Tag Archives: Rallidae

Rallus montivagorum Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando

Pico Rail (Rallus montivagorum)

The Pico Rail was described in 2015, it is known from subfossil material that had been collected in 2013 at a place named Furna das Torres on the island of Pico, Azores, Portugal.

The species derived from the European mainland Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus L.) and differed from that species by its slighly smaller size and a reduced sternum which indicates that it probably was completely flightless.

Some of the remains could be dated to an age of about 1405 to 1450, that is around the same time when Portugese begun to colonize the Azores. [1]

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References:

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015

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edited: 10.09.2019

Rallus sp. ‘Graciosa’

Graciosa Rail (Rallus sp.)

This up to now unnamed form is known from 21 subfossil bones, 12 of them only fragments, collected in 2014 on the island of Graciosa in the Azores, Portugal.

The form has not yet being described but can be assigned to the genus Rallus and most likely was a distinct species. [1]

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References:

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015

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edited: 10.09.2019

Porphyrio kukwiedei Balouet & Olson

New Caledonian Swamphen (Porphyrio kukwiedei)

The New Caledonian Swamphen was described in 1989 based on subfossil bones that were excavated from deposits from the Pindai Cave complex on the western coast of Grande Terre, New Caledonia. 

The species was about the same size as the New Zealand Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri (A. B. Meyer)) but was more lightly built, it was likewise flightless, the males probably were larger then the females. [2]

The New Caledonian Swamphen may in fact have survived into quite recent times, this can be assumed from a note that is given at the description of another New Caledonian bird species, the now likewise extinct New Caledonian Rail (Gallirallus lafresnayanus Verreaux & Des Murs).:

Nouvelle-Calédonie, où il est nommé, par les indigènes, N’dino, camp de Morari. It vit dans les lieux marécageux, et arriverait, dit la note, a la taille du Dindon! Est-ce la même espèce, ou bien y en aurait-il une autre qui atteindrait cette dimension?” [1]

translation:

New Caledonia, where he is named, by the natives, N’dino, camp of Morari. It lives in marshy places, and would arrive, says the note, the size of the turkey! Is it the same species, or would there be another one that would reach this dimension?

This description, in my opinion, fits better with the far larger New Caledonian Swamphen than with the New Caledonian Rail.

There is furthermore an account that speaks about old people who remember a bird that was similar to the Australasian Swamphen (Porphyrio melanotus (Temminck)), that still is commonly found in New Caledonia, except for being much larger and having a grey tail and a white throat. Unfortunately I do not find the source for that statement anymore.

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References:

[1] M. M. Jules Verreaux; O des Murs: Description d’Oiseux nouveaux de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et indication des espèces déjà connues de ce pays. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquée. Ser. II 12: 431-443. 1860
[2] J. C. Balouet; Storrs L. Olson: Fossil birds from Late Quaternary deposits in New Caledonia. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 469: 23-27. 1989

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edited: 16.05.2019

Rallus carvaoensis Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando

Sao Miguel Rail (Rallus carvaoensis)

The Sao Miguel Rail was described in 2015 based on subfossil remains that had been excavated from deposits from the Gruta do Carvão on the island of São Miguel, one of the Azores Islands, Portugal.

Like its congeners from the other islands of the Azores, also known by subfossil remains, this one too was a derivative of the Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus L.) from the European mainland. [1]

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References:

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015

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edited: 10.09.2019

cf. Porphyrio sp. ‘Efate’

Efate Swamphen (cf. Porphyrio sp.)

Throughout the Pacific region we now know of several radiations of rails, which sometimes include congeneric pairs or triplets of species inhabiting, respectively having formerly inhabited, single islands.

The excavations that took place on the island of Efate, Vanuatu produced subfossil bones of several well-known rails, including the Pacific Swamphen (Porphyrio melanotus ssp. samoensis Peale), but yet also of another, relatively large rail species that may have been a member of the same genus.

This form was similar in size and apparently in proportions to the likewise extinct Island Takahe (Porphyrio mantelli (Owen)) from New Zealand.

Yet, the currently known material isn’t sufficient enough to determine the genus exactly, let alone a species. [1]

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References:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; Stuart Hawkins; Stuart Bedford; Matthew Spriggs: Avifauna from the Teouma Lapita Site, Efate Island, Vanuatu, including a new genus and species of Megapode. Pacific Science 69(2): 205-254. 2015

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edited: 01.09.2020

Porphyrio paepae Steadman

Marquesan Swamphen (Porphyrio paepae)

The Marquesan Swamphen was described based on subfossil bones that were found in archaeological sites, or rather in midden remains on the islands of Hiva Oa and Tahuata.

The wing elements were of equal size to that of the extant Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio martinicus (L.)) but slightly stouter built.

Since the species occurred on both, Hiva Oa and Tahuata, it apparently was not flightless, however, it might also have been transported from one island to another by the Polynesian settlers. [1] 

***

It is very likely that additional congeneric species inhabited other islands in the Marquesan group.

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References:

[] Jeremy J. Kirchman; David W. Steadman: New Species of Rails (Aves: Rallidae) from an Archaeological Site on Huahine, Society Islands. Pacific Science 60(2): 281-297. 2006  

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edited: 01.09.2020

Porphyrio sp. ‘Rota’

Rota Swamphen (Porphyrio sp.)

Since the undescribed Tinian Swamphen (Porphyrio sp. ‘Tinian’) apparently was a flightless species, it is rather unlikely that the same species also inhabited Rota, thus the Rotan birds almost certainly were a distinct, though closely related species. [1]

***

It might be of interest that the Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio melanotus (Temminck)) apparently is trying to reestablish a population in Micronesia. [2]

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References:  

[1] D. W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006
[2] D. W. Buden; J. Wichep; S. Fal’Mngar: First record of Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio in the Federated States of Micronesia, with remarks on vagrants and recently established populations of rallids in Micronesia. Bulletin of the British Ornthologists’ Club 131(1): 59-63. 2011

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edited: 01.09.2020

Gallirallus sp. ‚Rapa‘

Rapa Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits on the island of Rapa, Austral Islands.

The form apparently was similar yet smaller than the Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis (L.)), like all now extinct Polynesian rails, also this form most likely was completely flightless. [1]

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References:

[1] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012

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edited: 08.02.2020

Rallus nanus Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando

Sao Jorge Rail (Rallus nanus)

 

The Sao Jorge Rail was described in 2015 based on subfossil bones that had been recovered from the deposits of the Gruta do Pasto do Engenheiro on the island of São Jorge, one of the Azores Islands, Portugal.

The species was smaller than any other member of its genus, it was completely flightless and had a somewhat enlarged beak, compared to its body size, which was also somewhat curved downward. [1]

***

The scientific name under which the species was described, Rallus minutus Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando, was later found to be preoccopied, making it a primary homonym, so the species was re-named in 2016. [2]

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References:

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015
[2] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Rallus nanus nomen novum: a replacement name for Rallus minutus Alcover et al. 2015. Zootaxa 4085(1): 141-142. 2016

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edited: 10.09.2019

Vitirallus watlingi T. H. Worthy

Viti Levu Rail (Vitirallus watlingi)

The Viti Levu Rail was described in 2004 based on subfossil remains collected from cave deposits on the island of Viti Levu, Fiji.

The species was flightless, it reached about the same size as the likewise extinct Bar-winged Rail (Gallirallus poecilopterus (Hartlaub)) but had a distinctly elongated beak. [1]

The Viti Levu Rail probably disappeared sometimes after the Fijian Islands were settled by humans some 3000 to 4000 years before present, it is, however, quite possible that this species might have survived into the time of the first appearance of Europeans even when there is yet no evidence for that.

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References:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy: The fossil rails (Aves: Rallidae) of Fiji with descriptions of a new genus species. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 34 (3): 295–314. 2004

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edited: 16.09.2020

Zapornia sp. ‘Hawai’i’ 1

Small Hawaii Crake (Zapornia sp.)  

This form is known from several subfossil remains that had been recovered from a site at Mauna Kea on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands, at an elevation of 1450.  

The Small Hawaii Crake falls within the size range of the Hawaiian Crake (Zapornia sandwichensis (Gmelin)) and may in fact turn out to be identical with that species. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Zapornia astrictocarpus (Olson)

Saint Helena Swamphen (Zapornia astrictocarpus)  

The Saint Helena Swamphen was described in 1973 based on subfossil remains that had been found on the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.  

The species reached a size of about 17 cm and was completely flightless.  

The Saint Helena Swamphen, like almost all of Saint Helena’s endemic bird species, disappeared at the beginning of the 16th century, shortly after the island was occupied by European settlers which brought with them several foreign animals. [1][2][3]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson: Evolution of the Rails of the South Atlantic Islands (Aves: Rallidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 125. 1973 
[2] Storrs L. Olson: Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, south Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 23. 1975 
[3] Storrs L. Olson: A synopsis of the fossil Rallidae. In: S. Dillon Ripley: Rails of the World: A Monograph of the Family Rallidae. David R Godine, Boston: 339-373. 1977  

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Depiction: Alexander Lang

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edited: 20.03.2018

Zapornia pusilla ssp. mira (Riley)

Bornean Crake (Zapornia pusilla ssp. mira)  

The Bornean Crake, described in 1938, is regarded to as a subspecies of Baillon’s Crake (Zapornia pusilla (Pallas)), but may in fact well represent a distinct species.  

The bird is known apparently only from the type specimen, a female that was collected in 1912 in the eastern part of Borneo.  

The Bornean Crake is more or less similar to Baillon’s Crake, but is smaller and differs somewhat in its coloration.  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Zapornia sp. ‘Maui’

Medium Maui Rail (Zapornia sp.)  

The Medium Maui Rail is so far known from the subfossil remains of probably only two individuals, one was found in the Pu’u Naio Cave, the other one in the Lower Waihoi Valley Cave, together with the remains of the larger Severn’s Rail (Zapornia severnsi (Olson & James)).  

The species was about the size of the Hawaiian Rail (Zapornia sandwicensis (Gmelin)). [1]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Aphanocrex podarces Wetmore

Saint Helena Rail (Aphanocrex podarces)

The Saint Helena Rail species was described in 1963 on the basis of subfossil remains that were found on the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The species was amongst the largest rails, reaching a size of around 50 cm, it had relatively large wings despite being definetly flightless, it furthermore had very large feet and quite elongated claws. [1]

***

The Saint Helena Rail is now thought to be closer related to the gallinules than to the other rallid forms known from the Atlantic islands.

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, south Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 23. 1975

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edited: 07.02.2020

Rallus semiplumbeus ssp. peruvianus Taczanowski

Peruvian Rail (Rallus semiplumbeus ssp. peruvianus)

The Peruvian Rail was described in 1886 as a subspecies of the Bogota Rail (Rallus semiplumbeus P. L. Sclater) based on a single specimen that was collected somewhere in the Peruvian highlands. 

The supposed subspecies reached a size of about 25 cm and is said to have differed from the nominate form sufficiently enough to warrant full species status.

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edited: 10.09.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Crake (Zapornia sp.)  

This species, hitherto not described, is known only on the basis of a single bone, a tibiotarsus, which, however, can unequivocally be assigned to the genus Zapornia.  

The Rapa Nui Crake was much smaller than the widespread Spotless Crake (Zapornia tabuensis (Gmelin)), in fact it was among the smallest rail species known, very similar to some of the Hawaiian species, and was very possibly flightless.  

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References:  

[1] D. W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006  

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edited: 20.09.2017

Zapornia sp. ‘Mangaia’

Small Mangaian Crake (Zapornia sp. 

The fossil record proves that once as many as three species of the genus Zapornia occurred next to each other on the island of Mangaia, Cook Islands.  

These are the extant Spotless Crake (Zapornia tabuensis (Gmelin)), which is probably locally extinct, the Mangaian Crake (Zapornia rua (Steadman)), which was endemic to the island and is now extinct, and a third species, not yet described.  

This third species was smaller than the Mangaian Crake and was very likely flightless too. [1]  

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References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Zapornia sp. ‘Kaua’i’ 1

Large Kauai Crake (Zapornia sp.)  

This rail form is known only from the subfossil distal end of a left femur, that was recovered from the Makawehi Dunes on the island of Kaua’i.  

This single part of a bone does not fall within the size range of any of the known rail species known from Kaua’i, but, of course, is to fragmentary to describe the species properly. [1]

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References:

[1] [1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991

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edited: 18.05.2019

Mundia elpenor (Olson)

Ascension Island Rail (Mundia elpenor)

The Ascension Island Rail was described in 1973 based on subfossil bones recovered from deposits on the desolate Ascension Island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The species, however, had already been described by a eyewitness, an observative traveller named Peter Mundy, in 1656.:

Some of our company went up and broughtt downe six or seven goates, doubtlesse att first left there by the Portugalls: allsoe halfe a dozen of a strange kind of fowle, much bigger than our sterlings ore stares: collour gray or dappled, white and blacke feathers intermixed, eies red like rubies, wings imperfitt, such as wherewith they cannot raise themselves from the ground. They were taken running, in which they are exceeding swift, helping themselves a little with their wings … shortt billed, cloven footed, thatt can neither fly nor swymme. It was more than ordinary dainety meatt, relishing like a roasting pigge.” [1]

***

Ascension Island is a very dry place, and apparently always has been, without any typical rail habitats, no wetlands, no forests with dense undergrowth, nothing, thus, the rail is thought to have been an opertunistic omnivore that found its food amongst the large seabird colonies; it might have fed on seabird carcasses, eggs, and every kind of leftovers.

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References:

[1] R. C. Tempe; L. M. Anstey (eds): The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667. Hakluyt Society SII 78(5): 1-226. 1936
[2] Storrs Olson: Evolution of the rails of the south Atlantic Islands (Aves: Rallidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 152: 1-53. 1973

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Depiction by Peter Mundy, 1656

(public domain) 

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edited: 07.02.2020

Rallus lowei Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando

Lowe’s Rail (Rallus lowei 

The former existence of a now extinct species of rail on the island of Madeira, Portugal has been known for several decades since subfossil material was found at several localities all over the island, yet, these bones had to wait for 2015 to be finally described.  

Lowe’s Rail was the largest of the extinct Macaronesian endemic rails, yet was still smaller than its derivative, the Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus L.) from the European mainland.  

The species was a flightless form with robust legs, it likely inhabited the dense wet laurel forests that once covered most of Madeira’s surface. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015  

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edited: 10.09.2019

Rallus eivissensis McMinn, Palmer & Alcover

Ibiza Rail (Rallus eivissensis)

The Ibiza Rail was described in 2005 based on subfossil bones that had been recovered from the deposits of a cave at Es Pouàs on the island of Ibiza in the Spanish Balearic Islands, Spain.

The species was closely realated to, and perhaps derived from the Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus L.) but was slightly smaller and stouter-built, yet, unusual for a insular endemic rail, it was not flightless.

The Ibiza Rail disappeared around 5300 to about 4300 years B.P., at around the time when the first humans arrived at the Balearic Islands.

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References:

[1] M. McMinn; M. Palmer; Josep Antoni Alcover: A new species of rail (Aves: Rallidae) from the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene of Ibiza (Pityusic Islands, western Mediterranean). Ibis 147(4): 706-716. 2005

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edited: 11.09.2019

Zapornia monasa (Kittlitz)

Kosrae Swamphen (Zapornia monasa 

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz, the discoverer of the species, writes in the year 1858.:  

Here on Ualan a very similar bird is found, but it comes from the family of the rails. It lives solitary on the ground on these always soggy, deeply shadowed places of the forests. One can hear here from time to time its pervasive mating call; its body, which roughly matches that of a quail in size, is considerably less as in the remainder rails compressed; furthermore it carries the tail, which is missing the rectrices, not upright like those. Its appearance is much more those of a young, still completely tailless domestic chicken. The whole plumage is dull black, tinged whitish at the chin, the bill black, the naked eyelids are like the feet fine red like lead tetroxide, the eyes somewhat darker red like sealing wax. The tongue is of the length of the bill, at the tip flat and like horn. The bird is not common on Ualan and moreover because of its little accessible whereabouts also difficult to hunt. Maybe it is Rallus tabuensis, of which a short description is found in Latham’s Index ornithologicus. In Petersburg I did left behind a completely engraved copper plate with a depiction of this bird; I don’t know, if from the same since 1853 has still made use of. I myself had not liked to make the decision to declare the species for a new one; would it be so, however, I’d like to give it the name Rallus Monasa. 
The natives of Ualan name them as Setamanot.
“ [2]

The bird can be found (very tiny, in the left front) on a depiction from F. W. H. von Kittlitz’s ‘Vierundzwanzig Vegetations-Ansichten von Küstenländern und Inseln des Stillen Oceans’ from the year 1844.  

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Depiction from: ‘F. W. H. von Kittlitz: Vierundzwanzig Vegetations-Ansichten von Küstenländern und Inseln des Stillen Oceans, aufgenommen in den Jahren 1827, 28 und 29 auf der Entdeckungsreise der Kaiserlich-Russischen Corvette Senjawin unter Capitain Lütke. Siegen: Friedrich 1844’ 

(under creative commons license (3.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0 

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References:  

[1] F. W. H. von Kittlitz: Vierundzwanzig Vegetations-Ansichten von Küstenländern und Inseln des Stillen Oceans, aufgenommen in den Jahren 1827, 28 und 29 auf der Entdeckungsreise der Kaiserlich-Russischen Corvette Senjawin unter Capitain Lütke. Siegen: Friedrich 1844 
[2] F. H. v. Kittlitz. Denkwürdigkeiten einer Reise nach dem russischen Amerika, nach Mikronesien und durch Kamtschatka, Gotha 1858 
[3] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986 
[4] H. Douglas Pratt, Phillip L. Bruner, Delwyn G. Berrett: A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press 1987 
[5] Errol Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987 
[6] Barry Taylor, Ber van Perlo: Rails: A Guide to the Rails, Crakes, Gallinules and Coots of the World. Yale University Press 1998 
[7] Beth Slikas; Storrs L. Olson; Robert C. Fleischer: Rapid, independent evolution of flightlessness in four species of Pacific Island rails (Rallidae): an analysis based on mitochondrial sequence data. Journal of Avian Biology 33: 5-14. 2002

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edited: 17.10.2020

Gallirallus epulare Kirchman & Steadman

Nuku Hiva Rail (Gallirallus epulare)

The Nuku Hiva Rail was described in 2007 based on subfossil remains found on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.

The species reached a size of about 25 cm and was completely flightless, it was extirpated by the first Polynesian settlers. [1] 

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References:

[1] Jeremy J. Kirchman; David W. Steadman: New Species of Extinct Rails (Aves: Rallidae) from Archaeological Sites in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Pacific Science 61(1): 145-163. 2007

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edited: 22.05.2019

Zapornia severnsi (Olson & James)

Large Maui Crake (Zapornia severnsi)  

This species from the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, was among the larger members of its genus, it may have reached a length of nearly 22 cm. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Rallus adolfocaesaris Alcover, Pieper, Pereira & Rando

Porto Santo Rail (Rallus adolfocaesaris)  

The Porto Santo Rail was described in 2015, but its remains were already known for some time (as Rallus sp. ‘Porto Santo’).  

The species was restricted to the island of Porto Santo, it was quite gracile but nevertheless completely flightless.  

The Porto Santo Rail disappeared shortly after the Madeiran Islands were discovered and settled by Portoguese settlers at the beginning of the 15th century. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Josep Antoni Alcover; Harald Pieper; Fernando Pereira; Juan Carlos Rando: Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean). Zootaxa 4057(2): 151-190. 2015  

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edited: 10.09.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Aiwa Levu’

Aiwa Levu Swamphen (Zapornia sp.)  

Excavations in post-Lapita sites on the small island of Aiwa Levu in the Lau Archipelago, Fiji produced subfossil bones from as much as 16 land bird species, four or five of them now extinct.  

Among these subfossil remains were that of a small, flightless rail, that could be assigned to the genus Zapornia. [1]  

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References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

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edited: 17.10.2020

Zapornia menehune (Olson & James)

Tiny Molokai Crake (Zapornia menehune)

The Tiny Molokai Crake was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that had been recovered from dune deposits at Ilio Point and Mo’omomi on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a size of only about 11 cm, that means it was the smallest rail species in the world known so far, it was, like all its Hawaiian congeners, completely flightless.

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991

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edited: 18.05.2019

Porphyrio albus (White)

Lord Howe Swamphen (Porphyrio albus)

The Lord Howe Swamphen was described in 1790, it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species was larger than the Australian Swamphen (Porphyrio melanotus (Temminck)), which inhabits Lord Howe Island today, it was furthermore adapted to a terrestrial lifestyle, had shorter toes, was completely flightless – and, the most conspicuous character, was for a long time thought to have had a completely white plumage.

This last assumption is now known to be untrue, the birds started their lifes as black-plimaged chicks, then turned into semiadult, blue-colored birds (the birds were completely blue, darker on the upperside than on the underside, with a rather darkish, almost black head), then later turning into complete white when growing older. 

This also explains the contemporary accounts who report of blue-, blue and white- as well as completely white birds to be found on Lord Howe Island. [1]

***

The Lord Howe Swamphen disappeared shortly after its discovery, most likely due to direkt hunting by sailors of whaling ships and other ships during stays on the island for the purpose of filling up their ship’s proviant.

Today only two specimens of this beautiful and interesting species exist, one, which is kept in Vienna, Austria, is a fully adult bird and even has claws on the edges of its wings. [1]

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References:

[1] Heinvan Grouw; Julian P. Hume: The history and morphology of Lord Howe Gallinule or Swamphen Porphyrio albus (Rallidae). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 136(3): 172-198. 2016

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Depiction from: ‘Lionel Walter Rothschild: Extinct birds: an attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times: that is, within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. 1907’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Zapornia ziegleri (Olson & James)

Ziegler’s Swamphen (Zapornia ziegleri)  

This species was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains which had been found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species is one of the smallest members of its genus, reaching a length of only about 13 cm, but was still undercut by other Hawaiian species. [1]  

***

This, and other closely related species were certainly among the first to disappear after the introduction of dogs and rats to the Hawaiian Islands by the first Polynesian settlers.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Gallirallus huiatua Steadman, Worthy, Anderson & Walter

Niue Rail (Gallirallus huiatua)

The Niue Rail was described in 2000 based on subfossil remains that had been found in deposits of the Anakuli Cave near the village of Hakupu on the the island of Niue.

These remains could be dated to an age of 5300 to 3600 years before present, thus predate human settlement on the island, however, there is, in my opinion, no doubt that the species nevertheless was extirpated by the first Polynesian settlers. [1]

***

The island of Niue is today inhabited by a subspecies of the Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis ssp. goodsoni (Mathews)) that also inhabites the Samoan Islands nearby.

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman; Trevor H. Worthy; Atholl j. Anderson;  Walter, Richard: New species and records of birds from prehistoric sites on Niue, southwest Pacific. Wilson Bulletin 112(2): 165–186. 2000

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edited: 22.05.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Huka 1’

Ua Huka Swamphen (Zapornia sp.)  

There are at least two forms of swamphen that formerly inhabited the island of Ua Huka, Marquesas.  

These two species are both known from subfossil remains alone and differed from each other in their size.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Zapornia ralphorum (Olson & James)

Ralph’s Crake (Zapornia ralphorum)  

This species, one of the largest of the many Hawaiian crake species, is known from subfossil remains that were found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, and exclusively at lowland areas near the coast.  

The species probably disappeared as one of the first straight after the arrival of men.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Porphyrio mcnabi Kirchman & Steadman

McNab‘s Swamphen (Porphyrio mcnabi)  

McNab‘s Swamphen was described in 2006 based on three subfossil femora that were recovered from the archaeological site at Fa’ahia at the northwestern coast of Huahine, Society Islands.

The three femurs are slightly smaller than those of the extant Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio martinicus (L.)) and the extinct Marquesan Swamphen (Porphyrio paepae Steadman), which both are of equal size. [1][2]

***

In life, McNab’s Swamphen may have reached a size of about 30 cm, it was probably still volant but may not have been a good flier.

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006 
[2] Jeremy J. Kirchman; David W. Steadman: New Species of Rails (Aves: Rallidae) from an Archaeological Site on Huahine, Society Islands. Pacific Science 60(2): 281-297. 2006  

*********************  

edited: 30.05.2019

Gallirallus gracilitibia Kirchman & Steadman

Ua Huka Rail (Gallirallus gracilitibia)

The Ua Huka Rail was described in 2007 based on subfossil remains that have been recovered from the island of Ua Huka, Marquesas.

The species was quite gracile built and completely flightless, it was extirpated by the first Polynesian settlers. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jeremy J. Kirchman; David W. Steadman: New Species of Extinct Rails (Aves: Rallidae) from Archaeological Sites in the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. Pacific Science 61(1): 145-163. 2007

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edited: 22.05.2019

Zapornia sandwichensis ssp. sandwichensis (Gmelin)

Western Hawaiian Crake (Zapornia sandwichensis ssp. sandwichensis)  

The Hawaii Crake or Hawaiian Rail is the only of the extinct rails from the Hawaiian main islands, that is known to have survived into historical times.  

The species inhabited open, grassy areas and behaved somewhat like a small mammal, running through the vegetation in search for food.  

The Hawaiians called the bird moho.  

***The last specimen dates from the year 1864, since then no one has aver seen a Hawaiian Crake again.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’ 

(not in copyright)

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Gallirallus ernstmayri Kirchman & Steadman

New Ireland Rail (Gallirallus ernstmayri)

The New Ireland Rail was described in 2006, it was restricted to the island of New Ireland.

The species was among the larger members of its genus, probably reaching a size of about 30 cm, it was completely flightless. [1]

***

The New Ireland Rail very likely was closely related to the Pink-legged Rail (Gallirallus insignis (P. L. Sclater)) (see depiction below), a large, flightless rail from the neighboring island of New Britain.

*********************

References:

[1] Jeremy J. Kirchman; David W. Steadman: Rails (Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric archaeological sites in Western Oceania. Zootaxa 1316: 1-31. 2006

*********************

Pink-legged Rail (Gallirallus insignis)

Depiction from: ‘P. L. Sclater: On a fifth collection of birds made by the Rev. G. brown, C. M. Z. S., on Duke-of-York Island and in its vicinity. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 65-67’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 22.05.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Kaua’i’ 2

Medium Kauai Crake (Zapornia sp.)

The Medium Kauai Crake is and undescribed species known from few bones that were recovered from the dunes at Makawehi in the south of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species may have been about the size of the Hawaiian Crake (Zapornia sandwichensis (Gmelin)), perhaps slightly larger.

*********************

References:

[1] [1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Nukuhiva’

Nukuhiva Swamphen (Zapornia sp.)  

This extinct form is currently known fonly from a few subfossil remains, which were found on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.  

The species has not been described so far. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************  

edited: 13.09.2020

Porphyrio sp. ‘Buka’

Buka Swamphen (Porphyrio sp. 

The Buka Swamphen is known only from (sub)fossil bones that had been found on the island of Buka, Solomon Islands.

The species has not yet been described, it was larger than any other member of its genus except for the likewise undescribed species recorded from the island of New Ireland. [1]

***

The remains assigned to this species can be dated to Late Pleistocene age, the species, however, may well have survived into the Early Holocene and probably was soon extirpated by the first human settlers. [1] 

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************  

edited: 18.05.2019

Zapornia sp. ‘Ua Huka 2’

Ua Huka Swamphen (Zapornia sp.)  

This small and flightless bird is known from subfossil remains that had been found on the island of Ua Huka, Marquesas.  

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of men on the islands.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Gallinula silvestris (Mayr)

Makira Woodhen (Gallinula silvestris)

This species is only known from the type specimen that was shot on the island of Makira in the Solomon Islands in 1929.  

The Makira Woodhen reached a size of approx. 27 cm and was dark brown in color, the lower body, head and neck shimmered bluish, the bird was flightless.  

The last sighting took place in 1953 when a single bird was seen in the center of the island, according to the statements of the inhabitants of nearby villages, the rail was still quite common at that time.  

The species may still exist but would be highly threatened nonetheless.

*********************

edited: 02.05.2021

Zapornia sp. ‚Malakula‘

Malakula Swamphen (Zapornia sp.)  

This is one the countless rail forms that are represented by several subfossil bones only, which, on the one hand, are sufficient enough to show them to be new, but, on the other hand, are not sufficient enough to describe them as new species.  

The bones of this form were excavated on the island of Malakula, Vanuatu.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************  

edited: 18.10.2020

Zapornia rua (Steadman)

Mangaian Swamphen (Zapornia rua)  

The Mangaian Swamphen was described in 1986 based on subfossil remains that had been found on the island of Mangaia, Cook Islands.  

The species was flightless and lived in sympatry with the slightly smaller Spotless Crake (Zapornia tabuensis (Gmelin)) and another not yet described form of the same genus. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Gallirallus sp. ‘Vava’u’

Malaspina’s Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

This form is known from a drawing that was made on an island of the Vava’u group, probably ‘Uta Vava’u, during the so-called ‘Malaspina Expedition’, which visited the Pacific under the leadership of Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, sometime between 1789 and 1794.  

The brief description shows that the bird was bluish gray or ash gray in color, and that its plumage was less spotted or striped than most of the other species in the genus.  

The species certainly died out a few years later. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: Birds, including extinct species, encountered by the Malaspina Expedition on Vava’u, Tonga, in 1793. Archives of Natural History, 33(1): 42-52. 2006

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Depiction made during the Malaspina Expedition between 1789 & 1794  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 02.05.2021

Zapornia sp. ‚Tinian‘

Tinian Swamphen (Zapornia sp.)  

The about 100 km² large island of Tinian in the Mariana island chain was once the home of yet another small, flightless species of rail, which is known today only from subfossil remains.  

These harmless little birds certainly were among the first victims of the dogs, pigs, and rats that had been introduced to the islands by the first human settlers. [1]  

***

The island of Saipan, Tinian’s neighbor, very likely once harbored its own endemic species of the same genus, but remains are not known so far. [1]  

**********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Gallirallus hypoleucus (Finsch & Hartlaub)

Tongatapu Rail (Gallirallus hypoleucus)

The Tongatapu Rail is actually known only from the description of a single bird that was kept in the collection of Joseph Banks, a naturalist who took part in James Cook’s fisrt voyage from 1768 to 1771; this description can be found in John Latham’s ‘A general synopsis of birds’ from 1781-85.:

The head in this variety is paler, and the streak over the eye grey: the hind part of the neck transversely striated brown and white: the middle of the back, and scapulars, white, with a very little mixture of brown on the first: wing coverts olive brown, transversely blotched with white; second quills white on the inner webs, on the outer olive brown; the greater quills olive brown, marked with large ferruginous spots; the first wholly white, the second white within: tail even with the end of the quills, barred olive brown and white: all the under parts white: bill and legs pale yellow brown.” [1][2]

The Tongatapu Rail mysteriously managed to somehow survive into the 18th century, its population, however, may already have been more or less crushed when the single specimen was taken in 1773 (?) during Cook’ second voyage, and the species died out completely shortly after.

***

There is a drawing made by georg Forster in 1774 (?), which is often referred to as showing this rail species, this, however, is false since this drawing was in fact made from a bird taken on the island of Nomuka and shows no other bird than the Tongan Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis ssp. ecaudatus (J. F. Miller)) (see depiction below).

*********************

References:

[1] John Latham: A general synopsis of birds. London: Printed for Benj. White 1781-1785
[2] D. G. Medway: The Tongatapu rail Gallirallus hypoleucus (Finsch & Hartlaub, 1867) – an extinct species resurrected?. Notornis 57 (4): 199–203. 2010

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Tongan Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis ssp. ecaudatus)

Depiction: Georg Forster, 1774 

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 22.05.2019

Gallirallus sp. ‘Ha’afeva’

Haafeva Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

Ha’afeva is a small, more or less flat coral island within the Ha’apai group in the middle of the Tongan archipelago. 

Archaeological excavations on this island found, among other things, subfossil bones of an apparently flightless species of rail, which was exterminated by Polynesians a short time after the island was first settled. 

The Haafeva Rail has not yet been scientifically described. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] Jeremy J. Kirchman; David W. Steadman: Rails (Aves: Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric sites in the Kingdom of Tonga, including a description of a new species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 118(2): 465-477. 2005 
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

edited: 02.05.2021

Gallirallus sp. ‘Buka’

Buka Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

This rail species has not yet been formally described, it is known only from subfossil remains that were found on the island of Buka in the Solomon Islands.

The species was flightless and was very likely among the first species to be eredicated by the first Melanesian settlers. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

edited: 22.05.2019

Gallirallus sp. ‘Hiva Oa’

Hiva Oa Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

This species is known from subfossil bones only, these had been recovered from archeological deposits on the island of Hiva Oa in the southern Marquesas, French Polynesia.

The Hiva Oa Rail was flightless and thus an easy target for the first Polynesian settlers on the islands; it died out soon after the arrival of the first human settlers. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

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edited: 02.08.2022

Porphyrio sp. ‘Tahiti’

Tahiti ‘Goose’ (Porphyrio sp.)

There is a nearly unknown contemporaneous account from the 18th century by James Morrison, boatswain’s mate on board on the infamous ‘Bounty’ who mentiones a enigmatic bird.:

… the mountains produce birds of different kinds unknown to us, among which are a large bird nearly the size of a goose, which is good food;  they are never observed near the sea nor in the low lands.

This mysterious, nearly goose-sized bird very likely was a rail, perhaps from the genus Porphyrio, which is known to have produced a radiation of numerous species all over Oceania. 

*********************  

Referenzen:  

[1] J. M. Derscheid: An unknown species – the Tahitian Goose. Ibis 81: 756-760. 1939

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edited: 18.05.2019

Gallinula sp. ‘Buka’

Buka Gallinule (Gallinula sp.)

This species was one of several species that form a group of more or less flightless gallinules that apparently formerly inhabited large parts of Melanesia and western Polynesia, and of which only two survived at least into historical times: the Samoan Woodhen (Gallinula pacifica (Hartlaub & Finsch)) and the Makira Woodhen (Gallinula silvestris (Mayr)).

These species are sometimes placed in their own genus – Pareudiastes, which, however, cannot be accepted since a genus can only evolve once and not for several times.

Thus, all of the flightless gallinules from Oceania must be laced within the genus Gallinula, or, if they turn out to be somehow distinct enough, into their own different genera. 

***

The Buka Gallinule is so far known only from subfossil remains, the species was definetly hunted by humans and probably died out mainly due to overhunting. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

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edited: 22.05.2019

Gallirallus wakensis (Rothschild)

Wake Rail (Gallirallus wakensis)

Wake Island is a small atoll in the Pacific Ocean, consisting of the three larger islands Peale, Wake and Wilkes Island and a few smaller islets. Wake Island has been a United States military base since the end of World War II. From a bird’s eye view, the viewer immediately sees the huge runway for airplanes.  

In addition to numerous species of seabirds, the atoll was once home to an endemic species of rail, which apparently only inhabited the two islands of Wake and Wilkes, but did not occur on Peale Island.  

The Wake Rail was described in 1903 by Lionel Walter Rothschild under the name Hypotaenidia wakensis. Later, in 1923, the species was mentioned a second time. From July 27 to August 5, 1923, the “Tanager Expedition” stayed on Wake Island to study the native flora and fauna. Frank Alexander Wetmore, a well-known ornithologist and participant of this expedition, wrote a few lines about the Wake Rail during this time:  

These birds seem very sedentary. Those that I take on sandy areas where there is only scattered areas of shade, are very worn and pale color above, those from certain sections where there are extensive dead-falls have the wing feathers worn and abraded, apparently from their use in climbing about . This is true though more suitable areas where conditions are less severe may be found near at hand. The wing claw in this species is very large and strong.

During World War II, the atoll was occupied by Japanese troops, which, in the course of the war, were cut off from their supplies. So they had to take care of themselves, and so the tasty, easy-to-capture, because completely flightless Wake Rails came in handy. The soldiers’ appetites, however, were very large, too large for the small population of the rail species.  

After the end of World War II, the Wake Rail no longer existed.

*********************

References:

[1] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986 
[2] Errol Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987 
[3] Barry Taylor, Ber van Perlo: Rails: A Guide to the Rails, Crakes, Gallinules and Coots of the World. Yale University Press 1998 [4] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

Photo: W. S. Grooch

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 02.05.2021

Gallirallus sp. ‚Saipan‘

Saipan Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

This up to now undescribed species is only known from subfossil bones found on Saipan Island in the Mariana Archipelago.  

The species resembled the only surviving endemic rail species of the Mariana Islands, the Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni (Rotschild)). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

edited: 02.05.2021

Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour & Peters

Zapata Rail (Cyanolimnas cerverai)  

The Zapata Rail is a very poorly-known water bird endemic to Cuba, and today a relict species from the Zapata Swamp in western Cuba. The bird’s elusive nature has caused confusion within the ornithological community as to its status – confusion that may have unwittingly provided a smoke screen to a very real threat that may be driving the species to extinction.  

The Zapata Rail was discovered near Santo Tomás in 1927 by Fermin Cervera (a Spanish entomologist and bird collector). James Bond (Caribbean ornithologist extraordinaire) had no difficulty finding the bird at this same locality in 1931. However, the species was not then seen for several decades. In fact, the bird has probably been seen less than 15 times since the 1930s, with all of these records coming from just two or three localities. In the 1970s the voice of the rail was recorded and published (by George Reynard and Orlando Garrido). This seemed to unlock the mystery – birds sounding the same as the recording, or indeed responding to playback of the voice were heard at a number of new localities. Many new records, often of multiple individuals, were documented in the 1970s and during the 1990s as a new wave of research focused on the Caribbean’s largest wetland.  

However, in 2001, Arturo Kirkconnell (co-author with Garrido of the 2000 Field guide to the birds of Cuba book) discovered that the recording people had been using for 25 years was in fact of the widespread Spotted Rail (Pardirallus maculatus (Boddaert)). From that point, none of the previous records of “heard but not seen” birds could be counted within our knowledge-base for the species. The vocalisation of the Zapata Rail is still a mystery although at the time of its discovery it was described as a loud “kwowk”, like a Limpkin.  

2001 was a bad year for the Zapata Rail. In November that year, hurricane “Michelle” hit the region and damaged a facility that was breeding African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)). As a result of the hurricane this alien invasive fish reached the Zapata Swamp region where it has since been thriving and severely impacting the fragile underwater flora and fauna. Young Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus (L.)) and Purple Gallinules (Porphyrio martinica L.) have been found in the stomach contents of catfish from the swamp, so we know that the catfish are depleting local populations of rallidae species. Worryingly, Arturo’s work in Zapata that has involved over 100 trips in the last 20 years, suggests that areas where he was recording large numbers of rails (Spotted Rail, King Rail (Rallus elegans Audubon) and Sora (Porzana carolina (L.))) during the 1990s now hold few, if any birds.  

The populations of Spotted Rail and King Rail in the Zapata Swamp declined dramatically – 50-60%, or possibly even more – after the catfish found their way into the Zapata Swamp in 2001.” – Arturo Kirkconnell, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural  

Due to its extremely small known range and an apparent catastrophic decline in related species due to the recent arrival of the invasive predatory catfish, the Zapata Rail was uplisted by BirdLife to Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Being potentially close to extinction, there is an urgent need for a reliable assessment of the species’ range and population on which to base conservation actions. BirdLife, working in collaboration with Centro Nacional de Areas Protegidas (CNAP, BirdLife in Cuba) and Cuba’s Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, is actively seeking funding to support such an assessment.  

Article by David C. Wege; reproduced with kind permission of David C. Wege, the original article can be found here.:  

http://www.birdlife.org/community/2010/07/zapata-rail-on-the-edge

*********************

References:  

http://www.birdlife.org/community/2010/07/zapata-rail-on-the-edge

Depiction by Allan Brooks, in Thomas Barbour derivative work  

(public domain)

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edited: 17.02.2020