hirase: Notices of new Japanese land shells. The Nautilus 17(4): 44-46. 1903

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Depiction from: ‘The Conchological Magazine 1907’

(public domain)

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edited: 11.05.2019

Hirasea diplomphalus ssp. latispira Pilsbry

Wide-spired Hirasea Snail (Hirasea diplomphalus ssp. latispira

The Wide-spired Hirasea Snail was described in 1902, it is or was endemic to the islnd of Chichijima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

This form is similar to the nominate race but differs from it that the spire is wider and less sunken. [1]

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry: New land mollusks of the Japanese Empire. The Nautilus 16(2): 45-47. 1902

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Depiction from: ‘The Conchological Magazine 1907’

(public domain)

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edited: 11.05.2019

Pleurotus cyatheae S. Ito & S. Imai

Tree Fern Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus cyatheae 

This species, described in 1939, is known only from two localities on the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, where it apparently grew on the stems of tree ferns.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Kentaro Hosaka; Takahito Kobayashi; Michael A. Castellano; Takamichi Orihara: The status of voucher specimens of mushroom spwcies thought to be extinct from Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Ser. B 44(2): 53-66. 2018

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edited: 31.08.2020

Todiramphus miyakoensis Kuroda

Ryukyu Kingfisher (Todiramphus miyakoensis)

This species, if indeed it is one, is known exclusively by a single specimen which is believed to have been collected in 1887 on the island of Miyakojima in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

The sole specimen is very similar to the Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus (Swainson)) (see photo), itself being extinct in the wild and currently only surviving in captivity, but differs in lacking the black nape band and in having reddish instead of blackish feet. The color of its beak is not known since the specimen is lacking its rhamphotheca.

***

The Ryukyu Kingfisher is not accepted as a valid taxon by all ornithologists.

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Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus (Swainson))

Photo: Valerie Everett

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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edited: 31.10.2020

Lamprocystis hahajimana ssp. pachychilus Pilsbry & Hirase

Thick-lipped Hahajima Lamprocystis Snail (Lamprocystis hahajimana ssp. pachychilus)

The Hahajima Lamprocystis Snail is apparently endemic to the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, it can be split into at least five subspecies of which the one discussed here, appears to be extinct.

No further information is available so far.

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edited: 12.06.2020

Ogasawaracris gloriosus Ito

Ogasawara Grasshopper (Ogasawaracris gloriosus)

The Ogasawara Grasshopper was described in 2003 based on three specimens, two males that had been collected in 1984 on the island of Hahajima and that were found in the collections of the Laboratory of Systematic Entomology in Sapporo, as well a female lacking any data except for ‘Ogasawara’ found in the National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences in Tsukuba, Japan.

The species is quite large and was uniformly green colored in life (faded to yellowish brown after death).

The Ogasawara Grasshopper was never recorded alive and was never found since its description, thus it is believed that the species is most likely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Gen Ito: Ogasawaracris gloriosus, a new genus and species of possibly extinct grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from the Ogasawara Islands. Entomological Science 6: 85-88.2003

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edited: 22.04.2019

Cirsium toyoshimae Koidz.

Toyoshima’s Thistle (Cirsium toyoshimae)

Toyoshima’s Thistle was probably endemic to the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, and appears to be known exclusively from herbarium sheets.

The plant had a basic rosette of larger oak leaf-like shaped leaves, the flowers were about 2 to 2,5 cm in diameter and appear to have been yellowish.

The species was never seen since 1936 and is almost certainly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Tetsuto Abe; Katsuyuki Wada; Nobukazu Nakagoshi: Extinction threats of a narrowly endemic shrub, Stachyurus macrocarpus (Stachyuraceae) in the Ogasawara Islands. Plant Ecology 198: 169-183. 2008

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edited: 14.01.2019

Hirasea biconcava Pilsbry

Concave Hirasea Snail (Hirasea biconcava 

This species was described in 1907, it was restricted to the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.  

The shells reach a height of about 0,2 cm and are about 0,4 cm in diameter.  

***

This species is also treated as subspecies of the Plane Hirasea Snail (Hirasea planulata Pilsbry & Hirase) . 

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Depiction from: ‘The Conchological Magazine 1907’  

(public domain)

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edited: 11.05.2019

Lutra nippon Imaizumi & Yoshiyuki

Japanese River Otter (Lutra nippon)

The Japanese River Otter inhabited the rivers on the islands of Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku in Japan; it was formerly thought to be a subspecies of the Eurasian River Otter (Lutra lutra (L.)).

The species was last seen in 1979 and is now considered extinct.

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edited: 01.08.2022

Pluteus machidae S. Ito & S. Imai

Machida’s Shed Fungus (Pluteus machidae)

This species was described in 1940; it is known only from a small area on the island of Hahajima, where it was found growing on a dead trunk in the forest.

The species wasn’t found during recent fieldworks and is considered likely extinct.

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References:

[1] Takahito Kobayashi: Type studies of the new species of Pluteus described by Seiya Ito and Sanshi Imai from Japan. Mycoscience 43: 411-415. 2002

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edited: 26.04.2022

Hirasea major Pilsbry

Large Hirasea Snail (Hirasea major 

This species was described in 1902, it was restricted to the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Island group of Japan.  

The shells are quite large for the genus, they reach heights of about 0,33 cm and are up to about 0,67 cm in diameter, they are depressed, lens-shaped, brown, dull and densely striate above, paler and somewhat glossy beneath.  

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References:  

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry: New land mollusks of the Japanese Empire. The Nautilus 16(4): 45-47. 1902  

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Photo from: ‘Y. Hirase: The Conchological Magazine 1(1). 1907’

(public domain) 

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edited: 10.10.2017

Rakantrechus elegans Ueno

Kozono-no-ana Blind Cave Beetle (Rakantrechus elegans)

This species was described in 1960; it was apparently found in a cave named Kozono-no-ana, located in the Ōita Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan.

The type locality is said to have vanished in the 1960s for whatever reasons, thus the species is considered extinct, but it might in fact still exist. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Shun-Ichi Uéno: Occurence of Shikoku representatives of blind trechines (Coleoptera, Trechinae) originated in eastern Kyushu, southwest Japan. Elytra, Tokyo 36(1): 213-225. 2008
[2] Kazuki Sugaya; Ryo Ogawa; Yusuke Hara: Rediscovery of the “extinct” blind ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae). Entomological Science 20: 159-162. 2017

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edited: 24.04.2022

Mandarina titan Chiba

Giant Mandarina Snail (Mandarina titan)  

This species was described in 1989 based on fossil and subfossil material that had been collected from the fissure deposits of Minamijima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan. [1]

The Giant Mandarina Snail was indeed a giant, its shells reached sizes of up to nearly 7 to 8 cm in diameter, making it the largest land snail species of the Ogasawara Islands and also of Japan. [2]

***

The species first appeared about 13000 BCE and finally disappeares from the deposits at around 8000 BCE in the early Holocene, it disappeared due to natural environmental changes. [1] 

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References:  

[1] Satoshi Chiba: Taxonomy and morphologic diversity of Mandarina (Pulmonata) in the Bonin Islands. Transactions and Proceedings – Palaeontological Society of Japan 155: 218-251. 1989
[2] Satoshi Chiba: Taxonomic revision of the fossil land snail species of the genus Mandarina in the Ogasawara Islands. Paleontological Research 11(4): 317-329. 2007

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edited: 19.04.2019

Hirasea sinuosa Pilsbry

Sinuose Hirasea Snail (Hirasea sinuosa

The Sinuose Hirasea Snail was described in 1902, it is or was endemic to the island of Hahajima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells of this species reached sizes of about 0,21 cm in height and about 0,43 cm in diameter [1]

***

Unfortunately it appears to be exremely hard to get any reliable information about this enigmatic snail genus.

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry: Notices of new Japanese land shells. The Nautilus 15(10): 116-119. 1902

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edited: 11.05.2019

Hirasea hypolia Pilsbry

Hypolia Hirasea Snail (Hirasea hypolia 

This species was described in 1902, it was restricted to the island of Chichijima in the Ogasawara Islands group, Japan.  

***

It is almost impossible to find out any information about this species and many other invertebrates from Japan.  

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edited: 10.10.2017

Diplazium longicarpum Kodama

Long-wrist Diplazium Fern (Diplazium longicarpum)

This epiphytic species was described in 1916; it is apparently restricted to the island of Hahajima in the Ogasawara archipelago, Japan.

The fern disappeared during the 1980s due to overcollecting for ornamental uses. [1]

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References:

[1] Tod F. Stuessy; Mikio Ono: Evolution and Speciation of Island Plants. Cambridge University Press 1998

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edited: 10.01.2024

Columba versicolor Kittlitz

Bonin Wood Pigeon (Columba versicolor)

The Bonin Wood Pigeon is known only from four specimens, which had been collected on two of the Ogasawara Islands, namely Chichijima and Nakodojima, however, it may formerly of course have occurred on other islands of the archipelago as well.

Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz, the discoverer of this spescies, writes in his work ‘Kupfertafeln zur Naturgeschichte der Vögel’ about this bird:

“I saw it [Columba janthina] often on the island group of Boninsima, here it lives with Fig.2. (C. versicolor mihi) ,which, as a species, is visibly different albeit very similar to it, but thereby occurring much more scarcer. In al sexual- and age disparities the difference of both in colour and size is noticeable, in food and lifestyle they are incidentally closely related. They survive singly or pairwise, and readily feed, amongst other things, fruits of the local fan palm.”

The Bonin Wood Pigeon, whose Japanes name is Ogasawara-Karasubato, reached a body length of 45 cm.

The species disappeared sometimes after 1889, an exact extinction date is not known.

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References:

[1] Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz: Kupfertafeln zur Naturgeschichte der Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Johann David Sauerländer 1832-1833
[2] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986
[3] Errol Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987
[4] David Gibbs, Eustace Barnes, John Cox: Pigeons and Doves, A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. Pica Press, Sussex 2001

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Depiction from: ‘Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz: Kupfertafeln zur Naturgeschichte der Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Johann David Sauerländer 1832-1833’

(public domain)

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edited: 30.07.2011

Lutra lutra ssp. whiteleyi (Gray)

Hokkaido River Otter (Lutra lutra ssp. whiteleyi)

This subspecies of the Eurasian River Otter (Lutra lutra (L.)) was apparently restricted to the island of Hokkaido, Japan.

The taxonomic status of the otter forms that are known from Japan is somewhat confusing, those forms that are (or were) found on the islands of Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku are currently considered a distinct, endemic species: Japanese River Otter (Lutra nippon Imaizumi & Yoshiyuki).

The Hokkaido River Otter was last seen during the 1950s and is now extinct.

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edited: 01.08.2022

Mandarina pallasiana (Pfeiffer)

Pallas Mandarina (Mandarina pallasiana)  

This species was described in 1850, it is known from subfossil specimens that were recovered from Holocene deposits at the Kominato Beach on southern Chichijima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

The shells are quite large, some are white and bear two to four brown bands, some are unicolored brown without bands. [1]

***

The species was for some time thought to be identical with the Minamizaki Mandarina Snail. [1]

***

The Pallas Mandarina died out because of natural climatic changes that lead to a rise of the temperatures making the habitat becoming dryer.

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References:  

[1] Satoshi Chiba: Taxonomic revision of the fossil land snail species of the genus Mandarina in the Ogasawara Islands. Paleontological Research 11(4): 317-329. 2007 

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edited: 19.04.2019

Murina tenebrosa Yoshiyuki

Gloomy Tube-nosed Bat (Murina tenebrosa 

This species was described in 1970 based on a single female specimen that was collected in 1962 on Tsushima, an island located in the Korea Strait, approximately halfway between the Japanese mainland and the Korean Peninsula.  

The island is badly deforested, the bat was never found again since its discovery and description, and is thus most likely extinct.  

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edited: 06.11.2017

Gastrocopta ogasawarana Pilsbry

Ogasawara Whorl Snail (Gastrocopta ogasawarana 

The Ogasawara Whorl Snail inhabited the islands of Chichijima and probably Ototojima in the Ogasawara Island group, Japan.  

The reasons for the extinction of this snail species are the same as for the closely related Chichijima Whorl Snail (Gastrocopta chichijimana Pilsbry).  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 24, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae), 1916-1918’

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] Takashi Ohbayashi; Isamu Okochi; Hiroki Sato; Tsuyoshi Ono: Food habit of Platydemus manokwari De Beauchamp, 1962 (Tricladida: Terricola: Rhynchodemidae), known as a predatory flatworm of land snails in the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan. Entomology and Zoology 40: 609-614. 2005  

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edited: 07.11.2020