Tag Archives: Mexico

Neotoma insularis Townsend

Island Woodrat (Neotoma insularis)

The Island Woodrat was described in 1912, it was restricted to the Isla Ángel del la Guardia in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

The species reached a length of 29 cm (including the tail).

The Island Woodrat is officially considered ‘Critically Endangered’ but is in fact almost certainly completely extinct.

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edited: 03.11.2020

Peromyscus mekisturus Merriam

Puebla Deermouse (Peromyscus mekisturus)

The Puebla Deermouse was described in 1898, it is known only from two specimens which were collected at the cities of Ciudad Serdán and Tehuacan in southeastern Puebla, Mexico.

The species was last seen around 1948, the places where it was found are now heavily degraded by agricultural conversion and it is believed to be extinct.

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edited: 23.01.2020

Tryonia shikueii Hershler, Landye, H.-P. Liu, De la Maza-Benignos, Ornelas & Carson

Shi-Kuei’s Tryonia (Tryonia shikueii)

This species was described in 2014, it is known from two populations inhabiting Ojo de Federico and Ojo de San Juan, two closely proximal springs in the lower Río Casas Grandes basin with water temperatures around 23 °C to 27°C.

The two localities dried out sometimes in the 1980s, which means that both populations of this species are lost leading to its extinction. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert Hershler; J. Jerry Landye; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Mauricio De la Maza-Benignos; Pavel Ornelas; Evan W. Carson: New species and records of Chihuahuan Desert springsnails, with a new combination for Tryonia brunei. Western North American Naturalist 74(1): 47-65. 2014

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edited: 02.05.2019

Macrobrachium luscus (Holthuis)

Gruta del Arco Freshwater Prawn (Cryphiops luscus)

The Gruta del Arco Freshwater Prawn, which was described in 1973, is known only from its type locality: a small freshwater lake in the Grutas del Arco in the municipality of La Trinitaria, Rancho de San Rafael del Arco, Chiapas, Mexico.

This locality is now contaminated and the species wasn’t found during recent searches, it is now probably extinct.

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edited: 13.11.2021

Cyprinodon ceciliae Lozana-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas

Presa Pupfish (Cyprinodon ceciliae)

The Presa Pupfish was described in 1993, when it was already extinct.

The species was restricted to small creeks and ditches around La Presa Spring near the city of Aramberri in Nuevo León in Mexico; all of these are now completely dry due to excessive pumping of groundwater for agricultural purposes.

The Presa Pupfish, which reached an rather impressive size for a pupfish of up to 7 cm, was last seen in 1988 and is now extinct.

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References:

[1] M. L. Lozano-Vilano; M. De La Maza-Beningnos: Diversity and status of Mexican killifishes. Journal of Fish Biology 90(1): 1-36. 2016

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edited: 27.05.2019

Thorius longicaudus Parra-Olea et al.

Long-tailed Minute Salamander (Thorius longicaudus)

The Long-tailed Minute Salamander was described in 2016, it is known from two localities; one near the village of Sola de Vega, and another on near the town of San Vicente Lachixio, both in Oaxaca, Mexico.

The species reached a length of about 7 cm, it was mostly blackish brown and had a distinct, tan-reddish stripe with coppery-brassy highlights and indistinct dark chevrons extending anteriorly from the back of its head to the end of its tail.

The Long-tailed Minute Salamander was still extremely abundant in the 1970s and many individuals were found hiding in all kind of crevices at roadside banks and in stands of pines under or inside logs, under fallen branches, and even under piles of cow dung. 

When the type localities were visited again in 2014, the pine-oak forests had vanished – not a single Long-tailed Minute Salamander was found, the species has gone extinct. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Gabriela Parra-Olea; Sean M. Rovito; Mario García-París; Jessica A. Maisano; David B. Wake; James Hanken: Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico. PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2694.
[2] Christopher Kemp: Die verlorenen Arten: Große Expeditionen in die Sammlungen naturkundlicher Museen. Verlag Antje Kunstmann GmbH 2019

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edited: 06.09.2019

Peromyscus pembertoni Burt

Pemberton’s Deermouse (Peromyscus pembertoni)

Pemberton’s Deermouse was restricted to the Isla San Pedro Nolasco in the Culf of California, Baja California, Mexico.

The species reached a legth of about 21 cm (including the tail), its fur was cinnamon-colored and flecked with some fine darker lines the head was slightly ligther colored and the belly was white.

Pemberton’s Deermouse was described in 1932 based on 12 specimens that had been collected on December 26, 1931 by Dr. William Hendy Burt of the California Institute of Technology, it was never found again. 

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edited: 23.01.2020

Heteragrion azulum Dunkle

Blue Heteragrion Damselfly (Heteragrion azulum)

The Blue Heteragrion Damselfly was described in 1989 based on a single specimen, a male that was collected in Veracruz, Mexico. [1]

The species has apparently not been recorded since and might be extinct now.

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References:

[1] S. W. Dunkle: Heteragrion azulum spec nov., a new damselfly from Mexico (Zygoptera: Megapodagrionidae). Odonatologica 18: 195–197. 1989

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edited: 02.05.2022

Conasprella sauros (Garcia)

Sauros Cone Snail (Conasprella sauros)

This somewhat enigmatic species was described in 2006, apparently based on fossil shells that were collected from deposits that date back well into the Late Pleistocene era while some might well be younger in age.

The species has not yet been discovered alive and it might well be extinct, the question remains if this is a recent or an prehistoric extinction.

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References:

[1] Emilio Fabián Garcia: Conus sauros, a new Conus species (Gastropoda: Conidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Novapex 7(2-3): 71-76. 2006

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edited: 19.08.2022

Tehuana veracruzana (Rodríguez & Smalley)

Veracruz Freshwater Crab (Tehuana veracruzana)

The Veracruz Freshwater Crab was described in 1972.

The species inhabited the Los Tuxtlas region of Veracruz, Mexico, a small mountain range of volcanic origin, where it co-occurred together with at least five additional crab species. [1]

This species’ name appears in lists of extinct species, however, I could not find out anything else so far. 

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References:

[1] Fernando Alvarez: Smalleyus tricristatus, new genus, new species, and Pseudothelphusa parabelliana, new species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 102(1): 45-49. 1989

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edited: 07.05.2021

Plectrohyla siopela (Duellman)

Voiceless Treefrog (Plectrohyla siopela)

The Voiceless Treefrog was described in 1968, it was restricted to the western slope of the Cofre de Perote Mountain in the Sierra Madre Oriental in central Veracruz, Mexico, where the frogs inhabited dry pine forests spending the days hidden in crevices and under rocks behind small cascades of mountain streams.

The species reached a length of 4 to 5 cm, with the females being slightly larger than the males

The Voiceless Treefrog was once abundant but has not been seen since around 2010 and is now feared to have gone extinct.

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edited: 13.09.2019

Thorius pinicola Parra-Olea et al.

Pine-dwelling Minute Salamander (Thorius pinicola)

The Pine-dwelling Minute Salamander was described in 2016, it was found at several localities north of the village of San Miguel Suchixtepec in the Sierra Madre del Sur in Oaxaca, Mexico.

The terrestrial species inhabited montane pine-oak forests, where it was found almost always between the bark and wood of upright ree stumps.

The Pine-dwelling Minute Salamander reached a length of 5 cm, it was mainly blackish, its flanks were black suffused with fine white speckling, the back was decorated with a broad brassy copper dorsal band etched with thin black lines. 

The species was last seen in 2001 and may now already be extinct. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Gabriela Parra-Olea; Sean M. Rovito; Mario García-París; Jessica A. Maisano; David B. Wake; James Hanken: Biology of tiny animals: three new species of minute salamanders (Plethodontidae: Thorius) from Oaxaca, Mexico. PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2694.
[2] Christopher Kemp: Die verlorenen Arten: Große Expeditionen in die Sammlungen naturkundlicher Museen. Verlag Antje Kunstmann GmbH 2019

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edited: 06.09.2019

Toxostoma guttatum (Ridgway)

Cozumel Thrasher (Toxostoma guttatum)

The Cozumel Thrasher is, or rather was, endemic to Cozumel Island offshore the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico.

The species reaches a length of about 21 to 24 cm.

The Cozumel Thrasher’s population was declining due to habitat destruction, when several hurricanes hit the island, leading to a further decreasing in numbers; the species was thought to have gone extinct when in 2004 it was rediscovered, only to apparently getting completely wiped out by subsequent hurricanes. It is now most likely extinct.

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Photo: Naturalis Biodiversity Center

(public domain)

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edited: 22.08.2022

Peromyscus guardia ssp. ‘Isla Estanque’

Estanque Deermouse (Peromyscus guardia ssp.)

The Estanque Deermouse was endemic to the Isla Estanque, a tiny, only 0,83 km² large islet south to Isla Ángel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California, Baja California, Mexico. However, this particular population apparently was never officially described and may in fact have been identical to the nominate subspecies inhabiting Isla Ángel de la Guarda. 

Anyway, whether endemic or not, the deermice of Isla Estanque are gone now, the whole population appears to have been wiped out within a single year (1998 to 1999) by a single feral cat! [1]

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References:

[1] Ella Vázquez-Domínguez; Gerardo Ceballos; Juan Cruzado: Extirpation of an insular subspecies by a single introduced cat: the case of the endemic deer mouse Peromyscus guardia on Estanque Island, Mexico. Oryx 38(3): 347-350. 2004

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edited: 23.01.2020

Tryonia julimesensis Hershler, H. P. Liu & Landye

Julimes Tryonia (Tryonia julimesensis)

The Julimes Tryonia was discovered in 1991 and subsequently described in 2011.

The species was endemic to its type locality, a warm spring complex along the east side of the Río Conchos, where it formerly was very abundantly found in water with a temperature of about 44°C on hard substrate and in detritus which it apparently also fed upon.

The shells eached sizes of about 0,2 cm.

The only known habitat of the Julimes Tryonia was found excavated and draglined in 2001, no individual could be detected and the species is presumed extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; J. Jerry Landeye: New species and records of springsnails (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae: Tryonia) from the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico and United States), an imperiled biodiversity hotspot. Zootaxa 3001: 1-32. 2011

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edited: 02.05.2019

Thorius narismagnus Shannon & Werler

San Martin Pygmy Salamander (Thorius narismagnus)

The San Martin Pygmy Salamander was described in 1955 when the species was still very common.

The species was endemic to lowland forests at the foothills of the San Martin Tuxtla volcano in the Sierra de los Tuxtlas in southern Veracruz, Mexico, it inhabited the leaf-liiter on the ground and was also found under rotten logs and especially under fallen bromeliads.

San Martin Pygmy Salamander was not found since the 1980s and is now most likely extinct.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Peromyscus guardia ssp. mejiae Burt

Mejia Island Deermouse (Peromyscus guardia ssp. mejiae)

The Mejia Island Deermouse, described in 1932, was a subspecies of the Guarda Deermouse (Peromyscus guardia Townsend) and was endemic to the tiny Isla Mejía in the Gulf of California, Baja California, Mexico.

This mouse was last recorded in 1973 but disappeared sometimes after that date due to predation by introduced cats and competition by likewise introduced mice and rats. [1]

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References:

[1] Erik Mellink; Gerardo Ceballos; Jaime Luévano: Population demise and extinction threat of the Angel de la Guarda deer mouse (Peromyscus guardia) Biological Conservation 108: 107-111. 2007

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edited: 23.01.2020

Thorius infernalis Hanken, Wake & Freeman

Atoyac Minute Salamander (Thorius infernalis)

The Atoyac Minute Salamander was described in 1999, it was very likely aleady extinct at that date. The species is known from only two specimens which were apparently collected sometimes during the early 1980s.

The salamander was restricted to its type location in the Sierra Madre del Sur in central Guerrero, Mexico, were it apparently inhabited dense vegetation along hillsides, a habitat that today is mostly converted into coffee plantations.

The Atoyac Minute Salamander has never been found since the collection of the two type specimens and is thought to be already extinct.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Caracara lutosa (Ridgeway)

Guadalupe Caracara (Caracara lutosa 

The Guadalupe Caracara was described in 1876, it was restricted to the Isla Guadalupe in the Baja California wher it was the top predator.

The species is one of the few who disappeared directly due to hunting by humans; the birds were condemned by farmers to be vicious goat killers, which, of course, was complete nonsense, since the birds almost certainly did not hunt the goats themselves but just fed on deceased animals.

The species was already nearly extinct when on December 1, 1900 the infamous American collector Rollo Beck, in the course of a scientific epedition, encountered what probably were the last eleven existing birds. Not knowing that these might be the last surviving individuals of their species, he shot 9 of them and thereby eradicated the species quite incidentally.

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edited: 21.09.2020

Evarra eigenmanni Woolman

Plateau Chub (Evarra eigenmanni)

This Plateau Chub was described in 1894, it inhabited freshwater channels in the Chalco – and the Xochimilco-Tláhuac area in the Valley of Mexico, a region that is no longer existent due to the unstoppable growth of Mexico City.

The species apparently disappeared at around 1954.

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Depiction from: ‘David Starr Jordan; Barton Warren Evermann: The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum 1896-1900’

(public domain)

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edited: 10.05.2021

Thorius magnipes Hanke & Wake

Big-footed Salamander (Thorius magnipes)

The Big-footed Salamander was described in 1998, it was restricted to its type locality near the Acultzingo municipality in Veracruz, Mexico.

The ground-dwelling species inhabited pine-oak forests, were it could be found between the leaves axills of terrestrial bromeliads, but also under rocks and among the leaf-litter on the ground.

The Big-footed Salamander was last found in 2003 (as far as I know), and given the fact that its very restricted habitat is still being destroyed, this species is most likely already extinct now.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Desmodus draculae Morgan et al.

Giant Vampire Bat (Desmodus draculae)  

The Giant Vampire Bat was described in 1988 based on bones that were recovered from deposits of a cave in the state of Monagas, northern Venezuela. Further remains were found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Mexico.  

The exact age of these bones cannot be determined, they may be of late Pleistocene or early Holocene age, some scientists even think that this species may still exist. [1]  

***

The Giant Vampire Bat wasn’t a real giant, in fact it was only 30% larger than its next living relative, the Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy) (see photo).  

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References:  

[1] G. S. Morgan; O. J. Linares; C. E. Ray: New species of fossil vampire bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Desmodontidae) from Florida and Venezuela”. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 101(4): 912–928. 1988  

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Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy)  

Photo: Uwe Schmidt 

(under creative commons license (4.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0

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edited: 23.03.2018

Colaptes auratus ssp. rufipileus (Ridgeway)

Guadalupe Flicker (Colaptes auratus ssp. rufipileus 

The Guadalupe Flicker was a subspecies of the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus (L.)) that was endemic to the Isla Guadalupe off the west coast of Mexico’s Baja California Peninsula.

The bird reached a size of about 30 cm; it differed from most other subspecies by having a rather brown – instead of greyish crown.

***

The Guadalupe Flicker was last seen in 1906 when also the last 12 specimens were collected; its extinction was mainly caused by the complete destruction of the island’s native vegetation by introduced feral goats. 

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Photo: Arthur Chapman

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0

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edited: 02.11.2020

Aimophila ruficeps ssp. sanctorum van Rossem

Todos Santos Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps ssp. sanctorum)

The Todos Santos Rufous-crowned Sparrow was described in 1947, it was endemic to the Isla Todos Santos offshore Baja California Norte, Mexico.

This form is said to have been the dakerst of the coastal races of this species. 

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Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps (Cassin)); another subspecies

Photo: Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

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edited: 03.11.2020

Cylindrella pilocerei Pfeiffer

Cactus Spindle Snail (Cylindrella pilocerei)

The enigmatic Cactus Spindle Snail was described in1841; it is known from somewhere in Mexico (Guanajuato and Hidalgo?) and apparently was found hiding under the conspicuously elongated, hair-like modified spines of the so-called Old Man Cactus (Cephalocereus senilis (Haw.) Pfeiff.).:

C. pilocerei lebt auf Cactus, namentlich Pilocereus senilis.” [1]

Translation:

C. pilocerei lives on Cactus, namely Pilocereus senilis.

The taxonomic status of this species is somewhat questionable and, if it ever existed, it is now possibly extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Johann Christian Albers: Die Heliceen nach natürlicher Verwandtschaft systematisch geordnet. Zweite Ausgabe nach dem hinterlassenen Manuskript besorgt von Eduard von Martens. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann 1860
[2] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

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Photo: Naturalis Biodiversity Center
https://www.naturalis.nl 

(no copyright)

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edited: 17.05.2022

Thorius aureus Hanken & Wake

Golden Salamander (Thorius aureus)

The Golden Salamander was described in 1994, it was restricted to a small area around the peak of Cerro Pelón on the northern slopes of the Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

The ground-dwelling species inhabited pine-oak forests, where it was found among leaf-litter, like all of its congeners it was nocturnal and hid itself during daytime under rocks and fallen branches or logs.

The Golden Salamander reached lengths of about 5,5 cm, it was mainly blackish and had a distinct golden dorsal stripe spanning from its head to the end of its tail.

The species appears to have gone extinct sometime prior to 2008, when field surveys did not manage to finde even a single individual.

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edited: 06.09.2019

Neotoma martinensis Goldman

San Martín Island Woodrat (Neotoma martinensis)

The San Martín Island Woodrat was restricted to the Isla San Martín offshore the coast of Baja California Norte, Mexico.

Like its close relative, the Anthony’s Woodrat (Neotoma bryanti ssp. anthonyi J. A. Allen) on the Isla Todos Santos, this form was extirpated by feral cats that had been introduced to the island.

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edited: 03.11.2020

Pyrgulopsis brandi (Drake)

Brand’s Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis brandi)

Brand’s Pyrg was described in 1953, it was endemic to the thermal springs at las Palomas in Chihuahua, Mexico.

The springs at Las Palomas dried out in the 1970s, leading to the extinction of the endmic molusc fauna, inluding this species. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert Hershler: A review of the North American freshwater snail genus Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae). Smithsonian Libraries 554(554): 1-115. 1994

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edited: 01.05.2019

Cyprinodon inmemoriam Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas

La Trinidad Pupfish (Cyprinodon inmemoriam)

The La Trinidad Pupfish was described in 1993, when it was already extinct.

The species was discovered in March 1984 in a spring named Ojo de Agua La Trinidad in the city of Aramberri in Nuevo León, it was then found extinct, just 18 months later in October 1985.

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References:

[1] M. L. Lozano-Vilano; M. De La Maza-Beningnos: Diversity and status of Mexican killifishes. Journal of Fish Biology 90(1): 1-36. 2016

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edited: 27.05.2019

Urocyon sp. ‘Cozumel’

Cozumel Fox (Urocyon sp.)

The Cozumel Fox is an enigmatic, up to now undescribed species that is or was endemic to the island of Cozumel, Mexico.

The species is known from subfossil remains of which some have been recovered during archaeological excavations of Mayan middens, which date to an age of 1500 to 500 years.

The Cozumel Fox was smaller than its mainland congeners. [1]

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References:

[1] M. E. Gompper; A. E. Petrites; R. L. Lyman: Cozumel Island fox (Urocyon sp.) dwarfism and possible divergence history based on subfossil bones. Jouranl of Zoology 270(1): 72-77. 2006

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edited: 12.09.2019

Halictus pinguismentus Janjic & Packer

Guadalupe Sweat Bee (Halictus pinguismentus)  

The Guadalupe Sweat Bee was described in 2001 based on four specimens that had been collected almost 100 years prior (an exact date was not documented) on the Isla Guadalupe offshore the Mexican Baja California Peninsula.  

The original flora of this island is almost completely lost, thus this bee species is thought to be very likely extinct.  

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edited: 23.03.2018

Peromyscus maniculatus ssp. cineritius

Roque Deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus ssp. cineritius)

This subspecies of the North American Deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner)) was endemic to the Isla San Roque in the Baja California, Mexico.

The island population disappeared due to the introduction of cats, which not only preyed upon the mice but also largely destroyed the seabird colonies.

***

This subspecies is not accepted by all zoologists.

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edited: 23.01.2020

Lithobates tlaloci (Hillis & Frost)

Tlaloc’s Leopard Frog (Lithobates tlaloci)

Tlaloc’s Leopard Frog was only described in 1985.

The species was restricted to wetland areas in the vicinity of southern Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, these areas disappeared due to urbanisation, leading to the. extinction of this fro species.

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edited: 16.04.2019

Regulus calendula ssp. obscurus Ridgway

Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula ssp. obscurus)  

The Ruby-crowned Kinglet is a very small bird found throughout North America, two subspecies are recognized, both of which are migratory birds. The birds that formerly inhabited Isla Guadalupe offshore Baja California / Mexico are still officially regarded as a third subspecies.  

***

The Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglet was described in the year 1876, the birds reached sizes of 9 to 11 cm and differed markedly from the two mainland races. The birds from Guadalupe were sedentary, not migratory, they had a dark brownish tinged body plumage and a pink, not red crown patch. The vocalizations were different as well.  

In my opinion these differences indicate that the birds from Guadalupe should rather be treated as a distinct species than as a subspecies.  

The last Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglets were reported in 1953, all subsequent searches failed to find them and the (sub)species is now considered extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Lorenzo Quintana-Barrios; Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos; Philip Unitt; Richard A. Erickson: Update on the birds of Isla Guadalupe, Baja California. Western Birds 37: 23-36. 2006

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edited: 17.10.2020

Peromyscus guardia ssp. guardia Townsend

La Guarda Deermouse (Peromyscus guardia ssp. guardia)

The La Guarda Deermouse, also known as Angel Island Mouse, was described in 1912, the species is restricted to the Isla Ángel de la Guarda and several of the nearby smaller islets in the Gulf of California, Baja California, Mexico.

The nominate form inhabited the largest of the islands, Isla Ángel de la Guarda.

The La Guarda Deermouse with all its subspecies is now considered extinct, it fell victim to predation by introduced feral cats as well as competition by likewise introduced House Mice (Mus musculus L.), which now are found all over these islands.

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edited: 23.01.2020

Amphinaias couchiana (Lea)

Rio Grande Monkeyface (Amphinaias couchiana)  

The Rio Grande Monkeyface is known, on the one hand, from subfossil remains from the Pecos River drainage in New Mexico, USA, but on the other hand also from live specimens from the Rio Grande in Texas, USA as well as from the Río Conchos in Chihuahua and from the Río Salado in Tamaulipas (both in Mexico).  

The last living specimes of this species have been collected in the year 1898 near Bracketville in the Kinney County in Texas.  

***

The Rio Grande Monkeyface is very possibly extinct, there exists, however, a vaguely possibility, that a population may still survive at least somewhere in Mexico.

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edited: 13.12.2012

Ecnomiohyla echinata (Duellman)

Oaxaca Mountainforest Tree Frog (Ecnomiohyla echinata 

The Oaxaca Mountainforest Tree Frog is known only from the type locality, the cloud forest at an elevation of about 2000 m at the northern slopes of the Sierra de Juárez Mountains in Oaxaca, Mexican.  

The species was last recorded in the year 1962, and is considered most probably extinct.  

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edited: 27.05.2019

Oceanodroma macrodactyla (W. E. Bryant)

Guadelupe Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma macrodactyla)  

The Guadelupe Storm-Petrel, a 23 cm long sea bird which was locally named as Paino or Petrel de Guadalupe, bred exclusively in the native pine resp. cypress forests of the about 280 km² large island of Guadalupe about 240 km offshore the Baja California peninsula. Almost the entire vegetation of this island was destroyed by feral goats that had been introduced in the 19th century, hence many of the native birds lost their habitat.  

Storm-Petrels are very good flyers, which find their food by flying along the surface of the sea, picking up everything edible.  

For breeding, however, they need to come to land, where they breed in self-dug burrows. As soon as they land on the forest floor and waddle towards their breeding burrow, they are extremely vulnerable to predation by introduced feral cats – and indeed feral cats are the main reason for the extinction of the Guadelupe Storm-Petrel (and at least four additional endemic bird forms).  

The last Guadalupe Storm-Petrel was seen in the year 1912.  

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References:  

[1] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986 
[2] Errol Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987  

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Depiction from: ‘Frederick Du Cane Godman: A Monograph of the Petrels (Order Tubinares). London: Witherby & Co. 1907-1910’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 17.10.2020

Pachychilus saussurei (Brot)

Saussure’s Jute Snail (Pachychilus saussurei 

This species, described in 1860, is known only from its type locality in the state of Hidalgo: swampy woods along the Rio Grande somewhere between Mexico City and the city of Tampico.  

This species could not be traced during recent visits to the type locality and is considered most likely extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Fred G. Thompson: An annotated checklist and bibliography of the land and freshwater snails of México and Central America. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 50(1): 1-299. 2011

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edited: 04.11.2020

Tryonia hertleini (Drake)

Hertlein’s Tryonia (Tryonia hertleini)

Hertlein’s Tryonia was described in 1956.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,25 to 0,32 cm in heigth. 

Hertlein’s Tryonia was restricted to a single locality near the terminus of the Río Casas Grandes drainage in Chihuahua, Mexico, close to the border to New Mexico, USA, which today is completely dry.  

The species is now considered extinct. [1][2]  

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References:

[1] Robert Hershler: Systematics of the North and Central American aquatic snail genus Tryonia (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae) Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 612: 1-53. 2001
[2] Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; J. Jerry Landeye: New species and records of springsnails (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae: Tryonia) from the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico and United States), an imperiled biodiversity hotspot. Zootaxa 3001: 1-32. 2011

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edited: 02.05.2019

Chaetodipus rudinoris ssp. fornicatus Burt

Montserrate Island Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus rudinoris ssp. fornicatus)

The Montserrat Island Pocket Mouse is one of six subspecies of Baja Pocket Mouse (Chaetodipus rudinoris (Elliot)), it was restricted to the Isla Montserrate, a small island in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

The subspecies disappeared due to predation by introduced feral cats; it was last recorded in 1975 and is now considered extinct.

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edited: 01.11.2020

Hesperelaea palmeri A. Gray

Palmer’s Hesperelaea (Hesperelaea palmeri)  

This species was described in 1876, it was the sole member of its monotypic genus.  

Palmer’s Hesperelaea was a rather compact tree-like shrub, 6 to 7 m tall, the leaves were up to 5 cm long and broadly lanceolate, the flowers were pale yellow.  

The species was endemic to the Isla Guadalupe, located 241 km off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. It was already restricted to a relict population in a single canyon on the east side of the island when it was discovered in 1875.  

The island was heavily destroyed by introduced goats, which ate almost the entire vegetation, Palmer’s Hesperelaea was only one of several victims of their unappeasable hunger.  

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References:  

[1] Reid Moran: The flora of Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 19: 1-190. 1996  

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Photo from: ‘Reid Moran: The flora of Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 19: 1-190. 1996’ 

(under creative commons license (3.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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edited: 07.11.2017

Peromyscus guardia ssp. harbisoni Banks

Granito Deermouse (Peromyscus guardia ssp. harbisoni)

The Granito Deermouse, described in 1967, was a subspecies of the Guarda Deermouse (Peromyscus guardia Townsend) and was restricted to the small Isla Granito in the Gulf of California, Baja California, Mexico.

The whole species, including its three named and one unnamed subspecies, is now extinct.

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edited: 23.01.2020

Evarra bustamantei Navarro

Mexican Chub (Evarra bustamantei)

The Mexican Chub is one of three known species in this genus, all of them are now extinct due to habitat loss.

***

This Mexican Chub was described in 1955, it inhabited canals and streams in the Valley of Mexico, a plateau in central Mexico that now is nearly completely overbuilt by Mexico City, one of the largest cities on the planet.

The species died out at around 1983 as a result of the complete drying of the water bodies in the valley due to the withdrawal of water by the agriculture and the unstoppable growth of the city and its suburbs.

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edited: 20.01.2020

Peromyscus slevini Mailliard

Slevin’s Deermouse (Peromyscus slevini)

Slevin’s Deermouse was described in 1924, the species is, or most likely was, endemic to Isla Santa Catalina, southern Baja California, Mexico.

The species reached a size of about 21 cm (including the tail), it was formerly very abundant and, in contrast to mainland species of its genus, was even found out in the daytime.

Slevin’s Deermouse was not found in recent surveys, when several deermouse individuals were caught, which again were later identified as belonging to another species, Cactus Deermouse (Peromyscus eremicus (Baird)) which apparently had been accidentally introduced to the island by fishermen sometimes prior. [1]

The endemic deermice of Isla Santa Catalina are now almost certainly extinct.

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References:

[1] Sergio Ticul Alvarez-Castañeda; Patricia Cortés-Calva: Mammalian Species 705: 1-2. 2002

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edited: 23.01.2020

Ixalotriton parva (Lynch & Wake)

Dwarf False Brook Salamander (Ixalotriton parva)

The Dwarf False Brook Salamander was restricted to the Cerro Baul Mountains in eastern Oaxaca, Mexico, where it inhabited montane cloud forests at an altitude of about 1600 m.

The habitat of the species is now more or less destroyed by logging, the species was last recorded in 2007 and might now well be extinct.

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edited: 19.01.2020

Tremarctos floridanus (Gildey)

Florida Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos floridanus)  

The short-faced bears, so named for the shape of their skulls, which appear to have a disproportionately short snout compared to other bears, are a subfamily (Tremarctinae) of the bears that are/were restricted to the Americas. Only a single species survives until today, the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus (Cuvier)) of South America.  

***

The Florida Spectacled Bear, described in 1928 based on fossil bones from Pleistocene deposits, inhabited the southern parts of North America, including Mexico, as well as Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, and Tennessee, USA.  

The species differed from its South American counterpart by its much larger size and its heavier proportions.  

The Florida Spectacled Bear was mainly a Pleistocene species and disappeared at the end of that epoch, however, bones of the species, found at Delvil’s Den, a flooded karst cave in Florida, were dated to an age of about 8000 BC, indicating that the species may have survived for a somewhat longer time. [1]  

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References:  

[1] B. Kurtén; E. Anderson: Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press 1980  

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edited: 04.11.2017

Pseudoeurycea praecellens (Rabb)

Admirable False Brook Salamander (Pseudoeurycea praecellens)

The Admirable False Brook Salamander is known exclusively from a single specimen that was found in 1954 (or 1940 according to other sources).

This very small species, which reached a total length of only about 6,5 cm, inhabited the tropical humid forest at a small place named as Hacienda El Potrero near the city of Cordoba, a city that since of course has largely increased its expansion.

The Admirable False Brook Salamander was never found since, despite intensive searches, and is most likely extinct.

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Depiction from: ‘George B. Rabb: A new salamander of the genus Parvimolge from Mexico. Breviora 42: 1-9. 1959’

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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edited: 23.11.2018