Tag Archives: Greater Antilles

Celestus fowleri (Schwartz)

Bromeliad Galliwasp (Celestus fowleri)

The Bromeliad Galliwasp aka. Fowler’s Galliwasp was described in 1971; it is known only from the type locality near the Windsor Caves in the Trelawny Parish in Jamaica.

The species is associated with large epiphytic bromeliads, it is hiding between the leaf rosettes where it is also feeding insects and other invertebrates.

The Bromeliad Galliwasp was apparently last seen (and photographed) in the 1990s; however, subsequent searches in the type locality did not yield any record and the species might well be extinct now.

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edited: 01.08.2022

Leiocephalus sp. ‘Jamaica’

Second Jamaican Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus sp.)

This somewhat enigmatic form is known from at least one subfossil frontal bone that differed from the other frontal bones by its well-developed rugosities while being of comparable size to other frontal bones from other deposits.

These frontal bones are not really assignable to either the named species (Leiocephalus jamaicensis Etheridge) or to the second, unnamed one because they were found unassociated to other remains. [1]

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References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992

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edited: 07.09.2019

Anoma tricolor (Pfeiffer)

Tricolored Anoma Snail (Anoma tricolor)

The Tricolored Anoma Snail was desribed in 1847, it apperas toe have been restricted to a place named Moncrieff Gully (named Fern Gully today) in the St. Ann Parish at the north coast of Jamaica. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 cm in heigth, they have up to 15 whorls and are glossy whitish and bear some grayish stripes.

The species is apparently extinct now.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904
[2] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

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Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 22.09.2020

Leiocephalus jamaicensis Etheridge

Jamaican Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus jamaicensis)

The Jamaican Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1966 based on fossil or subfossil left dentary that had been recovered from Dairy Cave 2,5 kilometers away from Dry Harbour in the parish of St. Ann, Jamaica, as well as several other remains from other caves on the island.

In life, the species might have reached a size of about 26 to 30 cm or even larger (including the tail). [1][2]

***

The species survived into historical times, some of the remains that have been found were unmineralized and had been collected from surface deposits. [2]

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References:

[1] Richard Etheridge: An extinct lizard of the genus Leiocephalus from Jamaica. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(1): 47-59. 1966
[2] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992

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edited: 07.09.2019

Tachornis uranoceles Olson

Puerto Rico Palm Swift (Tachornis uranoceles)

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift was described in 1982, it is known only from fossil remains that were recovered from Blackbone Cave on the island of Puerto Rico and that were dated to a Late Pleistocene age.

The species very likely had similar habits as the three still existing congeneric species, it inhabited palm grooves in open savannas, a habitat that mostly disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, leading to the extinction of this and several other species. [1]

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift may, however, have survived into the early Holocene.

***

Today, another congeneric species is occurring in the Caribbean including Puert Rico, the Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse) (see photo below).

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of palm swift (Tachornis: Apodidae) from the Pleistocene of Puerto Rico. The Auk 99(2): 230-235. 1982

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Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse)

Photo: ZankaM

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

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edited: 05.11.2020

Accipitridae gen. & sp. ‘Hispaniola’

Hispaniolan Eagle (Accipitridae gen. & sp.)

The Hispaniolan Eagle is an undescribed bird of prey that inhabited the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean; it was first recognized as a new taxon in 2019.

The species reached the same dimensions as the largest living eagle species, the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetus (L.)) and the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyia (L.)), which both are known to feed on middle-sized mammals.

The Hispaniolan Eagle certainly preyed upon arboreal sloths, primates and caviomorph rodents, which all disappeared during the mid-Holocene after the arrival of humans. It is thus very likely that this eagle also died out after its prey animals vanished. [1]

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References:

[1] David W. Steadman; Juan N. Almonte Milan; Alexis M. Mychajliw: An extinct eagle (Aves: Accipitridae) from the Quaternary of Hispaniola. JJournal of Raptor Research 53(3): 319-333. 2019

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edited: 14.11.2021

Ciconia maltha Miller

La Brea Stork (Ciconia maltha)

The La Brea Stork was described in 1910, originally based on fossil bones that were recovered from the rich La Brea Tar Pits in California, USA; however, the species was for more widespread and is now known to also have occurred in other parts of what today is the USA.

The species already appears in Late Pliocene deposits and disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, but the population that inhabited the island of Cuba apparently survived well into the Holocene era and may even have been eradicated by the first human settlers.

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edited: 19.8.2022

Anoma dohrniana (Pfeiffer)

Dohrn’s Anoma Snail (Anoma dohrniana)  

Dohrn’s Anoma Snail was described in 1871.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,75 cm in length; they are subperforate, subfusiform, slender, smooth, glossy coffee-colored and bear a white band at their suture. [1]

The species was not found during recent searches and might well be extinct. [2]

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904
[2] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904’

(public domain)

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edited: 24.10.2020

Brotomys voratus Miller

Hispaniolan Edible Rat (Brotomys voratus)

The Hispaniolan Edible Rat was described in 1916 based on subfossil remains.

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, a Spanish colonialist, historian, and writer gave some brief descriptions of several mammal species that lived on the island of Hispaniola in the early 16th century; most are second-hand accounts of animals he himself had not seen; there is also one account that can be attributed to the Edible Rat.:

The mohuy is an animal somewhat smaller than the hutia: its color is paler and likewise gray. This was the food most valued and esteemed by the caciques and chiefs of this island; and the character of the animal was much like the hutia except that the hair was denser and coarser (and more stiff), and very pointed and standing erect or straight above. I have not seen this animal, but there are many who declared it to be as aforesaid; and in this island there are many persons who have seen it and eaten it, and who praise this meat as better than all the others we have spoken about.” [1]

The species died out shortly after the arrival of the first European settlers in the Caribbean, who brought with them mice and rats, which very likely were the main reason for the extinction of most smaller endemic mammal species.

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References:

[1] Gerrit S. Miller: Mammals eaten by Indians, Owls, and Spaniards in the coast region of the Dominican Republic. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 82(5): 1-16. 1929

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Photo from: ‘Gerrit S. Miller: Mammals eaten by Indians, Owls, and Spaniards in the coast region of the Dominican Republic. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 82(5): 1-16. 1929’

(public domain)

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edited: 06.05.2022

Anoma radiata (Chitty)

Radiate Anoma Snail (Anoma radiata)

The Radiate Anoma Snail was described in 1853, originally as a subspecies of another species, Mauger’s Anoma Snail (Anoma maugeri Wood); it occurred near 
Bog Walk, a small town in the Saint Catherine Parish in southeast Jamaica.

The species was well distinguishable from related species by its fusiform shape, the finely plicate surface, the strong basal angle, the absense of bands or streaks, and the small, oblique, angular aperture. [1]

The Radiate Anoma Snail is now likely extinct.

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References:  

[1] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904’

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Calyptranthes arenicola Urb.

El Morrillo Myrtle (Calyptranthes arenicola 

This species is known only from a small region near Playa El Morrillo in the Pinar del Río Province on the northwestern coast of Cuba.

The species’ name appears in listings of extinct species, thus it is mentioned here as well, unfortunately I could not find out any further information so far.

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edited: 02.11.2020

Anoma gracilis (C. B. Adams)

Gracile Anoma Snail (Anoma gracilis 

The Gracile Anoma Snail was described in 1851, apparently based on empty shells; it seems that the species was already extinct at that time.

The species is endemic to the island of Jamaica, an exact locality, however, seems not to be known.

The shells are quite slender; they are pearl-white with a pure white keel and lip, they are coarsely striated at the end of the last whorl and bear excessively minute stirae otherwise. [1]

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904

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Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 21.09.2020

Oryzomys antillarum Thomas

Jamaican Rice Rat (Oryzomys antillarum)

The Jamaican Rice Rat was described in 1898; it was restricted to the island of Jamaica.

The species reached a size of about 26 cm (including the tail); it was furthermore described as: “Color. Above rufous sparsely lined with black, brightest on the rump; head suffused with grayish; under parts yellowish, hairs gray at base; tail pale brown above, lighter beneath; hands and feet whitish; ears blackish outside, yellowish inside.“. [1]

In 1872, Small Indian Mongooses (Urva auropunctata (Hodgson)) had been imported to Jamaica to control the likewise introduced rats in the sugarcane plantations; the mongooses, however, were also very effective in eradicating the native rodents. Feral cats and dogs certainly played their part too and finally, in 1877, the Jamaican Rice Rats were seen for the last time.

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References:

[1] Daniel Giraud Elliot: The Land and Sea Mammals of Middle America and the West Indies. Publication of the field Columbian Museum, Zoological Series 4(1). 1904

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Photo from: ”Clayton E. Ray: The Oryzomyine Rodents of the Antillean Subregion. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Harvard University, 2111 pp. 1962′

(Public domain)

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edited: 29.04.2022

Hypsirhynchus melanichnus (Cope)

Hispaniola Racer (Hypsirhynchus melanichnus)

The Hispaniola Racer was described in 1862, it was endemic to the large island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles.

The species reached a length of about 65 cm, its back was plain olive-green colored, there was a white stripe spanning from the neck to the middle of the body, the belly was olive-green as well, yet somewhat lighter than the back.

The biology of the Hispaniola Racer is not well known, it was diurnal and apparently was mostly found on the ground.

The Hispaniola Racer was last found in 1910 and is now considered extinct. The reasons for the extinction of this species are the same as for its gongener from the nearby island of Jamaica, the Jamaican Racer (Hypsirhynchus ater (Gosse)), that is habitat loss and predation by the introduced and highly invasive Javan Mongoose (Herpestes javanicus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire)).  

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Depiction from: ‘Doris M. Cochran: The Herpetology of Hispaniola. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 177. 1941’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 30.10.2020

Amazona vittata ssp. ‘Vieques’

Vieques Amazon (Amazona vittata ssp.)

The Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata (Boddaert)) is a very rare parrot species that is now restricted to the island of Puerto Rico in the Lesser Antilles, at least one subspecies formerly occurred on the offshore island of Culebra.

The same form, or perhaps another endemic one occurred on the nearby island of Vieques, this form, however, is only known by reliable accounts like the following one.:

Parrots are found during the rainy season in the months of June, July and August in the heavy forest of the southern side of the island. It is believed that they cross at that season from Porto Rico. Señor José Bartôn was well acquainted with them and told me that they were considered a game bird, making a highly desirable dish for the table. There were none here during the period of my visit.” [1]

The Vieques Amazon, if it indeed was a distinct form, disappeared sometimes after this account, the reasons are clearly mentioned in the account.

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References:

[1] Alexander Wetmore: The birds of Vieques Island, Porto Rico. The Auk 33: 403-419. 1916

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edited: 16.02.2020

Pedinorhis stirpsarcana Olson & McKitrick

Puerto Rico Bushfinch (Pedinorhis stirpsarcana)

The Puerto Rico Bushfinch was a large finch-like bird with a long and narrow beak that is known from (sub)fossil remains that were found in cave deposits on the island of Puerto Rico and that could be dated to Late Pleistocene age, however, it is believed that some remains from other fossil sites are younger.

The remains were found in association with the fossils of species that are typical for open, arid environments and it is thought that the species disappeared due to postglacial reduction of these arid habitats. [1]

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson; Mary C. McKitrick: A new genus and species of emberizine finch from Pleistocene cave deposits in Puerto Rico (Aves: Passeriformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 1(3-4): 276-283. 1981

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edited: 05.11.2020

Nesotrochis picapicensis (Fischer & Stephan)

Cuban Cave Rail (Nesotrochis picapicensis)

The Cuban Cave Rail was described (originally as a species of coot) in 1971 from Pleistocene deposits from the Pío Domingo cave in the Pinar del Río province of Cuba. [1]

The species very likely survived into Holocene times.

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of Nesotrochis from Hispaniola, with notes on other fossil rails from the West Indies (Aves: Rallidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 87(38): 439-450. 1974
[2] Jessica A. Oswald; Ryan S. Terrill; Brian J. Stucky; Michelle J. LeFebvre; David W. Steadman; Robert P. Guralnick: Supplementary material from “Ancient DNA from the extinct Haitian cave-rail (Nesotrochis steganinos) suggests a biogeographic connection between the Caribbean and Old World”. Biological Letters 17(3). 2021 

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edited: 16.02.2020

Anoma solida (C. B. Adams)

Solid Anoma Snail (Anoma solida)  

The Solid Anoma Snail was described in 1851, it was apparently restricted to a small area in the vicinity of the Peace River in the eastern Manchester Parish in southern Jamaica.

The shells are about 1,95 cm heigh and about 0,67 in diameter.

The species was not found during recent surveys and is possibly extinct.

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904’

(public domain)

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edited: 22.09.2020

Milvago carbo Suárez & Olson

Cuban Caracara (Milvago carbo)

The Cuban Caracara was described in 2003 based on subfossil bones found on the island of Cuba. [1]

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References:

[1] W. Suárez; S. L. Olson: A new species of caracara (Milvago) from Quaternary asphalt deposits in Cuba, with notes on new material of Caracara creightoni Brodkorb (Aves: Falconidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116(2): 301-307. 2003

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edited: 25.04.2021

Anoma pulla (Chitty)

Maroon Town Anoma Snail (Anoma pulla)  

This species was described in 1853, it was for some time treated as a variety of another species, the Beautiful Anoma Snail (Anoma pulchella Chitty).

The species was found in the vicinity of Maroon Town, a settlement in the St. James Parish in northwestern Jamaica.

… from the description.:

Shell small, rather slender, dark red-brown, almost black at the back of peritreme. Lip cream-white, and so also around the back of it, and a white line running along the top (below the suture) of one-half of the last whorl, narrow and gradually dimishing. I have but three specimens before me, not the best I imagine, and, though the brown body-color is good, each seems covered with a white substance which scales off on application of a steel instrument, as though the substance were the natural exterior.” [1]

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References:  

[1] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904’

(public domain)

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edited: 24.10.2020

Anoma integra (C. B. Adams)

Integer Anoma Snail (Anoma integra)  

The Integer Anoma Snail was described in 1851 by Charles Baker Adams; it is obviously constantly getting misidentified with a form from the island of Cuba, which apparently was described under exactly the same name by Carl Georg Ludwig Pfeiffer in 1856.

It is possible that these two are in fact one and the same and that it indeed originates from the island of Cuba – I was not able so far to find any further information about this case.

***

The depiction below apparently shows the form from Cuba.

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References:  

[1] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

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Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 24.10.2020

Hyperbaena obovata Urb.

Egg-leaved Hyperbaena (Hyperbaena obovata)  

The genus Hyperbaena contains about 70 species of trees that are distributed over the Caribbean, as well as over Central- and South America.  

***

The Egg-leaved Hyperbaena, described in 1925, was restricted to the Provinces of Guantánamo and Holguín in the east of Cuba.  The species is now considered extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] R. Berazaín: The extinct Flora of Cuba. Bissea 3(2). 2009  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Psittacara maugei (Souancé)

Puerto Rico Conure (Psittacara maugei)

The Puerto Rico Conure was described in 1856, originally as a distinct species but was later merged with the Hispaniolan Parakeet (Psittacara chloropterus Souancé) and is still treated as a subspecies by some authorities.

The species was historically only ever recorded from Mona Island, but apparently also inhabited the island of Vieques, at least occasionally.:

A paroquet was said to occur on the island occasionally during the rainy season in the months of June, July, and August, but I was unable to substantiate these reports. It is barely possible that Eupsitula pertinax from St. Thomas might cross with the trade winds as the islands lie within sight of each other. Gundlach heard of a paroquet on Vieques Island.” [1]

The Puerto Rico Conure  was last recorded in 1892.

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References:

[1] Alexander Wetmore: The birds of Vieques Island, Porto Rico. The Auk 33: 403-419. 1916

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Depiction from: ‘M. Charlse de Souancé avec la cooperation de S. A. le Prince Bonaparte et de M. Émile Blanchard: Iconographie des perroquets: non figurés dans les publications de Levaillant et de M. Bourjot Saint-Hilaire. Paris: P. Bertrand 1857’  

(public domain)

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edited: 16.02.2020

Nesophontes micrus G. M. Allen

Western Cuban Nesophontes (Nesophontes micrus)

The Western Cuban Nesophontes was described in 1917 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from cave deposits on the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola.

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Photo from: ‘G. M. Allen: Fossil Mammals from Cuba. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 62: 131-148. 1918’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 14.05.2022

Gallinago kakuki Steadman & Takano

West Indian Snipe (Gallinago kakuki)

The West Indian Snipe was described in 2016, its fossil or subfossil remains were recovered from late Quaternary depostits on several islands including the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands, Cuba, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

The West Indian Snipe was a volant species, but probably had quite short wings, this can be assumed from the shape of its wingbones. [1]

***

The species probably died out for more or less natural reasons, following changing environmental conditions due to changes in the height of the sea level after the beginning of the Holocene. The last remaining populations were then probably extirpated by the first Amerindian settlers.
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References:

[1] David W. Steadman; Oona M. Takano: A new extinct species of Snipe (Aves: Scolopacidae: Gallinago) from the West Indies. Zootaxa 4109(3): 345-358. 2016

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edited: 26.01.2019

Sauvallea blainii C. Wright

Blain’s Commelina (Sauvallea blainii)

Blain’s Commelina, which forms a monotypic genus, was described in 1871, it was endemic to the province of Pinar del Río on the island of Cuba.

The species, locally known as Canutillo de paredón, is now believed to be extinct.

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edited: 21.04.2022

Tyto pollens Wetmore

Bahamian Giant Owl (Tyto pollens)

The Bahamian Giant Owl, described in 1936 based on subfossil remains, was formerly thought to have been endemic to the Bahaman islands but is now known to have also occurred on the island of Cuba.

It was the largest species within its genus, and its remains are by far the rarest to be found, especially on Cuba.

The Bahamian Giant Barn Owl is known to have preferably preyed upon the Bahamian Hutia (Geocapromys ingrahami (J. A. Allen)), a large, nocturnal rodent species that still inhabits some of the Bahamian islands today. [2] 

***

At least two additional species can be added to this list. Tyto pollens was a flightless, 1-m-tall congener of barn owls that likely occurred in old-growth Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) barrens of Andros Island, Bahamas, in association with early human settlers (see figs. 6-9). It probably gave rise to local lore of chickcharnies, a mischievous leprechaunlike, nocturnal imp said to have three toes and the ability to turn its head all the way around. If disturbed, chickcharnies would impart terrible misfortune. It is possible that territorial defense behaviors of a meter-tall Tyto could give rise to such legends. [1]

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References:

[1] Bruce G. Marcot: Owls of old forests of the world. General Technicl Reports. Portland, Oregon: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station 1-64. 1995
[2] William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson: Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae). Zootaxa 4020 (3): 533-553. 2015

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edited: 08.09.2019

Eriocaulon echinospermoideum (Ruhland)

Mordazo Pipewort (Eriocaulon echinospermoideum 

This species is known only from the type material, which was found in the damp sand of a lagoon near the village of Mordazo in the Cuban Province of Villa Clara.  

The plant reached a height of 2 to 3 cm.  

The species was scientifically described in the year 1925, but, however, was never found again.  

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References:  

[1] R. Berazaín: The extinct Flora of Cuba. Bissea 3(2). 2009  

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edited: 23.09.2017

Myadestes elisabeth ssp. retrusus Bangs & Zappey

Isle of Pines Solitaire (Myadestes elisabeth ssp. retrusus)  

The Cuban Solitaire (Myadestes elisabeth (Lembeye)) [see photo] is endemic to the island of Cuba, where it apparently inhabits moist montane forests.  

The species also inhabited Isla de la Juventud off the southern coast of Cuba, these birds, however differed from the Cuban birds and thus were described in 1905 as a distinct subspecies.  

***

Similar to M. e. elizabeth, but still smaller, narrower, and more pointed, and coloration clearer and grayer, the upper parts nearly mouse gray instead of deep hair brown or olive, the under parts nearly pure white passing into very pale clear gray on chest and sides of breast.” [1]  

***

The bird reached a length of about 17,5 cm.  

The Isle of Pines Solitaire disappeared due to the destruction of its habitat, an ill fate that now also seems to befall the Cuban Solitaire which is officially listed as ‘Near Threatened’.  

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References:  

[1] Robert Ridgway: The birds of North and Middle America: A descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the arctic lands to the isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other islands of the Caribbean sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 50(4). 1907  

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Cuban Solitaire (Myadestes elisabeth); nominate race  

Photo: Francesco Veronesi

(under creative commons license (2.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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edited: 01.04.2018

Hypsirhynchus ater (Gosse)

Jamaican Racer (Hypsirhynchus ater)  

The Jamaican Racer was described in 1851, it is, or rather was endemic to the island of Jamaica, where it was historically common and found island-wide.  

The species reached a lenth of about 85 cm (or about 1 m according to other sources), its back was black or dark olive-colored with black spots, the belly was plain black or olive-colored.  

The Jamaican Racer was a diurnal species that actively hunted for its prey, mainly smaller reptiles, especially so-called galliwasps (Celestus spp.).  

When the species was described in 1851, it was considered to be one of the most common snakes on Jamaika, but then during the 1940s its populations begun to vanish due to habitat loss and predation by Javan Mongooses (Herpestes javanicus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire)) that had been introduced to the island by 1872.  

The last ‘sighting’ was a shed skin that was found in the early 1970s, as well as an alleged video made in around 2010 that is assumed to show this snake. It is officially considered critically endangered, yet is most likely already completely extinct.  

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edited: 15.09.2019

Eriocaulon minutissimum Ruhland

Dwarf Pipewort (Eriocaulon minutissimum)  

The Dwarf Pipewort, a very dwarf species, that reaches a height of not even one centimeter, was scientifically described in the year 1925.  

This species is known only from the type material, which was collected near the city of Pinar del Río in the same-named Cuban province.  

The type locality seems not to exist any longer, and the Dwarf Pipewort is considered most likely extinct.  

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References:  

[1] R. Berazaín: The extinct Flora of Cuba. Bissea 3(2). 2009  

*********************  

edited: 23.09.2017

Scolopax anthonyi (Wetmore)

Puerto Rican Woodcock (Scolopax anthonyi)

The Puerto Rican Woodcock was already described in 1920, it is so far known from about 10 single bones that were recovered from caves on the island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean.

The species disappeared due to hunting and habitat destruction.

********************

edited: 26.01.2019

Ara autochthones Wetmore

Saint Croix Macaw (Ara autochthones)  

This species was described in 1937 based on a single tibiotarsus of an adult-sized immature that was found during archeological excavations on St. Croix Island, US Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles.  

The species was subsequently found in an archaeological site in south-central Puerto Rico too. [2][3]  

The Saint Croix Macaw may have been native to Puerto Rico and its adjacent islands, or it may have been native to the whole Lesser Antilles. All remains, known so far, originate from archaeological contexts, so are from birds that have to be connected to human activities, they may have been hunted to be cooked and eaten, or they may have been kept as pet birds, having been transported from one island to another etc..  

This will probably never be resolved.  

***

I personally think that there may once have been only two endemic macaw species inhabiting the Caribbean region, one restricted to the Greater – and one to the Lesser Antilles; and these most likely were descendants of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao (L.)), the only red macaw in Middle America.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Matthew I. Williams; David W. Steadman: The Historic and Prehistoric Distribution of Parrots (Psittacidae) in the West Indies. pages 175–189 in: Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile (eds.): Biogeography of the West Indies. CRC Press 2001
[2] S. L. Olson; E. J. Maíz López: New evidence of Ara autochthones from an archeological site in Puerto Rico: a valid species of West Indian macaw of unknown geographical origin (Aves: Psittacidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 44: 215–222. 2008
[3] James W. Wiley; Guy M. Kirwan: The extinct macaws of the West Indies, with special reference to Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist’s Club 133(2): 125-156. 2013  

*********************  

edited: 26.03.2017

Dendropanax cordifolius Britton

Heart-leaved Dendropanax (Dendropanax cordifolius)

The Heart-leaved Dendropanax, described in 1912, is known from wooded limestone hills at the summit of Dolphin Head Mountain on the island of Jamaica.

The species is a small, slender tree, about 6 m tall.

The Heart-leaved Dendropanax has not found during recent searches, habitat declines and degradation apparently led to its possible extinction.

*********************

edited: 13.11.2021v

Psychotria banaoana Urb.

Banao Psychotria (Psychotria banaoana 

The Banao Psychotria is or was apparently endemic to a place named Banao, a mountainous area east of the Agabama River in the Sancti Spíritus Province in central Cuba.

The habitat is rather dry and harbors a semi-deciduous forest. [1]

The species is now considered extinct. [2]

*********************  

References:  

[1] A. Borhidi; O. Muñiz: The phytogeographic survey of Cuba. Acta Bonatnica Hungarica 32(1-4): 3-48. 1986
[2] R. Berazaín: The extinct Flora of Cuba. Bissea 3(2). 2009

*********************  

edited: 03.09.2020

Quemisia gravis Miller

Twisted-toothed Mouse (Quemisia gravis)

The Twisted-toothed Mouse was described in 1929 based on subfossil remains, mainly teeth, which were recovered from cave deposits found both in the Dominican Republic as well as in Haiti, Hispaniola.

The species must have reached a size of 60 to 80 cm in length and might have weighed as much as about 20 kg.

There are contemporary reports from the 16th century which tell us of an animal called Quemi that was hunted and eaten by the native people of Hispaniola; these reports may refer to this species or maybe to the Hispaniolan Hutia (Plagiodontia aedium (F. Cuvier), a species that still exists.

*********************

edited: 05.05.2022

Caracara creightoni Brodkorb

Bahaman Caracara (Caracara creightoni)  

The Bahaman Caracara was described in 1959 based on fossil or subfossil bones, the oldest can be dated to a Pleistocene age, however, some are of Holocene origin and are only several thousand years old and even contain nearly complete mitochondrial DNA. [1]

The species inhabited the islands of the Bahamas as well as Cuba, it reached asize of about 60 cm, it had short wings and appears to have had only weak flying abilities.

The Bahaman Caracara clearly disappeared due to human interference.

*********************

References:  

[1] Jessica A. Oswald; Julia M. Allen; Kelsey E. Witt; Ryan A. Folk; Nancy A. Albury; David W. Steadman; Robert P. Guralnick: Ancient DNA from a 2,500-year-old Caribbean fossil places an extinct bird (Caracara creightoni) in a phylogenetic context”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 140: 106576. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106576. 2019

*********************

edited: 21.09.2020

Cyclura cornuta ssp. onchiopsis Cope

Navassa Island Iguana (Cyclura cornuta ssp. onchiopsis)

The Navassa Island Iguana is a subspecies of the Rhinoceros Iguana (Cyclura cornuta (Bonaterre)) that was restricted to the tiny and uninhabited Navassa Island and is sometimes treated as a distinct species.

The animals reached sizes of 60 cm to about 1,3 m and were dark green, grey to nearly blackish grey or brown in color.

The Navassa form was described in 1885, it disappeared sometimes after completely unnoticed, the reasons for its extinction are probably mainly found in habitat destruction by guano mining as well as predation by introduced dogs and rats.

*********************

edited: 16.05.2021

Caracara latebrosus (Wetmore)

Puerto Rican Caracara (Caracara latebrosus 

The Puerto Rican Caracara was described in 1920 based on fossil or subfossil remains found in cave deposits on the island of Puerto Rico.

The species lived at the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene border but very likely survived into the Later Holocene to be finally wiped out by the first human settlers.

*********************

edited: 21.09.2020

Nesotrochis steganinos Olson

Haitian Cave Rail (Nesotrochis steganinos)

The Haitian Cave Rail was described in 1974 on the basis of subfossil remains, it is the smallest of the three species that are assigned to this genus whose relations, by the way, are still quite unknown.

The species, like its congeners, showed a remarkable sexual dimorphism.:

There appear to be two distinct types of humeri in N. steganinos – larger ones with a shallow elongated brachial depression … and smaller ones with a very deep, rounded brachial depression …. These at first seemed so disparate that I took them to be from entirely different species. However, they are alike in all but these two respects and one of the specimens (205691) is somewhat intermediate. it seems best, therefore, to refer all of these humeri to N. steganinos, since there is no other indication of the presence of two species of Nesotrochis in the deposits. The size differences are in accord with observed size differences in the hindlimb, while differences in the brachial depression are possibly indicative of a sexual dimorphism that involved more than size.” [1]

***

The remains of the Haitian Cave Rail were found in cave deposits containing great quantities of bones of several larger, now mostly extinct rodents and other mammals which were accumulated by the likewise extinct Hispaniolan Giant Barn Owl (Tyto ostologa Wetmore). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of Nesotrochis from Hispaniola, with notes on other fossil rails from the West Indies (Aves: Rallidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 87(38): 439-450. 1974
[2] Jessica A. Oswald; Ryan S. Terrill; Brian J. Stucky; Michelle J. LeFebvre; David W. Steadman; Robert P. Guralnick: Supplementary material from “Ancient DNA from the extinct Haitian cave-rail (Nesotrochis steganinos) suggests a biogeographic connection between the Caribbean and Old World”. Biological Letters 17(3). 2021 

*********************

edited: 16.02.2020

Acratocnus ye MacPhee, White & Woods

Yesterday’s Ground Sloth (Acratocnus ye 

This species was described in 2000 based on (sub)fossil bones found on the Haitian part of the island of Hispaniola.

The species disappeared at the beginning of the Holocene era. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] R. D. E. MacPhee; Jennifer L. White; Charles A. Woods: New megalonychid sloths (Phyllophaga, Xenarthra) from the Quaternary of Hispaniola. American Museum Novitates 3303: 1-32. 2000

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Chelonoidis monensis (Williams)

Mona Island Tortoise (Chelonoidis monensis)  

This species is known from subfossil remains that were found on Mona Island, a small island halfway between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico.  

The species has probably survived until the first human settlers appeared at around 3000 BP.  

***  

There also appears to exist a painting in a cave on the island that obviously depicts such a tortoise.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Anders G. J. Rhodin; Scott Thomson; Georgios L. Georgalis; Hans-Volker Karl; Igor G. Danilov; Akio Takahashi; Marcelo S. de la Fuente; Jason R. Bourque; Massimo Delfino; Roger Bour; John B. Iverson; H. Bradley Shaffer; Peter Paul van Dijk: Turtles and Tortoises of the World During the Rise and Global Spread of Humanity: First Checklist and Review of Extinct Pleistocene and Holocene Chelonians.  and Holocene Turtles of the World Checklist – 2015 000e.1 Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group A. G. J. Rhodin, P. C. H. Pritchard, P. P. van Dijk, R. A. Saumure, K. A. Buhlmann, J. B. Iverson, and R. A. Mittermeier, Eds. Chelonian Research Monographs 5. 2015  

*********************  

edited: 06.09.2019

Urania sloanus (Cramer)

Sloan’s Urania Moth (Urania sloanus)  

The so-called Swallowtail moths are actually mostly nocturnal moths, some species however, like those of the genus Urania, are diurnal and almost always extremely colorful, resembling swallowtail species (Papilionidae) to which they are not related.  

***

Sloan’s Urania Moth was described in 1779, it was endemic to the island of Jamaica, where it apparently was restricted to the Blue Mountains, a mountainous region in the eastern part of the island.  

The species reached a wingspan of about 7,5 cm, it was depending on the Jamaica Navelspurge (Omphalea diandra L.) and the Jamaican Cobnutspurge (Omphalea triandra L.) as larval host plants.  

Sloan’s Urania Moth was last recorded in 1894 or 1895, depending on the source, the reasons for its extinction, however, are not fully understood but may be connected with the international butterfly collecting trade, plus a probable decline of its host plants.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘William Swainson: Zoological Illustrations or original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting animals: selected chiefly from the classes of Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology, and arranged on the principles of Cuvier and other modern zoologists. London: printed by R. and A. Taylor for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; and W. Wood 1820-1823’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 12.09.2019

Amplibuteo woodwardi (Miller)

Woodward’s Giant Buzzard (Amplibuteo woodwardi)  

Woodward’s Giant Buzzard was originally known from fossil bones recovered from the late Pleistocene deposits of the tar pits at Rancho La Brea in California, USA, however, in 2004 subfossil bones found in Cuba were assigned to the same species.  

The species appears to have survived in Cuba into the early Holocene period, when it was already extinct on the North American mainland. [1]  

***

Woodward’s Giant Buzzard or Woodward’s Eagle was one of the largest species of bird of prey known to have existed.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] William Suárez: The Identity of the Fossil Raptor of the Genus Amplibuteo (Aves: Accipitridae) from the Quaternary of Cuba. Caribbean Journal of Science 40(1): 120-125. 2004  

*********************  

edited: 23.03.2018

Leiocephalus eremitus Cope

Navassa Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus eremitus)  

The Navassa Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1868, it is known only from the type specimen, a female bearing three mature ova [eggs].  

The species was endemic to the tiny, uninhabited yet not undisputed island of Navassa: the island is the subject of an ongoing territorial dispute between Haiti and the United States, both of which claim the ownership over the little dry rock.  

The Navassa Curly-tailed Lizard reached a size of about 13 to 14 cm long (including the tail). [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992  

*********************  

edited: 07.09.2019

Tyto noeli Arredondo

Noel’s Giant Barn Owl (Tyto noeli)

Noel’s Giant Barn Owl was described in 1972 on the basis of subfossil and fossil remains that had been found at abundant cave sites on the island of Cuba, as well as some very few remains found on Jamaica.

The species occurred also on Barbuda, were its remains originally had been described as a distinct species (Tyto neddi Steadman & Hilgartner) in 1999, but were later assigned to this species.

The Noel’s Giant Barn Owl survived well into the Holocene, the remains that had been found on Jamaica could be dated to an age of about 3700 years.

*********************

References:

[1] William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson: Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae). Zootaxa 4020 (3): 533-553. 2015

*********************

edited: 08.09.2019

Caracara tellustris Olson

Jamaican Caracara (Caracara tellustris 

The Jamaican Caracara was described on the basis of subfossil remains that were uncovered in the so-called Skeleton Cave in the Jackson’s Bay Cave system on the south coast of Portland Ridge, Jamaica.  

The species was a large, terrestrial bird with reduced wings that even may have been flightless.  

The Jamaican Caracara probably disappeared quite recently, sometimes after the occupation of the island by European settlers. [1]  

*********************

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of large, terrestrial caracara from Holocene deposits in southern Jamaica (Aves: Falconidae). Journal of Raptor Research. The Raptor Research Foundation. 42 (4): 265–272. 2008

*********************

edited: 21.09.2020

Chlorostilbon bracei Lawrence

Brace’s Emerald (Chlorostilbon bracei)

Originally, Brace’s Emerald was only ever known by a single male specimen that had been collected in 1877 on the island of New Providence, Bahamas; this was long ignored completely and was considered identical with the Cuban Emerald (Chlorostilbon ricordii (Gervais)) which also inhabits the Bahamas. In 1945 it was then considered to be a subspecies of the Cuban Emerald; only in 1987 it was recognized as having been a completely distinct species.

Brace’s Emerald is now also known from fossil bones that were recovered from Pleistocene deposits on New Providence in the 1980s; it is now understood as a Pleistocene relict that had survived into modern times only to disappear completely after its discovery.

*********************

References:

[1] Gary R. Graves; Storrs L. Olson: Chlorostilbon bracei Lawrence, an extinct species of hummingbird from new Providence Island, Bahamas. The Auk 104: 296-302. 1987

*********************

Depiction: Alexander Lang

*********************

edited: 30.10.2020

Amazona vittata ssp. gracilipes Ridgeway

Culebra Amazon (Amazona vittata ssp. gracilipes)

The Culebra Amazon is an extinct subspecies of the Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata (Boddaert)) (see photo below) that was formerly found on the smaller island of Culebra offshore the east coast of Puerto Rico in the middle of the Greater Antilles.

This form was described in 1915 and differed from the nominate apparently by its smaller size and its smaller and more slender feet (?). It is known from only three specimens, a female and two males, which were collected in 1899.:

Formerly parrots were common on Culebra Island but now they are supposed to be extinct. Their destruction is due to the fact that they were considered a table delicacy and were hunted continually. When common they were said to do considerable injury in the plantations of bananas and plantains. Two specimens in the National Museum were collected by a. B. Baker on February 11 and 12, 1899. Another bears merely the date 1899.” [1]

The Culebra Amazon was never recorded again after the collection of the three specimens and is now extinct, the nominate race is likewise very rare and almost extinct in the wild. 

*********************

References:

[1] Alexander Wetmore: The birds of Culebra Island, Porto Rico. The Auk 34: 51-62. 1917

*********************

Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata)

Photo: Tom MacKenzie

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

*********************

edited: 12.02.2020

Psidium dumetorum Proctor

Briar Guava (Psidium dumetorum)  

The Briar Guava was described in the year 1967.  

The tree is known only from a single locality, a thicket at a streamside in the Clarendon parish in the south of Jamaica, which was completely cleared shortly after the description of this species.  

The last specimens of this species were recorded in the year 1976.

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Boromys torrei Allen

Torre’s Cave Rat (Boromys torrei)  

Torre’s Cave Rat was described in the year 1917.  

Just like its next relative, the Oriente Cave Rat (Boromys offella Miller), this smaller spiny rat species is known only from subfossil bone remains, that had been found in several caves on the island of Cuba and on the Isla de la Juventud.  

The reasons for its extinction are exactly the same as for its larger relative. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] A. van der Geer; G. Lyras; J. de Vos; M. Dermitzakis: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons 2010  

*********************  

Photo from: ‘G. M. Allen: Fossil Mammals from Cuba. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 62: 131-148. 1918’  

(not in copyright)

*********************  

edited: 17.02.2020

Boromys offela Miller

Oriente Cave Rat (Boromys offela)  

This species was described in the year 1916 from subfossil bones that had been found on the island of Cuba and on the Isla de la Juventud.  

The Oriente Cave Rat seems to have survived long enough to see the arrival of the first Europeans on the American double continent, because its bones were found in deposits that also contained bones of rats, which again reached Cuba for the first time together with the European discoverers.  

These rats then again obviously played a big role in the extinction of this endemic rodent species. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] A. van der Geer; G. Lyras; J. de Vos; M. Dermitzakis: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons 2010  

*********************

Photo from: ‘G. M. Allen: Fossil Mammals from Cuba. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 62: 131-148. 1918’  

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 17.02.2020

Banara wilsonii Alain

Wilson’s Banara Tree (Banara wilsonii)

This species is known only from the type material which was collected sometimes prior 1938 (the date of its description) near the city of Puerto Padre in central Cuba.

The species is now most likely extinct.

***

The photo below shows a closely related species, the Palo de Ramón (Banara vanderbiltii Urban) from Puerto Rico.

*********************

Palo de Ramón (Banara vanderbiltii)

Photo: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Southeast Region

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 03.05.2022

Halarachne americana Banks

Caribbean Monk Seal Nasal Mite (Halarachne americana)  

The Caribbean Monk Seal Nasal Mite was a parasite, specialized to the now extinct Caribbean Monk Seal (Neomonachus tropicalis (Gray)) where they lived inside the respiratory tract of that seal species, their biology, however, is not fully understood yet.

The mites disappeared together with their host species when the Caribbean Monk Seal died out in the 1950s.

***

This genus contains at least two additional species which are still alive, the Grey Seal Nasal Mite (Halarachne halichoeri Allman) and the Hawaiian Monk Seal Nasal Mite (Halarachne laysanae Furman & Dailey), both apparently restricted to their own single seal species host.  

*********************  

female

Depiction from: ‘Nathan Banks: A treatise on the Acarina, or mites. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 28: 1-114. 1905’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 20.09.2020

Angostura ossana (DC.) Beurton

Cuban Angostura (Angostura ossana)

The Cuban Angostura was described in 1822; it is known only from the type specimen and a single additional specimen which was collected some years later.

The species was restricted to the island of Cuba, where it was known as Quina del país.

The indigenous people of South America and the Antillean islands formerly used the bark of congeneric species to produce a stimulant tonic, it is still used as a source of antipyretics; it is thus very likely that the populations of this species were highly reduced by collecting of their bark. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Christa Beurton: Angostura ossana (Rutaceae), a component of the Cuban flora. Willdenowia 34: 277-289. 2004

*********************

Depiction from: ‘M. de Candolle: Mémoire sur la tribu des Cuspariées. Mémoires du Muséum d’histoire naturelle 9: 139-145. 1822’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 14.11.2021

Leiocephalus endomychus Schwartz

Central Haitian Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus endomychus)  

The Central Haitian Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1967, originally as a subspecies of Cochran’s Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus vinculum Cochran) but was revalued to species status in 1992. [1][2]  

The species was apparently restricted to the Plateau Central in the Haitian part of the island of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles.  

The Central Haitian Curly-tailed Lizard was a smaller species, it reached a size of about 15 cm (including the tail). [1]  

The species was last recorded in 1976 and is now believed to be extinct.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Albert Schwartz: The Leiocephalus (Lacertilia, Iguanidae) of Hispaniola, II. The Leiocephalus personatus complex. Tulane Studies in Zoology 14(1): 1-53. 1967 
[2] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992  

*********************

throat of a male  

Depiction from: ‘ Albert Schwartz: The Leiocephalus (Lacertilia, Iguanidae) of Hispaniola, II. The Leiocephalus personatus complex. Tulane Studies in Zoology 14(1): 1-53. 1967’  

(under creative commons license (3.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

********************* 

edited: 08.09.2019

Celestus molesworthi Grant

Portland Coast Galliwasp (Celestus molesworthi)

The Portland Coast Galliwasp was described in 1940; it was apparently restricted to a small region near the north-eastern coast of Jamaica.

The species reaches a size of about 8,5 cm (without the tail).

The Portland Coast Galliwasp was last seen in the 1950s and has not found since; it is thus believed to be very likely extinct.

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Tachycineta euchrysea ssp. euchrysea (Gosse)

Golden Swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea ssp. euchrysea)

The Golden Swallow is endemic to the Greater Antilles, where two subspecies are known from the islands of Hispaniola (Tachycineta euchrysea ssp. sclateri Cory) and Jamaica (nominate ssp.).

The species reaches a length of about 12 cm, its upperparts are very glossy bluish green, respectively golden green in the extinct nominate; the under parts are white. 

The Golden Swallow was last seen in Jamaica in 1989, it is now thought to be extinct, the reasons for its extinction are not really well known.

***

In my humble opinion, the two subspecies might better be considered distinct species.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Richard Bowdler Sharpe; Claude W. Wyatt: A monograph of the Hirundinidae or the family of swallows. London: printed for the authors 1885-1894’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.05.2021

Phyllops vetus Anthony

Lesser Cuban Fig-eating Bat (Phyllops vetus)

The Lesser Cuban Fig-eating Bat, also known as Lesser Falcate-winged Bat, was described in 1919 based on subfossil remains collected from a cave named Cueva de los Indios on the island of Cuba.

The species was somewhat similar to the still living Cuban Fig-eating Bat (Phyllops falcatus (Gray)) but was noticeably smaller. [1]

***

Fossils that are assignable to this species were later also recovered from cave depostis on the Isla de la Juventud offshore the southern coast of Cuba.

*********************

References:

[1] H. E. Anthony: Mammals collected in eastern Cuba in 1917: with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 41: 625-643. 1919

*********************

edited: 23.01.2020

Geocapromys ingrahami ssp. irrectus Lawrence

Crooked Island Hutia (Geocapromys ingrahami ssp. irrectus)

The Bahaman Hutia (Geocapromys ingrahami (J. A. Allen)) is a species of middle-sized rodent that is endemic to the Bahamas, or at least to the islands that are part of the so-called Great Bahama Bank.

The species was believed to be extinct, but a very small population was rediscovered in 1966 on a likewise very small island named East Plana Cay, this was assigned to the nominate form and in 1973, some of these animals were released on two additional islands, Little Wax Cay and Warderick Wells. 

Based on DNA studies it is now known that the animals on East Plana Cay in fact did not constitute the last surviving wild population but one that was introduced in pre-Columbian times by the people of the Lucayan culture, the first human inhabitants of the Bahamas. [2]

***

Subfossil remains of this species were found on many of the larger islands, including Abaco as well as Crooked Island, Eleuthera, Exuma and Long Island; these forms differed from the alleged nominate form by their cranial characters and thus were described as two distinct subspecies: Geocapromys ingrahami ssp. abacoensis Lawrence (from Abaco Island) and Geocapromys ingrahami ssp. irrectus (from the remaining islands); the form from Abaco Island, however, is now known to have also just been introduced in prehistoric times, thus has never been a distinct subspecies. [1]

The animals that inhabited Crooked Island, Eleuthera, Exuma and Long Island on the other hand, appear to be non-monophyletic, thus likewise do not represent a distinct subspecies but either more than one or none at all. 

The above-mentioned differences in the cranial characters may in fact just be the consequence of resource availability – animals on larger islands may have become larger because they had access to larger resources …. [2]

***

The Bahamian Hutia, once believed to be extinct, then rediscovered in 1966, may never had have any subspecies after all. This question is not yet answered – I will mention this species here only fro the sake of completness and because it constitutes a very interesting case.

*********************

References:

[1] B. N. Lawrence: Geocapromys from the Bahamas. Occasional papers of the Boston Society of Natural History 8: 189-196. 1934
[2] Jessica A. Oswald; Julie M. Allen; Michelle J. LeFebvre; Brian J. Stucky; Ryan A. Folk; Nancy A. Albury; Gary S. Morgan; Robert P. Guralnick; David W. Steadman: Ancient DNA and high-resolution chronometry reveal a long-term human role in the historical diversity and biogeography of the Bahamian hutia. Scientific Reports 10: 1373. 2020

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Mark Catesby; George Edwards: The natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands : containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects, and plants : particularly, those not hitherto described, or incorrectly figured by former authors, with their descriptions in English and French : to which is prefixed, a new and correct map of the countries, with observations on their natural state, inhabitants, and productions. London: printed for B. White 1771’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.11.2020

Maytenus lineata C. Wright ex Griseb.

Linear-leaved Maytenus (Maytenus lineata)

The Linear-leaved Maytenus is or was an up to 4 m tall shrub or little tree endemic to the Pinar del Río Province of Cuba and is now regarded as extinct. [1]

The species was locally known as Nazareno or Nazareno morado

*********************    

References:    

[1] R. Berazaín: The extinct Flora of Cuba. Bissea 3(2). 2009

*********************

edited: 03.09.2020

Scolopax brachycarpa Steadman & Takano

Hispaniolan Woodcock (Scolopax brachycarpa)

This species was first recorded from a Holocene fossil site from Trouing Jean Paul, a high elevation limestone sinkhole in the Massif de la Selle, Haiti, which represents the prey remains of the the endemic Ashy-faced Barn Owl (Tyto glaucops (Kaup)). These can be dated to an age of about 1000 CE, thus date to a time when most of the larger endemic bird – and mammal species already had been extirpated by the first Amerindian settlers, but still some 500 years before the arrival of the first European conquerors. [1][2]

***

No woodcock species is today known to inhabit the Caribbean region, but formerly there appears to have been a small radiation of at least two species, maybe some more to be discovered in the future. 

The Hispaniolan Woodcock most likely disapperaed due to hunting and habitat destruction, it may even have survived into quite historical times, but this assumption needs to be proven.  

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References:

[1] David W. Steadman; Oona M. Takano: A late-Holocene bird community from Hispaniola: Refining the chronology of vertebrate extinction in the West Indies. Holocene 23(7): 936-944. 2013
[2] Oona M. Takano; David W. Steadman: A new species of Woodcock (Aves: Scolopacidae: Scolopax) from Hispaniola, West Indies. Zootaxa 4032(1): 117-126. 2015

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edited: 26.01.2019

Brotomys contractus Miller

Haitian Edible Rat (Brotomys contractus)

The Haitian Edible Rat was described in 1929 based on subfossil remains.

In pre-European times, the native spiny rats of the Caribbean were very common and were an important part of the diet of the indigenous people.

Most of the known species – including this one – did not become extinct until a short time after the arrival of the Europeans. [1][2][3]

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References:

[1] Gerrit S. Miller: A second collection of mammals from caves near St. Michel, Haiti. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 81(9): 1-30. 1929
[2] Samuel T. Turvey: Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, USA 2009
[3] Alexandra van der Geer; George Lyras; John de Vos; Michael Dermitzakis: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons 2010

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Photo from: ‘Gerrit S. Miller: A second collection of mammals from caves near St. Michel, Haiti. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 81(9): 1-30. 1929’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 05.05.2022

Phyllops silvai Suárez & Díaz-Franco

Silva’s Fig-eating Bat (Phyllops silvai)

This species was described in 2003; it is known from fossil remains that can be dated to a Late Pleistocene age, the species, however, might well have survived into the Holocene era.

The island of Cuba still harbors at least one surviving congeneric species, the Cuban Fig-eating Bat (Phyllops falcatus (Gray)).

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edited: 10.08.2022

Chelonoidis cubensis (Leidy)

Giant Cuban Tortoise (Chelonoidis cubensis)

The Giant Cuban Tortoise was endemic to the island of Cuba; the species disappeared sometimes during the Holocene, very likely due direct hunting pressure by the first human settlers.

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edited: 17.08.2022

Paralouatta varonai Rivero & Arredondo

Cuban Monkey (Paralouatta varonai)

The Cuban Monkey was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that were found on the island of Cuba.

The species died out about 3000 years BP, probably due to the arrival of the first humans on the island which hunted these primates.

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edited: 17.11.2021

Ciconia sp. ‘Cuba’

Cuban Stork (Ciconia sp.)

This form is known from fossil bones only that were found in the Las Breas de San Felipe tar pits in the Matanzas Province of Cuba in the Caribbean.

The Cuban Stork lived in sympatry with another now extinct congeneric species, the La Brea Stork (Ciconia maltha Miller), which, however, was not restricted to the island of Cuba but also inhabited large parts of what today is the USA.

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edited: 19.8.2022

Paspalum amphicarpum Ekman

Amphicarpic Paspalum Grass (Paspalum amphicarpum)  

The Amphicarpic Paspalum Grass was described in 1942, it appears to be endemic to the western regions of Cuba: the type was collected in 1923 at the edge of a pool near Laguna de Piedras in the Province of Pinar del Río [it might actually also occur in South America, I wasn’t able to find out yet].

This is a glabrous, widely creeping aquatic or subaquatic perennial with ascending branches, it is furthermore known to produce subterranean spikes with cleistogame (self-pollinating) flowers as well as normal aerial inflorescences. [1][2]

***

The species’ name appears in lists of extinct species, so is extinct at least on the island of Cuba to which it might have been endemic.

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References:
[1] Agnes Chase: The North American species of Paspalum. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 28(1): 1-317. 1942
[2] H. E. Connor: Breeding systems in the grasses: a survey. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17: 547-574. 1979

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Depiction from: ‘Agnes Chase: The North American species of Paspalum. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 28(1): 1-317. 1942’

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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edited: 19.06.2020

Neocnus gliriformis (Matthew)

Cuban Rodent-like Sloth (Neocnus gliriformis)

 

The Cuban Rodent-like Sloth was described 1931 based on fossil bones that date to Late Pleistocene in age; the species, however, might well have survived into the Early Holocene.

Several forms that formerly had been described as distinct species, are now included here.

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edited: 09.08.2022

Geotrygon larva (Wetmore)

Puerto Rican Quail-Dove (Geotrygon larva)

The Puerto Rican Quail-Dove was described in 1920 based on subfossil remains found in the Cueva Clava on the island of Puerto Rico in the Greater Antilles.

The species was closely related to the Grey-fronted Quail-Dove (Geotrygon caniceps (Gundlach)) and the White-fronted Quail-Dove (Geotrygon leucometopia (Chapman)), which today inhabiting the neighboring islands of Cuba and Hispaniola respectively.

The Puerto Rican Quail-Dove very likely disappeared soon after the arrival of the first human settlers on the island.

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edited: 04.05.2019

Leiocephalus apertosulcus Etheridge

Large Hispaniola Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus apertosulcus  

The Large Hispaniola Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1965 based on subfossil remains that had been recovered from the deposits of a cave in the Cerro de San Francisco in the Municipio Pedro Santana of the Dominican Republic in the eastern part of Hispaniola Island.  

The species must have reached a size of about 40 cm (including the tail). [1][2]  

***  

The Large Hispaniola Curly-tailed Lizard was closely related to the St. Michel Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus anonymus Pregill), another species only known from subfossil remains found on the island of Hispaniola, but differed from that species by some of its anatomical features. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Gregory Pregill: An extinct species of Leiocephalus from Haiti (Sauria: Iguanidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(4): 827-833. 1984 
[2] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992  

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edited: 08.09.2019

Tyto ostologa Wetmore

Hispaniolan Giant Barn Owl (Tyto ostologa)  

The Hispaniolan Giant Barn Owl was described in 1922 on the basis of subfossil remains that had been recovered from several cave site on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. [1]  

The species survived until the Holocene and most probably disappeared after the extinction of its main prey items, the large endemic mammals that mostly were extirpated by the first Amerindians that reached the islands of the Caribbean.  

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References:  

[1] William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson: Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae). Zootaxa 4020 (3): 533-553. 2015  

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edited: 08.09.2019

Tainotherium valei Turvey et al.

Taino Hutia (Tainotherium valei 

The Taino Hutia was described in 2006 based of subfossil remains found on the island of Puerto Rico.  

The species has been tentatively assigned to the family Heptaxodontidae but in the absence of any cranial or dental material, its familial relationships must remain conjectural. [1]  

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References:  

[1] S. T. Turvey; F. V. Grady; P. Rye: A new genus and species of ‘giant hutia’ (Tainotherium valei) from the Quaternary of Puerto Rico: an extinct arboreal quadruped? Journal of Zoology 270(4): 585-594. 2006  

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edited: 06.09.2019

Celestus anelpistus (Schwartz, Graham & Duval)

Altagracia Galliwasp (Celestus anelpistus)

This species was described in 1979; it is known only from the type series that was collected in 1977 in a small valley in the San Cristóbal Province in the southern  Dominican Republic.

The sole known type locality has been converted into agricultural land and it is very likely extinct.

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edited: 01.08.2022

Scytalopus sp. ‘Cuba’

Cuban Tapaculo (Scytalopus sp.)  

The tapaculos are a strictly South American family of about 35 terrestrial, small to middle-sized birds, some are nearly flightless.  

These birds do not appear to have any capability for dispersal over water, yet at least one genus appears to have reached at least the Greater Antilles.  

***

The Cuban Tapaculo is known so far from only two subfossil respectively fossil remains; a humerus, recovered from cave deposits on the Isla de Juventud, and a tibiotarsus collected in the Camagüey Province.  

The humerus from the Isla de Juventud is probably of Holocene age, as it was found together with bones of rats (Rattus spp.). The tibiotarsus from the Camagüey Province, however, appears to be older, being from a deposit that also contained many bones of mammals that are now extinct but lacked bones of post-Colombian mice and rats.  

The species very likely disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Europeans in the 15th century, it may have been eliminated by the introduced predatory mammals, for which such a small, nearly or even fully flightless bird probably was an easy target.  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson; Evgeny N. Kurochkin: Fossil evidence of a tapaculo in the Quaternary of Cuba (Aves: Passeriformes: Scytalopodidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100(2): 353-357. 1987  

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Depiction: Alexander Lang  

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edited: 10.11.2017

Amyris cubensis (Borhidi & Acuña) Beurton

Cuban Sandalwood (Amyris cubensis)  

This species, which is endemic to the island of Cuba, is considered most likely extinct.  

There appear to exist several herbarium specimens, however, which apparently were collected in an previously unreported locality that is still insufficiently explored, so there is a slight chance that some undiscovered populations still exist.  

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References:  

[1] R. Berazaín: The extinct Flora of Cuba. Bisea 3(2). 2009  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Leiocephalus anonymous Pregill

St. Michel Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus anonymus)   

The St. Michel Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1984 based on subfossil bones that had been collected already 50 years prior from the deposits of an unspecified cave (or from more than one cave, it is not known) near Saint-Michel-de-l’Attalaye in the Département Artibonite in the western part of Haiti.  

In life, the species must have reached a size of about 25 cm (including the tail). [1][2]  

***  

It is not known if this species survived into post-European times (after 1492), it is, however, quite likely. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Gregory Pregill: An extinct species of Leiocephalus from Haiti (Sauria: Iguanidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(4): 827-833. 1984 
[2] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992  

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right lower jaw  

Depiction from: ‘Gregory Pregill: An extinct species of Leiocephalus from Haiti (Sauria: Iguanidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(4): 827-833. 1984’  

(unter creative commons Lizenz (3.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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edited: 08.09.2019

Aristelliger titan Hecht

Jamaican Giant Gecko (Aristelliger titan)

The Jamaican Giant Gecko was described in 1951 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from cave deposists on the island of Jamaica.

The species apparently disappeared in the late Holocene, this is either after the first appearance of Amerindian settlers or even as late as in the 15th century or even later. [1]

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References:

[1] Raymond M. Wright; Edward Robinson: Biostratigraphy of Jamaica. Geological Society of Amer 1994

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edited: 17.04.2019

Isolobodon portoricensis Allen

Puerto Rican Hutia (Isolobodon portoricensis 

The Puerto Rican Hutia was described on the basis of remains found in aboriginal midden remains on the island of Puerto Rico.  

The species, however, was actually native only to the island of Hispaniola, perhaps including some small offshore islands, this is known from fossil remains that were found at sites without anthropogenic relations  

The Puerto Rican Hutia was imported by the natives to other islands for nutrition purposes, and indeed all bone remains of this species found outside the island of Hispaniola were found in the litter of former natives settlements.  

The species disappeared at around 1280 to 1425 A.D..  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson: Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 48. 1982 
[2] Clare Flemming; R. D. E. MacPhee: Redetermination of holotype of Isolobodon portoricensis (Rodentia, Capromyidae), with notes on recent mammalian extinctions in Puerto Rico. American Museum Novitates 3278: 1-11. 1999 
[3] Donald A. McFarlane; Abel Vale; Keith Christenson; Joyce Lundberg; Gabriel Atilles; Stein-Erik Lauritzen: New specimens of Late Quaternary extinct mammals from caves in Sanchez Ramirez Province, Dominican Republic. Caribbean Journal of Science 36: 163-166. 2000  

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cranium

Photo from: ‘Gerrit S. Miller, Jr.: Bones of mammals from Indian sites in Cuba and Santo Domingo. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 66(12): 1-10. 1916’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 06.09.2019

Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour & Peters

Zapata Rail (Cyanolimnas cerverai)  

The Zapata Rail is a very poorly-known water bird endemic to Cuba, and today a relict species from the Zapata Swamp in western Cuba. The bird’s elusive nature has caused confusion within the ornithological community as to its status – confusion that may have unwittingly provided a smoke screen to a very real threat that may be driving the species to extinction.  

The Zapata Rail was discovered near Santo Tomás in 1927 by Fermin Cervera (a Spanish entomologist and bird collector). James Bond (Caribbean ornithologist extraordinaire) had no difficulty finding the bird at this same locality in 1931. However, the species was not then seen for several decades. In fact, the bird has probably been seen less than 15 times since the 1930s, with all of these records coming from just two or three localities. In the 1970s the voice of the rail was recorded and published (by George Reynard and Orlando Garrido). This seemed to unlock the mystery – birds sounding the same as the recording, or indeed responding to playback of the voice were heard at a number of new localities. Many new records, often of multiple individuals, were documented in the 1970s and during the 1990s as a new wave of research focused on the Caribbean’s largest wetland.  

However, in 2001, Arturo Kirkconnell (co-author with Garrido of the 2000 Field guide to the birds of Cuba book) discovered that the recording people had been using for 25 years was in fact of the widespread Spotted Rail (Pardirallus maculatus (Boddaert)). From that point, none of the previous records of “heard but not seen” birds could be counted within our knowledge-base for the species. The vocalisation of the Zapata Rail is still a mystery although at the time of its discovery it was described as a loud “kwowk”, like a Limpkin.  

2001 was a bad year for the Zapata Rail. In November that year, hurricane “Michelle” hit the region and damaged a facility that was breeding African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)). As a result of the hurricane this alien invasive fish reached the Zapata Swamp region where it has since been thriving and severely impacting the fragile underwater flora and fauna. Young Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus (L.)) and Purple Gallinules (Porphyrio martinica L.) have been found in the stomach contents of catfish from the swamp, so we know that the catfish are depleting local populations of rallidae species. Worryingly, Arturo’s work in Zapata that has involved over 100 trips in the last 20 years, suggests that areas where he was recording large numbers of rails (Spotted Rail, King Rail (Rallus elegans Audubon) and Sora (Porzana carolina (L.))) during the 1990s now hold few, if any birds.  

The populations of Spotted Rail and King Rail in the Zapata Swamp declined dramatically – 50-60%, or possibly even more – after the catfish found their way into the Zapata Swamp in 2001.” – Arturo Kirkconnell, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural  

Due to its extremely small known range and an apparent catastrophic decline in related species due to the recent arrival of the invasive predatory catfish, the Zapata Rail was uplisted by BirdLife to Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Being potentially close to extinction, there is an urgent need for a reliable assessment of the species’ range and population on which to base conservation actions. BirdLife, working in collaboration with Centro Nacional de Areas Protegidas (CNAP, BirdLife in Cuba) and Cuba’s Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, is actively seeking funding to support such an assessment.  

Article by David C. Wege; reproduced with kind permission of David C. Wege, the original article can be found here.:  

http://www.birdlife.org/community/2010/07/zapata-rail-on-the-edge

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References:  

http://www.birdlife.org/community/2010/07/zapata-rail-on-the-edge

Depiction by Allan Brooks, in Thomas Barbour derivative work  

(public domain)

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edited: 17.02.2020

Mesocapromys kraglievichi Varona & Arredondo

Kraglievich’s Dwarf Hutia (Mesocapromys kraglievichi)  

This species was described in 1979 based on subfossil remains that were found in a cave named Cueva de Paredones near the town of San Antonio de los Baños in the Artemisa Province, Cuba.  

The species most probably disappeared sometimes after the colonization of the Antilles by Caribbean tribes.  

***

This species is somewhat questionable and in need of a revision.  

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edited: 31.10.2017

Myrcia skeldingii Proctor

Skelding’s Myrcia (Myrcia skeldingii)  

This species was described in 1958 (or 1959?).  

Skelding’s Myrcia is (or was) a 5 m tall tree growing in streamside thickets along the Mason River at the border between the Parishes of Clarendon and Saint Ann in the center of Jamaica.  

The species is easily distinguished from other Jamaican congeners by its subsessile, more or less subcordate, blunt-tipped leaves and its four-lobed calyx. [1]  

***

The species was not found since 1972 and is most likely extinct.  

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References:  

[1] George R. Proctor: Further new records of Myrtaceae from Jamaica. Rhodora 60: 323-326. 1958  

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edited: 24.03.2017

Ara tricolor Bechstein

Cuban Macaw (Ara tricolor 

The Caribbean may once have been home for numerous parrot species, including several endemic macaw species, whose former existence, however, is still somewhat questionable; yet the Cuban Macaw is the only Caribbean macaw whose actual existence cannot be doubted.  

There are at least 19 museum specimens and some subfossil material to prove the former existence of this small macaw species. [1]  

***

The Cuban Macaw was only about 50 cm long, it was mainly red, had a yellow neck and blue wings and a blue tipped tail.  

The bird inhabited the main island and the Isla de la Juventud offshore Cuba’s southwest coast, and it is in fact quite possible that this species also inhabited to islands of Hispaniola and Jamaica.  

***

The Cuban Macaw was already restricted to the Zapata Peninsula and to the Isla de la Juventud, when it was discovered by European scientists.  

The last records date to the 1850s.  

***

The bird was a host of several species of parasites, including the feather mite Distigmesikya extincta Pineda & Ortiz and the feather louse Psittacobrosus bechsteini Mey, which were obviously restricted to this single species and which are now extinct together with their only host. [1]  

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References:  

[1] James W. Wiley; Guy M. Kirwan: The extinct macaws of the West Indies, with special reference to Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist’s Club 133(2): 125-156. 2013  

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Depiction from: ‘François Le Vaillant: Histoire naturelle des perroquets. Paris Levrault, Schoell & Cie, An IX-XII. 1801–1805’  

(under creative commons license (4.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0

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edited: 24.03.2017