Category Archives: plants

Sphyrospermum spruceanum Sleumer

(Sphyrospermum spruceanum)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the type that was found in 1860 near the foot of Mt. Chimborazo in central Ecuador.

The species was an epiphyte with subterete twigs and small elliptic leaves; it was superficially quite similar to the Boxwood-leaved Sphyrospermum (Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl.)

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Boxwood-leaved Sphyrospermum (Sphyrospermum buxifolium)

Photo: Mariu Avila
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/mariubio
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 17.01.2024

Cinnamomum trintaense Kosterm.

Trinta Cinnamon (Cinnamomum trintaense)

This species is, or was, restricted to the state of Perak in Peninsular Malaysia, where it was found growing in dense limestone forests at rather low altitudes; it is known only from material that was collected in 1883 and, having never been recorded subsequently, might now well be extinct. [1]

***

The photo below shows an congeneric species, the Javan Cinnamon (Cinnamomum javanicum Blume), which has a wide distribution that includes parts of Indonesia but also Peninsular Malaysia.

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Javan Cinnamon (Cinnamomum javanicum)

Photo: plantboyofsingapore
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/plantboyofsingapore
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References:

[1] R. P. J. de Kok: A revision of Cinnamomum Schaeff. (Lauraceae) for Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 71(1): 89-139. 2019

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edited: 25.02.2024

Mussaenda sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’

Marquesan Mussaenda (Mussaenda sp.)

This form is known from subfossil seeds that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.

The next relative is most likely the Raiatean Mussaenda (Mussaenda raiateensis J. W. Moore) (see photo below), which is still found in other parts of Polynesia, including the Society Islands; the seeds of the Marquesan form, however, differ from the living one and thus represent a distinct, now extinct form that most likely was endemic to the archipelago. [1]

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Photo:  Peter de Lange
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/pjd1
(public domain)

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References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

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edited: 26.01.2024

Cinnamomum englerianum Schewe

Engler’s Cinnamon (Cinnamomum englerianum)

This species is known from only two collections that were obtained at the early 1900s from a single locality along the Sepik river in Papua New Guinea.

The lowland areas in that region are now highly disturbed due to deforestation and this species might indeed be extinct now.

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The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species (Cinnamomum sp.) that was photographed in Papua New Guinea.

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unspecified Cinnamon species (Cinnamomum sp.)

Photo: Kellie Uyeda
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/kuyeda
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 24.02.2024

Quercus pinbianensis (Y. C. Hsu & H. Wei Jen) C. C. Huang & Y. T. Chang

Pinbian Oak (Quercus pinbianensis)

The Pinbian Oak is known only from a small region in Yunnan, China; however, the locality where this species was originally found, has high intensity agriculture now.

The species was last seen in 1953 and is believed to be possibly extinct. 

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The photo below shows another species of that genus, the very widespread Ring-cupped Oak (Quercus glauca Thunb.) which also occurs naturally in many parts of China.

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Ring-cupped Oak (Quercus glauca)

Photo: Ran Dai
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/randai
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 05.05.2022

Acalypha fragilis Pax & K. Hoffm.

Fragile Copperleaf (Acalypha fragilis)

This species was described in 1937; apparently based on material that had been collected three years prior.

The Fragile Copperleaf is a tree that had a very restricted distribution in the Caatinga (a semi-arid tropical vegetation typical for interior north-eastern Brazil) in the Crato region in the state of Ceará, north-eastern Brazil.

The species was never found since and is believed to be possibly extinct.

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edited: 28.01.2024

Peperomia beckeri E. F. Guim. & R. J. V. Alves

Becker’s Peperomia (Peperomia beckeri)

Becker’s Peperomia was described in 1998 “from an old but well preserved herbarium specimen” that had been collected in 1965; it was endemic to the Ilha da Trindade some 1500 km offshore the eastern coast of Brazil, an island that suffered extremely from the introduction of feral mammals, especially goats that had been introduced already in 1700. These goats ate away nearly the whole vegetation of the island, leading to the complete loss of the former forest.:

Before 1821, however, something or some event had killed them – killed them all – leaving a weird landscape of standing corpses. It was, in the words of one who saw it, “a forest of desolation, as if nature had at some particular moment ceased to vegetate.”” [1]

When the goats were finally removed from the island in 2005, the flora recovered very quickly, especially the fern species, which apparently survived in the form of spores in the ground. Becker’s Peperomia, however, was never found again, despite field searches. [3]

***

The species was believed to have been rediscovered in 2009, however, these plants later turned out to have been another, misidentified species. [2][3]

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References:

[1] Richard H. Eyde; Storrs L. Olson: The dead trees of Ilha da Trindade. Bartonia 49: 32-51. 1983
[2] R. J. V. Alves; N. G. da Silva; A. Aguirre-Muñoz: Return of endemic plant populations on Trindade Island, Brazil, with comments on the fauna. In: C. R. Veitch; M. N. Clout; D. R. Towns (eds.): Island Invasives: Eradication and Management. pages 259-263. 2011
[3] Nílber Gonçalves da Silva; Ruy José Válka Alves; Lana da Silva Sylvestre; Ruy Barreto dos Santos: Two rediscoveries and one extinction for the flora of Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Survey 140(2): 230-235. 2013

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edited: 03.05.2022

Hymenophyllum sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Filmy-Fern (Hymenophyllum sp.)

This genus almost certainly once occurred on Rapa Nui; I personally have no idea if there are spore findings to prove that or if this name appears in the listing mentioned below just as a hypothetical account. [1] 

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References:  

[1] Jean-François Butaud: Inventaire des espèces natives de l’île de Pâques, pp. 138-139. In: l’île de Pâques. Le nombril du monde? MUSEO Éditions 2018

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edited: 21.01.2022

Eugenia minguetii Urb.

Minguet’s Eugenia (Eugenia minguetii)

Minguet’s Eugenia is, or maybe was, endemic to the Massif du Nord, Haiti on the island of Hispaniola.

The area is subject to ongoing heavy deforestation and the plant, which was last seen in 1924, may well already be extinct.

***

The photo below shows a closely related yet far mor widespread species, the Boxleaf Stopper (Eugenia foetida Pers.) which is also found in some regions of Haiti.

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Boxleaf Stopper (Eugenia foetida)

Photo: Juan Gabriel
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/juan_7
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 11.02.2024

Psychotria sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Psychotria (Psychotria sp.)

The Rapa Nui Psychotria is known from subfossil pollen that was collected from deposits on the island of Rapa Nui. [1]

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References:

[1] Catherine Orliac: Données nouvelles sur la composition de la flore de l’île de Pâques. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 107: 135-143. 1998

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edited: 03.09.2020

Cryptocarya sumbawaensis Kosterm.

Sumbawa Cryptocarya (Cryptocarya sumbawaensis)

The Sumbawa Cryptocarya is known from a single locality on the island of Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands in southern Indonesia, where it was found in 1961.

The species might possibly be extinct.

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The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed on the island of Java, Indonesia.

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unspecified Cryptocarya species (Cryptocarya sp.)

Photo: Ganjar Cahyadi
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/ganjarcahyadi
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 26.02.2024

Carex vicinalis Boott

Neighboring Sedge (Carex vicinalis)

This sedge was described in 1867; it is known only from the type material that was collected somewhere in the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu, India.

The species might be extinct.

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edited: 15.08.2022

Ranunculus fraelensis Dunkel

Sonodrio Buttercup (Ranunculus fraelensis)

This species was described in 2010 during a revision of its genus; it was restricted to a locality near Sonodrio, a city in the Lombardy region of Italy.

The only known site of occurrence was inundated in 1953 after the construction of a dam. [1]

The Sonodrio Buttercup is a member of the Goldilocks Buttercup (Ranunculus auricomus L.) aggregation (see depiction below) which contains many hundreds more, very similar so-called agamospecies.

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Goldilocks Buttercup (Ranunculus auricomus s. str.)

Depiction from: ‘Jacob Sturm: Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen. Nürnberg, gedruckt auf Kosten des Verfassers 1798-1862’

(public domain)

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References: 

[1] Franz G. Dunkel: The Ranunculus auricomus L. complex (Ranunculaceae) in Northern Italy. Journal of Plant Taxonomy and geography 65(2): 179-227. 2010
[2] Thomas Abeli; Giulia Albani Rocchetti; Zoltan Barina; Ioannis Bazos; David Draper; Patrick Grillas; José María Iriondo; Emilio Laguna; Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz; Fabrizio Bartolucci: Seventeen ‘extinct’ plant species back to conservation attention in Europe. Nature Plants 7: 282-286. 2021

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edited: 25.02.2024

Gomphandra lancifolia Merr.

Lance-leaved Gomphandra (Gomphandra lancifolia)

The Lance-leaved Gomphandra is known only from its type locality in dry lowland forest at Mt. Dingalan on the island of Luzon, Philippines.

The species was described in 1920.:

A glabrous tree, about 6 m high. 

A species well characterized by its lanceolate, subcaudate-acuminate, few-nerved leaves which are subequally narrowed to both base and apex, as well as by its rather large fruits.
” [1]

The whole region of the type locality has been logged since the 1990s, thus it is highly unlikely that this regional endemic species still survives, it is very likely extinct now.

***

The photo below shows a congeneric taxon, the Luzon Gomphandra (Gomphandra luzoniensis (Merr.) Merr.), a rather widespread species that also occurs naturally in the Philippine Islands.

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Luzon Gomphandra (Gomphandra luzoniensis)

Photo: Ah Jin
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/yctsai0602
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References:

[1] Elmer D. Merrill: New or noteworthy Philippine plants, XVI. The Philippine Journal of Science 17: 239-325. 1920

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edited: 11.02.2024

Acalypha flaccida Hook. f.

Flaccid Copperleaf (Acalypha flaccida)

The Flaccid Copperleaf is known only from the type material that was collected in the middle of the 19th century on Isla Santiago, Galápagos Islands by Charles Darwin himself.

The species is, or maybe was, an erect annual herb with hirsute stems and about 2 to 4 cm long and 1,5 to 3 cm wide leaves. [1]

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References:  

[1] I. Loren Wiggins; D. M. Porter; E. F. Anderson: Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press 1971 

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edited: 11.06.2020

Triclisia hypochrysea Diels

Round-leaved Climber (Triclisia hypochrysea)

This species is only known from the type material which was collected in 1890 in the surroundings of Libreville in Gabon.

The species has never been found since and is thought to be extinct.

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edited: 29.01.2024

Alseodaphne micrantha Kostermans

Small Alseodaphne (Alseodaphne micrantha)

This species is known from specimens that were collected during the first half of the 20th century at a single locality along a road in the state of Johor, Malaysia.

The species has not been found since and might well be extinct now.

***

The photo below shows another unspecified species of the same genus.

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unspecified Alseodaphne species (Alseodaphne sp.)

Photo: ytt
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/ytt
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 

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edited: 14.01.2024

Ampelocissus helferi (M. A. Lawson) Planch.

Helfer’s Ampelocissus Wine (Ampelocissus helferi)

This climbing wine was described in 1887; it inhabits the forests of the Andaman Islands in the north-eastern Indian Ocean.

The species is known from only two collections that were both made around the same time; it might be still existing but is mentioned here for the sake of completeness.

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syn. Vitis helferi M. A. Lawson

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edited: 15.08.2022

Selaginella cataractarum Alston

Down-pouring Spikemoss (Selaginella cataractarum)

This species is known from Tamil Nadu, India; it is now apparently extinct.

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The photo below shows some unspecified Spikemoss species that was photographed in Tamil Nadu, India.

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unspecified Spikemoss species (Selaginella sp.)

Photo: Deepika
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/vpdeepika
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References: 

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Christopher Roy Fraser-Jenkins; Barbara S. Parris; Xian-Chun Zhang; Yue-Hong Yang; Wen-Liang Chiou; Ho-Ming Chang; Stuart Lindsay; David Middleton; Masahiro Kato; Titien Ngatinem Praptosuwiryo; Victor B. Amoroso; Julie F. Barcelona; Rajapaksha Haddokara Gedara Ranil; Chan-Ho Park; Noriaki Murakami; Akihiko Hoya: Rare and Threatened Pteridophytes of Asia 1. An Enumeration of Narrowly Distributed Taxa1. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Ser. B 38(3): 93–119. 2012

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edited: 12.02.2024

Dicliptera maclearii Hemsley

Maclear’s Dicliptera (Dicliptera maclearii)

Maclear’s Dicliptera was described in 1890; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was originally found to be “common on [the] shore platform” [1] but has not been seen since the 1960s and might now be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 18.02.2024

Tetramolopium conyzoides (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Horseweed-like Pamakani (Tetramolopium conyzoides)

This species is an upright shrub with copious pubescence, it was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands but is thought to be extinct now.

It was probably restricted to dry forests which are now largely destroyed by introduced ungulates. [1]

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References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986

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edited: 15.01.2019

Lupinus cusickii ssp. abortivus (Greene) B. J. Cox

Sewage Lupine (Lupinus cusickii ssp. abortivus)

Cusick’s Lupine (Lupinus cusickii S. Watson) (see photo below), an Oregon endemic, is a small, blue-purple flowering species that prefers to grow on eroding mountain slopes. The species can be divided into at least three varieties, all of which are critically endangered. 

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This variety, named for the type location (near stinking water), was endemic to northern Harney County, where the last plants were found in 1896; it is now very likely extinct.

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syn. Lupinus aridus var. abortivus (Greene) C. P. Sm.

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Cusick’s Lupine (Lupinus cusickii); nominate form

Photo: Carmel Cameron
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/carmel34
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References: 

[1] Robert J. Meinke: Threatened and endangered vascular plants of Oregon: An illustrated guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Endangered Species, Region 1. 1982 

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edited: 11.02.2024

Breonia richardsonii Razafim.

Richardson’s Breonia (Breonia richardsonii)

This species has been described in 2002 on the basis of herbarium material that had been collected in 1965 from a lowland forest in the Maroantsetra District in the Toamasina Province of Madagascar.

This species is very different from other species of Breonia because of its tubular, ap- pressed inflorescence bracts with 3 to 4 broadly triangular lobes and post-anthesis fusion of adjacent ovaries.” [1]

The species has not been recorded since the type material was collected and is either extremely rare or even already extinct.

***

The photo below shows a related species, Perrier’s Breonia (Breonia perrieri Homolle), which is likewise endemic to Madagscar.

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Perrier’s Breonia (Breonia perrieri)

Photo: merveille
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/bmerveille
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References:

[1] Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison: A systematical revision of Breonia (Rubiaceae-Naucleeae). annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89(1): 1-37. 2002

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edited: 26.02.2024

Psychotria cuneifolia DC.

Wedge-leaved Psychotria (Psychotria cuneifolia)  

This species is known only by the type material that was collected in the Guayaquil area of the Guayas province in Ecuador.

The area where this species was known from is relatively well collected, yet this species was apparently never found again since the type collection more than 180 years ago

The species is considered most likely extinct.

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The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed in the same locality.

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unspecified Psychotria (Psychotria sp.)

Photo: Raúl Tomalá
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/rault_bosqueseco
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 03.09.2020

Ericaceae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

(Ericaceae gen. & sp.)

Some member of the heath family (Ericaceae) formerly occurred on Rapa Nui, it is either known based on subfossil wood remains or from subfossil pollen.

This may have been a species from the genus Leptecophylla.

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References:  

[1] Jean-François Butaud: Inventaire des espèces natives de l’île de Pâques, pp. 138-139. In: l’île de Pâques. Le nombril du monde? MUSEO Éditions 2018

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edited: 21.01.2022

Drimia polyphylla (Hook. f.) Ansari & Sundararagh

Many-leaved Drimia (Drimia polyphylla)

The Many-leaved Drimia was described in 1980; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the hill slopes of the Deccan Plateau in Maharashtra, India.

The species was not seen since over 120 years and might well be extinct.

***

syn. Indurgia polyphylla (Hook. f.) Speta, Thuranthos polyphyllus (Hook. f.) Speta, Urginea polyphylla Hook. f.


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edited: 20.08.2022

Araliaceae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

(Araliaceae gen. & sp.)

This taxon is apparently known from subfossil remains (pollen?) that were found on the island of Rapa Nui.

There are several endemic genera of this family found in Polynesia, it is thus possible that Rapa Nui too had its own endemic genus, at least its own endemic species.

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References:  

[1] Jean-François Butaud: Inventaire des espèces natives de l’île de Pâques, pp. 138-139. In: l’île de Pâques. Le nombril du monde? MUSEO Éditions 2018

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edited: 13.01.2024

Garcinia klabang Miq.

Bangka Garcinia (Garcinia klabang)

The Bangka Garcinia was described in 1861; it is endemic to the island of Bangka, offshore eastern Sumatra, Indonesia.

The species appears to be extinct now.

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edited: 31.01.2024

Agelanthus guineensis Polhill & Wiens

Guinea Mistletoe (Agelanthus guineensis)

This species, described in 1997, is, or was, restricted to the forests in northern Guinea in West Africa; it is apparently known only from the type material which was collected in 1956.

The species was never found since the collection of the type and is believed to be extinct.

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The photo below shows an additional congeneric species, the Dodonaea-leaved Mistletoe (Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC.) Polhill & Wiens), a species that also occurs in Guinea.

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Dodonaea-leaved Mistletoe (Agelanthus dodoneifolius)

Photo: Rob Palmer
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/rob_palmer
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

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edited: 15.01.2024

Rhododendron wilhelminae Hochr.

Wilhelmina’s Rhododendron (Rhododendron wilhelminae)

Wilhelmina’s Rhododendron, described in 1925, is known from only a single locality in the vicinity of the crater of Mt. Salak in the Gunung Halimun Salak National Park on the island of Java, Indonesia, where it was found growing amongst other shrubs at an elevation of about 1350 m.

The taxon was not found since its description and may be extinct now.

However, it may, however, not be a real species but instead a natural hybrid of the Javan Rhododendron (Rhododendron javanicum (Blume) Benn.) and the Malayan Rhododendron (Rhododendron malayanum Jack) (see photo below), which obviously both grow at the same locality.

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Malayan Rhododendron (Rhododendron malyanum)

Photo: Dick Culbert
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.de

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edited: 19.02.2023

Asteraceae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Shrubby Aster (Asteraceae gen. & sp.)

At least six (!) different types of Asteraceae pollen are known from Easter Island’s deposits, most of which were recovered from the Rano Aroi crater at the Ma’unga Terevaka volcano, the largest and tallest of Rapa Nui’s volcanoes. This material, however, can only be assigned to a tribe within the family Asteraceae, to the Tubuliflorae, now known as Asteroideae, a group that is represented in the Polynesian region mainly by the very large genus Bidens.

This genus occurs with as many as at least 59 species, subspecies and varieties all over central, eastern and northern Polynesia. The place closest to Rapa Nui, the Pitcairn Islands, harbor at least two endemic species, the Henderson Island Beggarticks (Bidens hendersonensis Sherff) and the Pitcairn Beggarticks (Bidens mathewsii Sherff). Thus, it is absolutely possible that additional species also once inhabited Rapa Nui.

It appears that this species, or these species, disappeared quite recently, maybe shortly before the island was discovered by European seafarers. [1][2]

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References:

[1] J. R. Flenley; Sarah M. King: Late Quaternary pollen records from Easter Island. Nature 307: 47-50. 1984
[2] J. R. Flenley; Sarah M. King; Joan Jackson; C. Chew; J. T. Teller; M. E. Prentice: The Late Quaternary vegetational and climatic history of Easter Island. Journal of Quaternary Science 6(2): 85-115. 1991

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edited: 22.06.2020

Oreogrammitis kunstleri Parris

Kunstler’s Grammitis Fern (Oreogrammitis kunstleri)

This species is known only from Peninsular Malaysia, where it is now apparently extinct. [1]

***

The photo below shows a congeneric species, the Many-leaved Grammitis Fern (Oreogrammitis multifoliaCopel.), which is also found in Peninsular Malaysia.

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Many-leaved Grammitis Fern (Oreogrammitis multifolia)

Photo: Barbara Parris
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/barbaraparris
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References: 

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Christopher Roy Fraser-Jenkins; Barbara S. Parris; Xian-Chun Zhang; Yue-Hong Yang; Wen-Liang Chiou; Ho-Ming Chang; Stuart Lindsay; David Middleton; Masahiro Kato; Titien Ngatinem Praptosuwiryo; Victor B. Amoroso; Julie F. Barcelona; Rajapaksha Haddokara Gedara Ranil; Chan-Ho Park; Noriaki Murakami; Akihiko Hoya: Rare and Threatened Pteridophytes of Asia 1. An Enumeration of Narrowly Distributed Taxa1. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Ser. B 38(3): 93–119. 2012

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edited: 01.03.2024

Dicliptera abuensis Blatt.

Mt. Abu Dicliptera (Dicliptera abuensis)

The Mt. Abu Dicliptera was described in 1931; the species is known only from the type that was collected in 1916.

The species was endemic to the Dhobi Ghats at Mount Abu in Rajasthan, India, where it inhabited wet and shady habitats.

***

The photo below shows a related taxon, the Panicled Foldwing (Dicliptera paniculata (Forssk.) I. Darbysh.), which is also found in Rajasthan, India.

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Panicled Foldwing (Dicliptera paniculata)

Photo: Sonu Kumar
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/sonukumar055
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 12.02.2024

Calamus dilaceratus Becc.

Lacerating Calamus Palm (Calamus dilaceratus)

This palm species was described in 1902; it is apparently endemic to Great Nicobar Island in the Nicobar Islands group in the Indian Ocean.

The species is known only by its type, which had been collected in 1888, it is very likely extinct now.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed on the Nicobar Islands.

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unspecified Calamus palm species (Calamus sp.)

Photo: Jonathan M
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/isidoreajar
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 05.02.2024

Eugenia guayaquilensis (Kunth.) DC.

Guayaquil Eugenia (Eugenia guayaquilensis)

The Guayaquil Eugenia is known exclusively from the type specimen that was collected some time before 1823 near the city of Guayaquil, the capital city of the Guayas province of Ecuador.

The species was never recorded since and is very likely extinct.

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edited: 18.01.2020

Aspidopterys tomentosa var. hutchinsonii R. C. Srivast.

Hutchinson’s Tomentose Aspidopterys Liana (Aspidopterys tomentosa var. hutchinsonii)

This variety of the Tomentose Aspidopterys Liana (Aspidopterys tomentosa (Blume) A. Juss.) (see photo below) was described in 1985; it is only known from the type material that was found in 1937 (?) somewhere in the Mayurbhanj Hills in Odisha, India.

The plant was never found again since and might well be extinct now.

***

syn. Aspidopterys hutchinsonii Haines

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Tomentose Aspidopterys Liana (Aspidopterys tomentosa), nominate form

Photo: Liu Guangyu
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/liuguangyu
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Eulophia grandidieri H. Perrier

Grandidier’s Harlequin Orchid (Eulophia grandidieri)

This terrestrial species is known exclusively from its type which had been collected in 1901 near the city of Toamasina in eastern Madagascar, a region that is now almost completely deforested.

The species is very likely extinct.

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Saurauia minutiflora K. M. Wong

Small-flowered Saurauia (Saurauia minutiflora)

This species was described in 2017; it is a small, only about 3 m tall treelet that is known only from the type locality at the Sungai Berangan River in the Malaysian part of Borneo.

The only known locality has been affected by the development of the hydroelectric dam which led to the degradation of the forest.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed on the island of Borneo, Indonesia.

*********************

unspecified Saurauia species (Saurauia sp.)

photo: Shawn O’Donnell
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/shawnodonnell
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 20.02.2024

Tragia pogostemonoides Radcl.-Sm.

Pogostemon-like Tragia (Tragia pogostemonoides)

This species is only know from the type material that was collected in 1937 at Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, an region that is now urbanized, the plant is thus very likely already extinct.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric taxon that was photographed at a different spot in Tanzania.

*********************

unspecified Tragia species (Tragia sp.)

Photo: monklet
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/monklet
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 12.02.2024

Begonia wengeri C. E. C. Fisch.

Wenger’s Begonia (Begonia wengeri)

Wenger’s Begonia was described in 1932; it is apparently known exclusively from the type material which was collected on moist shady banks along water bodies in the undergrowth of the evergreen forests in the southern Lushai Hills in Mizoram, India.

The species was not found since and might be extinct.

***

The photo below shows another, unspecified congeneric species that was photographed in Mizoram, India.

*********************

unspecified Begonia species (Begonia sp.)

Photo: Kedar
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/kedartambe
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 15.08.2022

Cissus notabilis Doweld

Remarkable Cissus Wine (Cissus notabilis)

This species was described in 1887; it is known only from two collection that both were obtained some 125 years ago, one in West Bengal and the other one in Sikkim, India.

The species was an erect shrub that grew in damp forests, it might well be extinct.

***

syn. Cissus spectabilis (Kurz) Hochst. ex Planch.

*********************

edited: 20.08.2022

Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii Rock

Copeland’s Cyanea (Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii)

Copeland’s Cyanea is an epiphytic species that once inhabited the rainforests of at least two of the Hawai’i Islands, namely Hawai’i and Maui, with its own endemic subspecies on each of the islands. 

The nominate form once occurred on the southeastern slopes of Mauna Loa in Hawai’i, where it was last found in 1957. It is now considered extinct. 

The Maui Island subspecies, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis (H. St. John) Lammers, is itself threatened with extinction.

***

syn. Cyanea crispihirta E. Wimm., Delissea crispihirta (E. Wimm.) H. St. John


*********************

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’ 

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.04.2012

Vernonia ampandrandavensis Humbert

Ampandrandava Vernonia (Vernonia ampandrandavensis)

This little tree is endemic to a region named Ampandrandava in the Toliara Province of southern Madagascar.

The species was last seen in 1944 and is considered likely extinct.

***

The photo below shows a related species, the Flat-scaled Vernonia (Vernonia platylepis Drake)

*********************

Flat-scaled Vernonia (Vernonia platylepis)

Photo: Landy Rita
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/landyrita1
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 05.01.2024

Elaphoglossum gracilipes (Fée ex Kuhn) C. Chr.

Gracile-footed Tonguefern (Elaphoglossum gracilipes)

This small epiphytic fern species was described in 1905 from material that had been collected in the surroundings of Quito, the capital of Ecuador.

The species was never found since and is considered most likely extinct.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed around the city of Quito in Ecuador.

*********************

unspecified Tonguefern species (Elaphoglossum sp.)

Photo: David Torres
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/dawicho
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 07.02.2024

Vatica pentandra P. S. Ashton

(Vatica pentandra)

This species is only known from the type collection that was taken in 1955 at the Belayan River in the East Kalimantan Province of Borneo, Indonesia.

This area is now largely overrun by oil palm plantations, the species wasn’t found in recent surveys and might well be extinct.
*********************

edited: 05.01.2024

Cryptocarya arfakensis Kaneh. & Hatus.

Arfak Cryptocarya (Cryptocarya arfakensis)

The Arfak Cryptocarya is a small tree that is known only from the type material that was collected in 1940 in the Arfak Mountains in the West Papua Province of the Indonesian part of New Guinea.

The species has never been recorded since; given the constant threat of deforestation and habitat destruction, it is possible that it is already extinct.

*********************

edited: 28.04.2022

Stipa tulcanensis Mez 

Tulcan Feather Grass (Stipa tulcanensis)

The Tulcan Feather Grass is only known from type material collected in the late 1870s somewhere in the Carchi Province, in the Andes of Ecuador. 

***

The species’ scientific name is considered ‘unplaced’, meaning further research is needed to clarify the exact status of the plant. 

*********************

edited: 30.01.2012

Arenaria nana Willd. ex Schltdl.

Small Sandwort (Arenaria nana)

The Small Sandwort is known exclusively from the type material collected apparently in 1816 (?) by A. J. A. Bonpland and A. v. Humboldt, it was never collected since and is considered extinct.

***

The photo below shows another congeneric that is also occurring in Ecuador, the Cushion Sandwort (Arenaria dicranoides Kunth)

*********************

Cushion Sandwort (Arenaria dicranoides)

Photo: Zane Libke
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/zanelibke
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 14.04.2019

Pritchardia sp. ‘Tubuai’

Tubuai Fan Palm (Pritchardia sp.)

This unnamed species was identified from subfossil fruits excavated in the Mihiura Swamp on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands, at a depth of just over 3 m. 

These fruits predate the settlement of the island and can be dated back to around 1100 CE. date. [1]


*********************


References:

[1] M. Prebble; J. L. Dowe: The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands. Science Reviews 27: 2546-2567. 2008

*********************

edited: 18.07.2012

Podophorus bromoides Phil.

Brome-like Podophorus Grass (Podophorus bromoides)

The Brome-like Podophorus Grass was described in 1856; it obviously was restricted to the Isla Robinson Crusoe in the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile; even at that time only a single plant was found.:

Of this curious grass we have seen only one specimen, sent to Kew by Philippi himself in 1861.” [1]

The species was never found again since, as already the Swedish botanist Carl Skottsberg states in 1921.:

Discovered by Germain in the latter half of October, 1854. Philippi states … that it is >>frequens in insula Juan Fernandez>>, but it has never been found a second time. All the material consists of the two sheets in Santiago and a third one in Kew. I need not tell that we made a careful search after this most interesting grass, but unfortunately without result. I must believe that this is a very rare plant.” [2]

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Wyville Thamson; John Murray: Report on the scientific results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Narrative – Vol. I. first part. 1. 1885
[2] Carl Skottsberg: The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island. Uppsala, Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri 1920-1956

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Wyville Thamson; John Murray: Report on the scientific results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Narrative – Vol. I. first part. 1. 1885′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Tetratheca fasciculata Joy Thomps.

Cronin’s Tetratheca (Tetratheca fasciculata)  

Cronin’s Tetratheca was a small shrub about 20 cm tall with hairy shoots and pink flowers from the area around the town of Wagin in Western Australia. 

The species was last seen in 1895 and is now considered extinct.

***

The photo below shows a congeneric species, the Crowd-leaved Tetratheca (Tetratheca confertifolia Steetz), which is probably more widespread throughout Western Australia.

*********************

Crowd-leaved Tetratheca (Tetratheca confertifolia)

Photo: Melissa Doherty
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/melissadoherty
(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.08.2011

Blumea angustifolia Thwaites

Tight-leaved Blumea (Blumea angustifolia)

This species was described in 1859; it was restricted to a small area at the Mahaweli River on the island of Sri Lanka where it was found growing at damp places among rocks.

The Tight-leaved Blumea was a small perennial herb, only up to 25 cm tall, very gradually tapering at the base into a long petiole with small terminal cymes with only few, nodding yellow flowers. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Henry Trimen: A Hand-Book to the Flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more interesting species. London: Dulau & Co. 1893-1931’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Henry Trimen: A Hand-Book to the Flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more interesting species. London: Dulau & Co. 1893-1931

*********************

edited: 28.02.2024

Piper poscitum Trel. & Yunck.

Demanded Pepper Tree (Piper poscitum)

This species was described in 1950, it is apparently known only from a single collection that was made in 1934 in the lowland forest near the city of Quevedo in the province Los Ríos in Ecuador.

The species was not recorded since and is very likely extinct.

*********************


edited: 27.11.2018

Alsophila walkerae var. tripinnata (Hook. & Baker) Panigrahi

Tri-pinnated Tree Fern (Alsophila walkerae var. tripinnata)

While Walker’s Tree Fern (Alsophila walkerae (Hook.) J. Sm.) is the most common and widespread tree fern species in Sri Lanka, this variety, described in 1865, is only known from its type material.

The taxon is currently treated as being nothing more than part of the range of variation of the species; I will nevertheless mention it here for the sake of completeness. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] R. H. G. Ranil; D. K. N. G. Pushpakumara; T. Janssen; C. R. Fraser-Jenkins; D. S. A. Wijesundara: Conservation Priorities for Tree Ferns (Cyatheaceae) in Sri Lanka. Taiwania 56(3): 201-209. 2011

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Disperis egregia Summerh.

Arc Mountains Disperis Orchid (Disperis egregia)

The Arc Mountains Disperis Orchid was described in 1952, it is, or maybe was, an endemic species of the Eastern Arc Mountains, a mountain range that stretches from Kenya to Tanzania.

The very small species grew terrestrial on mossy rock-faces in dense rainforests at elevations of 900 to about 1050 m. The flowers were pink and appeared on two- to three-flowered inflorescences.

The name of this species appears in listings of extinct and possibly extinct species and is thus mentioned here as well.

*********************

edited: 12.11.2020

Ceodes rapaensis (J. Florence) E. F. S. Rossetto & Caraballo

Rapa Pisonia (Ceodes rapaensis)

This species was described in 2004; it was endemic to the island of Rapa in the Austral archipelago and is known from material that was apparently collected in 1921.

The species is now considered extinct, the reasons for its extinction are found in the ongoing habitat destruction by deforestation as well as in the introduced ungulates like cattle and goats who eat away any remaining native vegetation.

***

syn. Pisonia rapaensis J.Florence

*********************

edited: 26.02.2024

Acalypha sericea var. baurii (B. L. Rob. & Greenm.) Webster

Baur’s Silky Copperleaf (Acalypha sericea var. baurii)

The Silky Copperleaf (Acalypha sericea Anderss.) is endemic to the Galápagos Islands, where several varieties are found on many of the islands.

This one, discussed here, is apparently restricted to the Isla San Christóbal and is known only from a single collection that was purchased sometimes in the middle of the 19th century. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] I. Loren Wiggins; D. M. Porter; E. F. Anderson: Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press 1971

*********************

edited: 11.06.2020

Rhipidoglossum orientalis (Mansf.) Szlach. & Olszewski

Eastern Rhipidoglossum Orchid (Rhipidoglossum orientalis)

The Eastern Rhipidoglossum Orchid was described in 2001, apparently on the basis of some old herbarium material.

The species is thought to be (or to have been) endemic to the forests of the Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania; it was obviously last found in 1933 and is believed to be possibly extinct.

*********************

edited: 20.08.2022

Cyclopia filiformis Kies

Filiform Honeybush (Cyclopia filiformis)

The Filiform Honeybush was described in 1951 on the basis of the type material that had been collected in 1897; the species was restricted to coastal fynbos at the banks of the Van Stadens River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

The species has never been found since then, deforestation and alien plant invasions have likely led to this species’ extinction.

***

The photo below shows a superficially quite similar, congeneric species, the Long-leaved Cyclopia (Cyclopia longifolia Vogel), which is also known to occur in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. 

*********************

Long-leaved Cyclopia (Cyclopia longifolia)

Photo: Nicholas Galuszynski
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/krosmek_snek
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 01.03.2024

Hieracium tolstoii Fen. & Zahn

Tolstoi’s Hawkweed (Hieracium tolstoii)

This species, described in 1927, was restricted to the Alps of Lombardy, northern Italy; it is officially recognized as extinct since 2019. [1][2]

*********************

References: 

[1] Fabrizio Bartolucci; Gabriele Galasso; Lorenzo Peruzzi; Fabio Conti: Report 2020 on plant biodiversity in Italy: native and alien vascular flora. Natural History Sciences. Atti Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. nat. Milano 8(1): 41-54. 2021
[2] Thomas Abeli; Giulia Albani Rocchetti; Zoltan Barina; Ioannis Bazos; David Draper; Patrick Grillas; José María Iriondo; Emilio Laguna; Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz; Fabrizio Bartolucci: Seventeen ‘extinct’ plant species back to conservation attention in Europe. Nature Plants 7: 282-286. 2021

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Prismatomeris fragrans ssp. andamanica (Ridl.) J. T. Johanss.

Andaman Islands Prismatomeris (Prismatomeris fragrans ssp. andamanica)

This subspecies of the Fragrant Prismatomeris (Prismatomeris fragrans E. T. Geddes) was originally described as a distinct species in 1940; as its name implies, it is restricted to the Andaman Islands.

This plant was not found recently and is thought to be possibly extinct.

*********************

edited: 24.08.2022

Euphorbia equisetiformis Stewart

Equisetiform Spurge (Euphorbia equisetiformis)

This enigmatic species is known only from the type material that was collected on Isla Isabella, Galápagos Islands, it appears not to be related to any other Central- or South American species of its genus.

The species is a leafless, middle-sized shrub with several stems that bear clusters of branches on their upper nodes. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] I. Loren Wiggins; D. M. Porter; E. F. Anderson: Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press 1971

*********************

edited: 11.06.2020

Cyanea comata Hillebr. 

Maui Cyanea (Cyanea comata)  

This species is only known from the type collection, which dates back to 1870. 

The Maui Cyanea grew in the semi-arid forests of the western slopes of Haleakalā Crater on the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

The species reached a height of around 2.5 m, it had a tuftof 15 to 20.5 cm long leaves and had a hanging inflorescence with around 5 cm long, light purple-colored flowers.

***

syn. Delissea comata (Hillebr.) H. St. John

*********************

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.06.2012

Adiantum lianxianense Ching & Y. X. Lin

Lianxian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum lianxianense)  

The Lianxian Maidenhair Fern is native to Guangdong Province in southern China, where it grew in the understory of subtropical forests on moist limestone cliffs. 

The fern was only about 5 to 7 cm high and very inconspicuous. 

The local name was Yue tie xian jue.

*********************

edited: 22.10.2011

Triaspis schliebenii A. Ernst

Schlieben’s Triaspis (Triaspis schliebenii)

Schlieben’s Triaspis was described in 1935; it is known only from the type material that was collected somewhere around Lake Lutamba in the Lindi District, Tanzania; it was not found subsequently and is thought to be possibly extinct.

The photo below shows a somewhat similar-looking species, the Blue-leaved Triaspis (Triaspis glaucophyllaEngl.) from southern Africa.

*********************

Blue-leaved Triaspis (Triaspis glaucophylla)

Photo: Francois du Randt
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/francoisdurandt

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 21.08.2022

Egletes humifusa Less.

Spreading Tropical Daisy (Egletes humifusa)

The Spreading Tropical Daisy, a small terrestrial herb, is known only from the type material that was collected at the beginning of the 20th century somewhere along the central coast of the Guayas Province in Ecuador.

The species hasn’t been found ever since and, given the devasted state of the native vegetation in the locality, may well be extinct now.

*********************

Photo: Naturalis Biodiversity Center
https://www.naturalis.nl
(public domain)

*********************

edited: 08.02.2024

Cyperus chionocephalus (Chiov.) Chiov. ex Chiarugi

Snowhead Sedge (Cyperus chionocephalus)

The Snowhead Sedge was described in 1939, it is, or was, endemic to Somalia; the author of the species mentiones the following about it (in a revision in 1951).:

Poco diffuso; poco sviluppato in altezza (10-20 cm.). A Mega cresce lungo l’uadi presso la Residenza Italiana e sulla collina presso il Consolata Inglese, sotto Juniperus procera.” [1]

translation:

Not widespread; little developed in height (10-20 cm.). A big stand grows along the wadi at the Italian residence and on the hill near the English consulate, under Juniperus procera.”

According to this account, the species appears to have been restricted to an area that now is the city of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.

***

I personally have no further information about this species, it appears in a list of extinct species, thus I’ll mention it here as well.

*********************

References:

[1] Emilio Chiovenda: Missione Biologica Sagan-Omo. Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Geography 8(1): 1-120. 1951

*********************

edited: 27.05.2019

Psiadia schweinfurthii Balf. f.

Schweinfurth’s Psiadia (Psiadia schweinfurthii)

This species comes from the island of Socotra; it was collected in the 19th century near Kishan in the north of the Haggeher Mountains, in a botanically well-known and -studied area, and has not been found since; it is therefore very likely extinct. 

***

The author of the species, Isaac Bayley Balfour, mentions that it is very similar to the Arabian Psiadia (Psiadia punctulata Vatke) (see photo below), a species widespread in eastern Africa and mainland Arabia, from which it differs in the absence of sticky glandular hairs.

*********************

Arabian Psiadia (Psiadia punctulata)

Photo: Floyd E. Hayes
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/floydehayes
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 12.02.2024

Phacelia amabilis Constances

Saline Valley Phacelia (Phacelia amabilis)

The Saline Valley Phacelia was discovered in 1942 in the Saline Valley in the Inyo County of California, USA and was never found again since, it is thus declared possibly extinct.

It may, however, just have been a color variant of another species, the Notch-leaved Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata Torr. ex S.Watson).

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Le Roy Abrams: An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press 1923-60’

(no known copyright restrictions)

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Miconia leandroides Cogn. & Gleason ex Gleason

Bolivar Miconia (Miconia leandroides)

This species is known from two collections from the late 19th century, both were made somewhere at or near the city of Guaranda, the capital of the Bolívar Province of Ecuador.

This locality is now highly degraded and thus this species is most possibly extinct.

*********************

edited: 28.01.2020

Thomasia gardneri Paunt

Mouth Holland Thomasia (Thomasia gardneri)

The Mount Holland Thomasia was described in 1974, based on the type material that apparently was collected in 1929; it was restricted to a region somewhere near Mt. Holland in southern Western Australia.

The species is now most likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Kelly A. Sheperd: A key to the species of Thomasia (Malvaceae: Byttnerioideae). Nuytsia 30: 195-202. 2019

*********************

edited: 03.05.2022

Elaeocarpus sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Elaeocarpus (Elaeocarpus sp.)

This taxon is known from wooden remains collected near the Ahu Akahanga at the southern coast of Rapa Nui, it most certainly was an endemic species, which is now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Catherine Orliac: Données nouvelles sur la composition de la flore de l’île de Pâques. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 107: 135-143. 1998

*********************

edited: 11.12.2018

Dorstenia bicaudata Peter

Two-tailed Dorstenia (Dorstenia bicaudata)

This species was a small herb that was found in the rainforests of the Uluguru- and the Usambara Mountains in Tanzania.

The Two-tailed Dorstenia habitat is now quite destroyed due to conversion for agriculture, the species was last seen in 1950 and might now well be extinct.

***

The photo below shows an unspecified congeneric species that was photographed in Tanzania.

*********************

unspecified Dorstenia species (Dorstenia sp.)

Photo: andreaudzungwa
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/andreaudzungwa
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 07.02.2024

Aglaia densitricha Pannell

Densely-haired Aglaia (Aglaia densitricha)

This species was described in 1992, it is known only from the type material which had been collected in 1953 along a road in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia.

The species was not found since and is thought to might be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. Mabberley; C. M. Pannell; A. M. Sing: Meliaceae. Flora Malesiana; Series 1 – Spermatophyta 12: 1-388. 1995

*********************

edited: 04.09.2019

Dicliptera dodsonii Wassh.

Dodson’s Dicliptera (Dicliptera dodsonii)

Dodson’s Dicliptera was described in 1977, it is known from just four collections that were made in a private forest of the Río Palenque Biological Station in the Los Rios Province of Ecuador.

The species was apparently last found in 1986 or maybe sometimes later, but since it hasn’t been found during any recent search it is now considered possibly extinct.

*********************

edited: 13.11.2021

Hedyotis evenia Thwaites

Evenia’s Hedyotis (Hedyotis evenia)

This species was described in 1859; it was collected in the forests of the Samanala Kanda (Adam’s Peak) in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

A small shrub, yellow when dry; branches acutely 4-angled. Leaves 1/2-3/4 in., coriaceous above, varnished and with a few scattered raised points. Cymes few-fld. – Fruit unknown, and hence the position of the species in the genus.” [1]

The species’ name appears in lists of extinct plant species; thus, I will mention it here briefly; unfortunately, I have no further information.

*********************

References:

[1] Joseph Dalton Hooker: The Flora of British India. London: L. Reeve 1875-97

*********************

edited: 28.04.2022

Trianthema cypseloides (Frenzl) Benth.

Hawkesbury Pigweed (Trianthema cypseloides)

This species is only known from the type material that was collected from the Hawkesbury River in New South Wales, Australia

This was a small, creeping, ground-dwelling herb with short branches and egg-shaped, about 0,5 cm long, slightly succulent leaves and flowers appearing in loose, flat-topped clusters.

The reasons for the extinction of this species are not known.

***

The photo below shows another congeneric species from Australia, the Star Pigweed (Trianthema oxycalyptrum F.Muell.)

*********************

Star Pigweed (Trianthema oxycalyptrum)

Photo: @WA_Botanist
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/wa_botanist
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 25.01.2024

Plagiochila columbiana Evans

Columbian Livermoss (Plagiochila columbiana)

The Columbian Livermoss was described in 1896 based on material that had been collected from partly inundated rocks in- and along the Eno River in North Carolina; it was furthermore recorded from Virginia and Washington D.C.. 

The taxon is superficially similar to Fern-like Livermoss (Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dumort.) but can be distinguished from that species by the ragged outlines of its leaves and by the irregularity in the number and position of their teeth; however, it is very likely that both forms are conspecific after all and that the Columbian Livermoss’s description was just based on weakly-developed specimens of the other species.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Alexander W. Evans: Notes on the North American species of Plagiochila. Botanical Gazette 21(4): 185-194. 1896’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Alexander W. Evans: Notes on the North American species of Plagiochila. Botanical Gazette 21(4): 185-194. 1896

*********************

edited: 27.02.2024

Lampranthus vanzijliae (L. Bolus) N. E. Br.

Worcester Brightfig (Lampranthus vanzijliae)

The Worcester Brightfig, described in 1930, is known only from a single locality in the Worcester District in the Southwestern Cape Province of South Africa.

The species disappeared around 1921 due to habitat loss caused by agriculture and urbanization.

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syn. Mesembryanthemum vanzijliae L. Bolus

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The photo below shows a congeneric taxon that occurs more or less in the same locality, the Runty Brightfig (Lampranthus debilis (Haw.) N. E. Br.).

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Runty Brightfig (Lampranthus debilis)

Photo: markberry
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/markberry
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 21.08.2022

Mikania iserniana Cuatrec.

Guayaquil Mikania (Mikania iserniana)

This species is known only on the basis of the type material which was collected in 1864 near the city of Guayaquil in the Guayas Province, Ecuador.

The vegetation of the region is now highly destroyed due to urban and agricultural development, the species was never recorded since the collection of the type material and is thus probably extinct.

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edited: 25.04.2021

Scyphostelma sodiroi (K. Schum.) Liede & Meve

Sodiro’s Stranglevine (Scyphostelma sodiroi)

Sodiro’s Stranglevine is one of several species in this genus that are endemic to Ecuador. It is known from only two collections, the first one dating from 1887 and the last one from 1936, both were purchased in the Pichincha Province

The species was not found since and appears to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Sigrid Liede-Schumann; Ulrich meve: The Orthosiinae revisited (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 99(1): 44-81. 2013

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edited: 19.09.2020

Danais corymbosa Balf. f.

Corymbose Danais (Danais corymbosa)

This species was described in 1879, it is endemic to the island of Rodrigues in the Mascarene Islands.

This species is not common on the island and only occurs in the higher districts.

The Rodrigues plant is not unlike some of the forms of D. fragrans, Comm., but differs conspicuously in the form and long petiolation of its leaves and its longer paniculate inflorescence, the rachis exceeding considerably the petiole.
” [1]

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References:

[1] An Account of the Petrological, Botanical, and Zoological Collection Made in Kerguelen’s Land and Rodriguez during the Transit of Venus Expeditions. Botany. 302-419. 1874-75

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edited: 15.05.2021

Anisopappus burundiensis Lisowski

Burundi Anisopappus (Anisopappus burundiensis)

The Burundi Anisopappus, desribed in 1989, was restricted to the Republic of Burundi, a small country in central Africa.

The species was a small, shrubby plant with yellow aster-like flowers; having not be found in recent years, the species appears to be extinct now.

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edited: 27.01.2022

Polypodium argyrolepis Sodiro

Azuay Polypody (Polypodium argyrolepis)

This fern species is known exclusively from the type material that was collected in the 19th century somewhere in the Azuay Province of Ecuador, an exact locality is not known.

The species was never found again and is presumed to be possibly extinct. 

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edited: 15.04.2019

Eugenia albida Bonpl.

White Eugenia (Eugenia albida)

The White Eugenia is apparently known from a single collection that was made some time in the 18th century somewhere in Ecuador, however this assumption might in fact not be true.

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There appear to be several species which are named Eugenia albida, and this name is also a synonym for several species; furthermore the species discussed here is sometimes thought as being endemic to Ecuador and sometimes to occur in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

It is mentioned here only for the sake of completness.

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edited: 18.01.2020

Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii Lundell

Cheatum’s Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii)

Cheatum’s Wahoo, a variety of the American Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.), is known only from a single population that was restricted again to a single place in Dallas County, Texas, USA.

This single population is believed to have been destroyed by insects (which insects?) in 1944, the variety is now regarded as being extinct.

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edited: 27.01.2020

Ctenitis pallatangana (Hook.) Ching

Pallatanga Ctenitis Fern (Ctenitis pallatangana)

This species is known only one collection that was made in the 19th century in the high Andean forests somewhere near the village of Pallatanga in the Chimborazo Province of Ecuador.

The species is believed to be extinct due to habitat destruction by agricultural expansion.

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edited: 13.11.2021