Category Archives: Gastropoda

Amphorella leacociana (Lowe)

Ribeira de Joao Gomes Amphorella Snail (Amphorella leacociana)

The Ribeira de Joao Gomes Amphorella Snail was described in 1852; it is known only from a few regions on the island of Madeira, Portugal, where it was found “under stones, very rare“. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 3.7 in height; they were described as follows.:

The shell is very small, oblong-turrite, widest near the base, very thin and fragile, subtransparent, yellowish-corneous, glossy, with a very narrow gray subsutural margin edged below with a light line. The spire has slightly convex outlines and obtuse summit. Whorls 5 1/2 slowly widening to the last which descends more rapidly. The aperture is small, piriform, very narrow above. Outer lip thin, strongly arched forward in the middle, deeply excised or retracted to the suture above. Columella rather wide, projecting into the aperture, truncate at base.” [1]

***

syn. Achatina leacociana Lowe, Ferussacia leacociana (Lowe)

***

This species can also be found named as Amphorella leacockiana (Lowe), which, of course, is wrong.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 19. Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908’

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 19. Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908

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edited: 15.02.2024

Amastra anthonii (Newcomb)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail (Amastra anthonii)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail was described in 1888, it was endemic to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, however, the exact locality appears to be unknown.

… from the original description.:

Shell conically ovate, solid, blackish-brown, longitudinally striate. Whorls 6, inflated, suture moderately impressed. Apex obtuse. Aperture obliquely ovate, subangulate below. Lip simple, thickened within. Columella short, straight, with a somewhat callous plication below the middle. White-banded below the suture, and of a dirty white in the umbilical region.” [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 1,6 to 1,8 cm in height.

***

syn. Achatinella anthonii Newcomb

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 06.10.2020

Leytea leytensis (Pfeiffer)

Fragile Chloraea Snail (Leytea leytensis)

The Fragile Chloraea Snail was described in 1841; it is apparently endemic to the island of Leyte in the Philippines.

The species is thought to be extinct.

***

syn. Chloraea fragilis (Sowerby), Helix leytensis Pfeiffer

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Depiction from: ‘H. Grosse: Note sur l’Helix Leytensis, Pfeiffer, des Philippines. Journal de Conchyliologie. 3e série – Tome XVe. Vol. 23: 133-136. 1875

(public domain)

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edited: 12.02.2024

Aylacostoma guaraniticum (Hylton Scott)

Guaranita Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma guaraniticum)

This species was described in 1954, it inhabited highly oxygenated freshwater habitats near the Yacyretá-Apipé rapids in the high Paraná river at the border area between Argentinia and Paraguay.

It shared this habitat with two other species from the same genus, the Green Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma chloroticum Hylton Scott) and the Stigmated Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma stigmaticum Hylton Scott), all described by the same author at the same time.

The habitat of these three species was destroyed by the building of dams and by the filling of the Yacyretá reservoir in the early 1990s, leading to the extinction of at least two of the three species, including the Guaranita Aylacostoma Snail. [1]

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References:

[1] Roberto E. Vogler; Ariel A. Beltramino; Juana G. Peso; Alejandra Rumi: Threatened gastropods under the evolutionary genetic species concept: redescription and new species of the genus Aylacostoma (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) from High Paraná River (Argentina–Paraguay). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 501-520. 2014

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edited: 24.11.2018

Dupontia affouchensis Griffiths

L’Affouche Dupontio Snail (Dupontia affouchensis)

This species was described in 2000 on the basis of a single subfossil specimen that had been found in 1997 in limestone scree of the Caverne L’Affouche on the island of Rodrigues; the specimen was found together with the bones of tortoises (Cylindraspis sp.) and the Solitaire (Pezophas solitarius (Gmelin)) which both are now likewise extinct. Additional specimens were subsequently found in other caves in the south-west of Rodrigues.

The shells reach heights of about 0.55 cm; they are depressed, thin and pale glossy white with a thin brown band bordering the suture and continuing on the last whorl just above the rounded periphery.

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References:

[1] Owen Lee Griffiths: Nine new species of Mascarene land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molluscan Research 20(2): 37-50. 2000

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edited: 29.01.2024

Hyperaulax ramagei (E. A. Smith)

Ramage’s Noronha Snail (Hyperaulax ramagei)

Ramage’s Noronha Snail was described in 1890; it is only known from the main island of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago offshore north-eastern Brazil, where they were found to be “imbedded in sandy mud on a raised reef and have a semi-fossilized appearance”. [1]

The species must have gone extinct somewhat prior to their description as many specimens appeared quite fresh and still were bearing an intact periostracum (see photo below).

***

The genus contains one additional species, also endemic to the same archipelago, Ridley’s Noronha snail (Hyperaulax ridleyi (E. A. Smith)); this species is still alive today. [2][3]

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Photo from: ‘Rodrigo B. Salvador; Daniel C. Cavallari: Taxonomic revision of the genus Hyperaulax Pilsbry, 1897 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Odontostomidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 95(2): 453-463. 2019’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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References:

[1] H. N. Smith: Mollusca. In: Ridley HN, ed. Notes on the Zoology of Fernando Noronha. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 473-570. 1890
[2] A. V. L. Freitas; M. S. Miranda; f. D. Passos: Land snails of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. American Malacological Bulletin 37: 66-69. 2019
[3] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Daniel C. Cavallari; Carl C. Christensen; André V. L. Freitas; Marcel S. Miranda; Flávio D. Passos: The endemic land snails of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brasil. Tentacle 30: 6-8. 2022

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edited: 22.01.2024

Anoma gossei (Pfeiffer)

Gosse’s Anoma Snail (Anoma gossei)

Gosse’s Anoma Snail was described in 1846, the species is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Jamaica.

The shells are about 1,8 to 2,1 cm heigth, they appear quite thin, have up to 16 whorls and are somewhat translucent bluish white. [1] 

The species is considered probably extinct.

***

syn. Cylindrella gossei Pfeifer, Macroceramus pfeifferi Martens

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Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904

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edited: 22.09.2020

Nesopupa sp. ‘Majuro’

Majuro Nesopupa Snail (Nesopupa sp.)

This form is known exclusively from a single specimen that was discovered during excavations on the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

The genus is in need of a revision, and this might have been a widespread species, introduced to the atoll by humans, but it might also have been an endemic, now extinct species and is thus mentioned here. [1] 

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References:

[1] Carl. C. Christensen; Marshall I. Weisler: Land snails from archaeological sites in the Marshall Islands, with remarks on prehistoric translocations in tropical Oceania. Pacific Science 67(1): 81-104. 2013

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edited: 22.04.2019

Plectostoma tenggekensis Liew, Vermeulen, Marzuki & Schilthuizen

Tenggek Karst Snail (Plectostoma tenggekensis)

The Tenggek Karst Snail was described in 2014; it is only known from the type locality: Bukit Tenggek in Pahang, central Peninsular Malaysia.

The shells reach sizes of 0.16 to 0.17 cm in height; the apical spire is depressed, the basal spire is conical and the whorl periphery is moderately convex, the umbilicus is open.

The only known locality where this species was known to occur, is now completely destroyed by limestone quarrying.

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Photo from: ‘Thor-Seng Liew; Jaap Jan Vermeulen; Mohammad Effendi bin Marzuki; Menno Schilthuizen: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393: 1-107. 2014’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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References:

[1] Thor-Seng Liew; Jaap Jan Vermeulen; Mohammad Effendi bin Marzuki; Menno Schilthuizen: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393: 1-107. 2014

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edited: 01.03.2024

Helenoconcha perarmata (Smith)

Well-armed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha perarmata)

The Well-armed Saint Helena Snail was described in 1893; it was restricted to the island of Saint Helena, where it was found on Diana’s Peak, the island’s highest mountain.

The species is apparently known from only two specimens, which differ from each other in the height of their spire; they reach sizes of about 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

This form might be identical with the Six-toothed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha sexdentata (Smith)), with which it was described. 

As mentioned under that species, the Saint Helena Gastropoda species are in urgent need of a proper revision! 

***

syn. Patula perarmata Smith

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Depiction from: ‘Edgar A. Smith: Descriptions of two new species of Patula from St. Helena. The Conchologist 2(7): 164-165. 1893’

(public domain)

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References:

Edgar A. Smith: Descriptions of two new species of Patula from St. Helena. The Conchologist 2(7): 164-165. 1893

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edited: 30.05.2021

Orobophana berniceia ssp. ‘Wailua’

Wailua Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia ssp.)

This supposed geographical race, or subspecies of the Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceira(Pilsbry & Cooke)) is known from several shells that were found south of the Wailua River at the western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These shells were nearly all of equal size and in average reached sizes of about 0,27 cm in height and 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

The Wailua Orobophana Snail, whatever its taxonomic status might be, is clearly extinct now.

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References:

[1] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 18.05.2019

Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula Cooke

Maunaloa Amastra Snail (Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula)

The Maunaloa Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the northern shore of Molokai’, Hawaiian Islands.

A very few imperfect specimens were found by Pilsbry and Cooke in 1913 at Moomomi where this variety is extremely rare. Further west, especially in the shifting sands, it occurs more abundantly but is not a common species in any locality. it has been found sparingly in all the known fossil deposits from Puukapele west to the shifting sands. This variety is readily separated from the typical form by its less tumid last whorl, more cylindrical form and malleate surface.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height.

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra montivaga Cooke

Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail (Amastra montivaga)

The Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found on the Kalihi Ridge, which is a mountainous region on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

“A. montivaga is undoubtedly a dirivative [sic] of A. textilis. It differs from the latter species by its smaller size, thinner shell, more convex whorls (which are shouldered below), deeper sutures, etc.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of 1,2 to 1,6 cm in height.

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Orobophana juddii (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana juddii)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found in sand dunes on the beaches in the Koloa District in southern Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were semiglobose with a flattened base and a rounded periphery, they reached sizes of about 0,42 cm in height and 0,46 cm in diameter, the original colors are not preserved. [1]

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

***

syn. Helicina juddii Pilsbry & Cooke

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Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 08.05.2019

Amastra seminigra Hyatt & Pilsbry

Coal-black Amastra Snail (Amastra seminigra)

The Coal-black Amastra Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the vicinity of Wahiawa and Waimano near Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

It was a quite large species whose shells reached heights of up to 2,12 cm.

The species is very similar to the Sorrowful Amastra Snail (Amastra tristis (Férussac)) and differs from that species only by its narrower shape at all stages of growth.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 05.10.2020

Orobophana cookei Neal

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana cookei)

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1934, it was apparently restricted to a cliff on the west side of the beautiful and often photographed Kalalau Valley on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this quite large species reach sizes of about 0,56 cm in height and 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

***

Since all Kauaian helicinid snails are now thought to be extinct altogether, this species must be considered extinct too. [2]

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 18.05.2019

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. baldwiniana Cooke

Lanai Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. lanaiensis)

This form, described in 1920, was restricted to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Specimens from West Maui agree very closely with the type form in shape, color, etc., but are slightly smaller. They differ mainly in that the embryonic whorls are much more finely striate spirally, and in the presence of a minute basal fold and the more axially seated columellar fold. There are usually about two more ribs on the last whorl, which is furnished with from 15 to 17. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5, apert. 1.0 mm.; 51/4 whorls.

From L. r. lanaiensis it is separated by its more convex and swollen whorls, lighter color and much more finely spirally striate embryonic whorls.
” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Pseudolibera solemi Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Solem’s Pseudolibera Snail (Pseudolibera solemi)

Solem’s Pseudolibera Snail was described in 2014 based on subfossil shells, it was endemic to the raised coral island Makatea in French Polynesia.

The shells reach sizes of less than 0,8 cm in diameter, they are depressed to subdepressed, dome-shaped to trigonal, they are white with regularly spaced and bear amber-colored flammulations on the periphery. [1]

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References:

[1] A. F. Sartori; O. Gargominy; B. Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1): 1–68. 2014

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edited: 13.06.2020

Trachycystis rariplicata (Pfeiffer)

Greenpoint Snail (Trachycystis rariplicata)

The Greenpoint Snail, described in 1849, is known exclusively from Green Point, today a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa.

This species is now extinct, and its extinction is sometimes attributed to the introduction of an invasive Mediterranean snail species, the Mediterranean Coastal Snail (Theba pisana (Müller)), which is now very abundant in that region. However, the true reasons for its disappearance are rather found in the massive habitat destruction by swamp drainage, building of sports fields, houses and other extensive transformations.

***

syn. Helix rariplicata Pfeiffer, Pella rariplicata (Pfeiffer)


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edited: 22.08.2022

Zebina acicula Laseron

Needle-like Zebina Snail (Zebina acicula)

The Needle-like Zebina Snail was described in 1956; it is restricted to the sea around Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916, when the type material was collected.

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References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Sinployea sp. ‘Bora Bora’

Bora Bora Sinployea Snail (Sinployea sp.)

This species, which has not been described so far, is known on the basis of a single subadult specimen that was found on the slopes of a mountain ridge on the island of Bora Bora, Society Islands.

This form might well be extinct now.

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References:  

[1] Justin Gerlach: Land and Freshwater Snails of Tahiti and the other Society Islands. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge 2017

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edited: 02.08.2022

Amastra ricei ssp. armillata Cooke

Milolii Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei ssp. armillata)

The Milolii Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on two (sub)fossil specimens that had been collected from the Miloli’i beach at the north-western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, from deposits that might be of late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

This form may in fact not be different from the typical species.

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 16.05.2022

Sulcospira pisum (Brot)

Pea-shaped Sulcospira Snail (Sulcospira pisum)

The Pea-shaped Sulcospira Snail was described in 1868, it was endemic to the island of Java, Indonesia, an exact locality, however, is not known.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height, they are dark chestnut or olive-brown, sometimes with darker vertical flames, their apex is always truncated with less than three remaining whorls and sculptured only with growth lines. [1]

***

syn. Balanocochlis gland (Brot), Balanocochlis pisum (Brot), Melania pisum Brot

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References:

[1] Ristiyanti M. Marwoto; Nur R. Isnaningsih: The freshwater snail genus Sulcospira Troschel, 1857 from Java, with description of a new species from Tasikmalaya, west Java, Indonesia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pachychilidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60(1): 1-10. 2012

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edited: 02.05.2019

Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa (Powell)

Van Diemen Flax Snail (Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. priscus)

The Van Diemen Flax snail was described in 1938 based on subfossil specimens.

This form is known from several disjunct populations: “Cape Maria van Diemen (Mainland) about three-quarters of a mile east of worthyi type locality in consolidated dunes (type); many former colonies on south and eastern slopes of Herangi, – 700 feet, down to Te Werahi Stream and Swamp; Twilight Beach between Cape Maria van Diemen and Scott’s Point …; one mile south of Te Paki Stream and one-quarter mile inland in consolidated dunes ….” [1]

Like most other now extinct populations, also this one died out at the end of the Pleistocene/beginning of the Holocene caused by natural reasons.

***

The photo below is thought to show this form.

***

syn. Placostylus ambagiosus ssp. priscus (Powell)

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Photo: Andrew Spurgeon
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/indeynz
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References:

[1] A. W. B. Powell: On further colonies of Placostylus land snails from northernmost New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 4(2): 134-140. 1951

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edited: 06.02.2024

Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula Cooke

Kaupulehu Amastra Snail (Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula)

The Kaupulehu Amastra Snail, described in 1917, is known from subfossil material that was found at Ka’ūpūlehu at elevations of about 5500 m above sea level in northern Kona on the island of Hawai’i.

This species is very common in its fossil state along the government road between Waimea and North Kona. A number of the specimens have such a fresh appearence [sic] that it does not seem possible that they have been very long dead. Most of the specimens were found in earth under lava blocks. It differs principally from A. ultima by its larger size and less convex whorls. This varietly differs from typical A. umbilicata morticina not only by its larger umbilicus but also by its proportionally wider and larger aperture which is not distinctly angled below, and is much less developed columellar fold.” [1]

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Succinea papillata Pfeiffer

Papillary Amber Snail (Succinea papillata)

The Papillary Amber Snail was described in 1850.

The species was endemic to the island of Ra’iatea, Society Islands, where it was apparently already quite uncommon when it was discovered and described, it is now entirely extinct.

***

syn. Succinea labiata Pease

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References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Land and Freshwater Snails of Tahiti and the other Society Islands. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge 2017

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edited: 26.11.2018

Amastra johnsoni Hyatt & Pilsbry

Johnson’s Amastra Snail (Amastra johnsoni)

Johnson’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911; it was found in Wailuku in the northeastern part of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach heights of about 1,1 cm; they are nearly imperforate, oblong-conic, rather thin and somewhat glossy, the outlines of the spire are straight above, a little convex below and the whorls nearly flat, they are brown with the last whorl being partially covered with a thin, darker cuticle that has some darker and lighter streaks but no oblique or angular markings. [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 16.05.2022

Tsoukatosia evauemgei Reischütz, Reischütz & Reischütz

EVMG Door Snail (Tsoukatosia evauemgei)  

The EVMG Door Snail (so named after the “Erste Voralberger Malakologische Gesellschaft”) was described in 2012 on the basis of a single subfossil shell that had been found in 2000 in a rubble heap on the Peloponnese in Greece.

The species can be distinguished from its congeners in that the lower lamella is only visible as a straight edge when looking at the mouth at a certain angle.

The shell reaches a height of about 0.98 cm; it is dextral, club-shaped, thin and yellowish white colored.

The EVMG Door Snail may be a cave-dwelling species, and the sole found specimen might be an example that was washed out into the open by the rain. [1]

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References:

[1] Alexander Reischütz; Nicole Reischütz; Peter L. Reischütz: Helleniká pantoía, 33. Tsoukatosia evauemgei nov. spec. (Clausiliidae: Pulmonata). Nachrichtenblatt der Ersten Voralberger Malakologischen Gesellschaft 19: 19-20. 2012

*********************

edited: 12.02.2024

Endodonta sp. ‘Barbers Point’

Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail (Endodonta sp.)

The Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail is an undescribed species that is known exclusively from subfossil specimens that had been recovered from coastal deposits at Kalaeloa (Barber’s Point) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Turricaspia obventicia (Anistratenko in Anistratenko & Prisyazhniuk)

Kiliya Freshwater Snail (Turricaspia obventicia)

This species was descried in 1992; it is known only from the type that was collected from Holocene deposits near the city of Kiliya in the Odessa Region of the Ukraine.

The species most likely died out for natural reasons. [1]

***

syn. Caspia obventicia Anistratenko in Anistratenko & Prisyazhniuk

*********************

References:

[1] Frank P. Wesselingh; Thomas A. Neubauer; Vitaliy V. Anistratenko; Maxim V. Vinarski; Tamara Yanina; Jan Johan ter Poorten; Pavel Kijashko; Christian Albrecht; Olga Yu. Anistratenko; Anouk D’Hont; Pavel Frolov; Alberto Martínez Gándara; Arjan Gittenberger; Aleksandre Gogaladze; Mikhail Karpinsky; Matteo Lattuada; Luis Popa; Arthur F. Sands; Sabrina van de Velde; Justine Vandendorpe; Thomas Wilke: Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list. ZooKeys 827: 31-124. 2019

*********************

edited: 18.11.2021

Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa (Powell)

Hinemoa Flax Snail (Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa)

The Hinemoa Flax snail was described in 1947 based on subfossil specimens.

This form was apparently restricted to Cape Maria van Diemen, the westernmost point of New Zealand’s North Island; however, the taxon’s author says: “Restricted to the Island.” [1], thus it appears that this form was probably restricted to the northernmost part of the cape, which is an island that is now joined to the rest of the area by drifting sand.

Again, this is very likely a case of natural extinction due to changes in climate at the end of the Pleistocene.

***

syn. Placostylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa Powell

*********************

References:

[1] A. W. B. Powell: On further colonies of Placostylus land snails from northernmost New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 4(2): 134-140. 1951

*********************

edited: 06.02.2024

Philonesia arenofunus H. B. Baker

Koloa Philonesia Snail (Philonesia arenofunus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names: –

***

This species is one of several that are known from subfossil or even fossil specimens alone; in this case they were recovered from sand dunes near Aweoweonui near the south-eastern coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

*********************  

References:  

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific islands – part 2: Hawaiian genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 165: 105-223. 1940

*********************  

edited: 15.07.2022

Sinployea titikaveka Brook

Titikaveka Sinployea Snail (Sinployea titikaveka)

The Titikaveka Sinployea Snail was described in 2010; it is known only from subfossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of Rarotonga in the Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of only up to 0,16 cm in diameter.

*********************

References:  

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

*********************

edited: 02.08.2022

Australdonta tubuaiana Solem

Tubuai Australdonta Snail (Australdonta tubuaiana)

The Tubuai Australdonta Snail was described in 1976; it is known only from subfossil specimens that were found in the western parts of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 0.42 to 0.5 cm; they are light yellowish white with broad reddish flammulations that fade out on the shell’s base.

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

*********************

edited: 18.02.2024

Coilostele acus (Pfeiffer)

(Coilostele acus)

This species was described in 1854, the type material, however, was apparently lost during World War II, thus the taxonomic validity of this taxon is unclear.:

Taxonomic issues arose concerning two species when they were submitted to experts, although they had never been reported as nonvalid species in the scientific literature; because their taxonomic status is unclear (the biological species designated by their names are unknown), they were classified as impossible to assess. However, due to this taxonomic uncertainty, no data are available apart from their original 19th-century descriptions, and the model evaluates them as extinct. These taxa are Coilostele acus and Perrottetia piriformis.” [1]

***

It is quite unlikely that this taxon is indeed extinct, it is most likely synonymous with some of the other species described in that genus. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine: Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1-6. 2015
[2] A. Martínez-Ortí; M. Prieto; F. Uribe: Addendum to the type catalogue of the malacological collection in the Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. Arxius de Miscel.lània Zoològica 16.2018

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Anoma adamsi Pilsbry

Adams’ Anoma Snail (Anoma adamsi)

Adams’ Anoma Snail was described in 1903, the species is, or maybe was, restricted to a small area near Ulster Spring, a settlement in the Trelawny Parish in the northwest of Jamaica.

Surface is glossy, very finely striate throughout; the last third of the last whorl becoming more coarsely rib-striate. Bluish-milky, touched with light brown at the summit; the base, back of the lip and adjecent surface, brownish-fleshy. The keel, a subsutural line on the last whorl, and a wide arcuate stripe (behind the fleshy lip-stripe) are opaque-white; and behind the white stripe there is a second fleshy-brown oblique area, fading on its right side into the blue-white ground-color. These colors show within the mouth. The well-expanded lip is flesh-pink and but slightly thickened, somewhat sinuous, and a little retracted at both ends. Columnella distinctly truncate in oblique view. Length 19.3, diam. 5, length of aperture 4,6 mm., whorls 10.” [1]

The species was not found during recent surveys and might be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904
[2] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

*********************

edited: 22.09.2020

Melanopsis germaini Pallary

Germain’s Melanopsis Spring Snail (Melanopsis germaini)

Germain’s Melanopsis Spring Snail was described in 1939; the species is known only from its type localities: the small rivers Nahr as Sinnah and Nahr az Zayrūd between the cities of Baniyas and Jableh on the Syrian coast to the Mediterranean Sea. [1]

Only the lower parts of these rivers still contain water, which is heavily polluted, thus the snail’s habitat appears to be lost now.

Germain’s Melanopsis Spring Snail was last recorded in 1955, it is now probably extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Joseph Heller; Peter Mordan; Frida Ben-Ami; Naomi Sivan: Conchometrics, systematics and distribution of Melanopsis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Levant. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 229-260. 2005

*********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Wollastonia inexpectata De Mattia & Groh

Unexpected Wollastonia Snail (Wollastonia inexpectata)

This species was described in 2018 during a genus-group revision; it is known only from subfossil material which was collected from near the northern shore of Porto Santa.

The species apparently was already extinct when before the island was scientifically explored. [1]

*********************

Photo from: ‘Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Helenoconcha minutissima (Smith)

Dwarf Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha minutissima)

The Dwarf Saint Helena Snail was described in 1892 on the basis of subfossil shells that were found at Sugarloaf Ridge on the island of Saint Helena.

The following text is a sentence from the species’ description.:

This species is smaller than P. polyodon, more narrowly umbilicated, has fewer whorls, coarser and more remote striae, and a different armature within the aperture. In full-grown shells there are as many as six parietal lirae, as it were, in two groups of three. They are very fine and extend a long way within. The plicae within the outer lip var apparently from seven to eight to ten or eleven, and some of them are more prominent than others. The red markings take the form of radiating blotches on the upper surface, and more undulating or zigzag streaks beneath.” [2]

***

syn. Patula minutissima Smith

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 8, Helicidae Vol. 6. 1892’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Edgar A. Smith: On the land-shells of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1892: 258-270

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Glyphyalinia floridana (Morrison)

Ocala Glossy Snail (Glyphyalinia floridana)

The Ocala Glossy Snail, described in 1937, is only known from subfossil shells that had been found in crevices of limestone rock near the town of Ocala in Marion County, Florida.

The many specimens in the original lot … are all dead shells, weathered to a chalky appearance. It appears unlikely that this species is Pleistocene as doubtfully noted by the collector. It may, however, be extinct at the present time.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.45 cm in diameter; they were described as follows: 

Shell of five whorls, possessing the characteristic sculpture of the subgenus, with regularly and closely spaced major growth wrinkles, of about the size of R. roemeri, but with the base of the body whorl more deeply rounded near the umbilicus, which has consequently steeper walls. The spire is regularly depressed-conic, but constantly higher, as is the body whorl, than in the specimens of roemeri seen. The aperture is roundly lunate, widest below the middle; peristome more sharply rounded at the periphery and in the columellar region. Umbilicus deep, steep-walled; contained about four times in the major diameter of the shell.” [1]

***

syn. Retinella floridana Morrison

*********************

Photo from: ‘J. P. E. Morrison: Five new North American Zonitids. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 50: 55-60. 1937’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

References:

[1] J. P. E. Morrison: Five new North American Zonitids. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 50: 55-60. 1937

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Dyris amazonicus (Haas)

(Dyris amazonicus)

This species was described in 1949; it is known from only five specimens that were collected in the lower part of the Tapajos River near Belterra in the state of Pará, Brazil.

The species is only known from empty shells, life individuals were never found; it was furthermore never found since its description and appears to be extinct now.

*********************  

References:  

[1] F. P. Wesselingh: On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae). Basteria 64: 129-136. 2000

*********************

edited: 29.01.2024

Wollastonia falknerorum Groh, Neiber & De Mattia

Falkner’s Wollastonia Snail (Wollastonia falknerorum)

 

This species was described in 2018; it is known only from subfossil shells that were found in deposits near the south-eastern shores of Porto Santo, Madeira.

The species disappeared before the scientific exploration of the island. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018

*********************

Photo from: ‘Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Pseudolibera aubertdelaruei Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Aubert de la Rüe’ Pseudolibera Snail (Pseudolibera aubertdelaruei)

Aubert de la Rüe’ Pseudolibera Snail was described in 2014, it is known from only three specimens which were collected in 1955 by E. Aubert de la Rüe on the island of makatea in the Tuamotu Archipelago.

The shells reach sizes of less than 0,6 cm in diameter, they are white, depressed and decorated with flammulations, the apex is flat, the spire elevated, the peripheral keel is very short. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. F. Sartori; O. Gargominy; B. Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1): 1–68. 2014

*********************

edited: 13.06.2020

Newcombia pfeifferi ssp. decorata Pilsbry & Cooke

Decorated Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi ssp. decorata)

The Decorated Newcombia Snail was described in 1912, it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

There is obviously no further information available about this species.

*********************

References:

[1] Mike Severns: A new species of newcombia from the Pleistocene of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Achatinellidae). Basteria 73: 57-60. 2009

*********************

edited: 16.05.2020

Naesiotus alethorhytidus (Dall)

Santa Cruz Snail (Naesiotus alethorhytidus)

This species was described in 1917; it was restricted the southern part of Isla Santa Cruz in the Galapágos Islands and was apparently quite common when it was discovered and described.:

Indefatigable Island, in the moist area on the south side at 350 to 400 feet, and at all attitudes in the interior; (W. H. O.)
This almost comically small and wrinkled species is one of the most interesting finds of the Academy expedition. It is usually pink tipped, with white corrugations and the indentations more or less darkened by volcanic dust.
” [1]

The species was last found alive in 1974 and is thus believed to be possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] William Healey Dall; Washington Henry Ochsner: Landshells of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Ser. 4. Vol. 17.: 141-185. 1928

*********************

Photo from: ‘William Healey Dall; Washington Henry Ochsner: Landshells of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Ser. 4. Vol. 17.: 141-185. 1928’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

edited: 01.06.2021

Naesiotus kublerensis Chambers

Cueva de Kubler Snail (Naesiotus kublerensis)

This species was described in 1986; it is known from subfossil shells that were found amongst a larger collection of shells in the Cueva de Kubler on the island of Santa Cruz in the Galápagos archipelago. [1]

The species was never seen alive and is clearly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Steven M. Chambers; David W. Steadman: Holocene terrestrial gastropod faunas from Isla Santa Cruz and Isla Floreana, Galápagos: evidence for late Holocene declines. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 21(6): 89-110. 1986

*********************

edited: 01.06.2021

Wollastonia ripkeni De Mattia & Groh

Ripken’s Wollaston Snail (Wollastonia ripkeni)

Ripken’s Wollastonia Snail was described in 2018 during a genus-group revision; it is known only from subfossil material that was found near the south-eastern shore of Porto Santo, Madeira.

The species died out before the scientific exploration of the island, maybe even before the first humans arrived. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018

*********************

Photo from: ‘Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Amastra fragosa Cooke

Uneven Amastra Snail (Amastra fragosa)

The Uneven Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that had been recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near Ka’ūpūlehu, in Kona, Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 1,1 to 1,3 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Tryonia circumstriata (Leonard & Ho)

Striped Tryonia (Tryonia circumstriata)

The Striped Tryonia was described in 1960, apparently originally from fossil speciemens collected from Pleistocene deposits on the right bank of the Pecos River in Chandler County, Texas, USA.

The species was later found in the Diamond Y Draw in Pecos County (originally described as a distinct species, Stockton’s Tryonia (Tryonia stocktonensis Taylor) in 1987, but then synonymized with this species). [1]

It appears to be extinct now, however.

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Hershler: Systematics of the North and Central American aquatic snail genus Tryonia (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae) Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 612: 1-53. 2001

*********************

edited: 02.05.2019

Pseudolibera matthieui Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Matthieu’s Pseudolibera Snail (Pseudolibera matthieui)

Matthieu’s Pseudolibera Snail was described in 2014, it is known from at least 118 specimens that were collected on the island of Makatea in the Tuamotu Archipelago.


The shells reach sizes of less than 0,7 cm in diameter, they are white and show regularely spaced, amber-colored flammulations on the apical surface. 
[1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. F. Sartori; O. Gargominy; B. Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1): 1–68. 2014

*********************

edited: 13.06.2020

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris Cooke & Pilsbry

Many-striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris)

This taxon was described in 1920; it is known from Kaunakakai at the central southern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands; they were found quite abundantly among dead leaves in humid, shady places.

The shells reach sizes of about 0.22 to 0.24 cm in height; they differ from the nominate race in being shorter and having rather weaker, less regular spiral striae. [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Amastra flemingi Cooke

Fleming’s Amastra Snail (Amastra flemingi)

Fleming’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on three (sub)fossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of eastern Maui, which may date to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

The shell of the holotype reaches a height of about 1,3 cm, “The shell is indistinctly rimate, sinitral, oblong-turrite, in its fossil state whitish. The spire is elongate, faintly contracted above, with slightly convex outlines.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Dupontia proletaria Morelet

(Dupontia proletaria)

This species was described in 1860; it was restricted to the island of Mauritius and is now extinct.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Robert H. Cowie; Claire Régnier; Benoît Fontaine; Philippe Bouchet. Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41. 2017

*********************

edited: 29.01.2024

Carelia olivacea ssp. olivacea Pease

Olive Carelia Snail (Carelia olivacea ssp. olivacea)

The Olive Carelia Snail was described in 1866; it was found in the eastern part of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands and seems to have once be quite widespread.

The shells reach heights of about 7 cm.

Fire and cattle have played havoc with most of the native forests along the northern side of this range and probably the original localities from which Pease obtained his material have been destroyed.” [2]

***

syn. Carelia olivacea ssp. variabilis Pease

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911
[2] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931

*********************

edited: 25.01.2024

Leptachatina obtusa (Pfeiffer)

Obtuse Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina obtusa)

This species was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 1 cm; they are “imperforate, oblong, nearly smooth, glossy, pellucid, chestnut-corneous ….” [1]

The species is now extinct.

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Pyrgulopsis torrida Hershler, Liu, Babbitt, Kellog & Howard

Little Sycamore Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis torrida)

The Little Sycamore Pyrg was described in 2016, it had formerly been misidentified as another species, the Yaqui Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Pilsbry)).

The species was restricted to a single small, shallow stream that runs for about 1,6 km in the Little Sykcamore Canyon in Ventura Canyon, California, USA.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,28 cm in heigth. [1]

***

The Little Sycamore Pyrg was already rare in 2000, however, when the type locality was revisited in 2015, the stream was completely dry, indicating that the species had lost its only habitat and may thus be now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Caitlin Babbit; Michael G. Kellog; Jeanette K. Howard: Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae). ZooKeys 601: 1-19. 2016

*********************

Photo from: ‘Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Caitlin Babbit; Michael G. Kellog; Jeanette K. Howard: Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae). ZooKeys 601: 1-19. 2016’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 18.05.2022

Amastra pellucida Baldwin

Translucent Amastra Snail (Amastra pellucida)

The Translucent Amastra Snail was described in 1895, it was restricted to the Wai’anae Valley on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is named for the thin pellucid (translucent) texture of its shell, and it is one of only a few of which we know at least a little bit about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform brown color; the head above and tentacles of a darker shade. the action of the heart is plainly visible through the thin texture of the shell. When first collected the pulsations were about fifty per minute, growing slower and fainter from day to day until the animal died.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.09.2020

Leptachatina terebralis (Gulick)

Kawailoa Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

The Kawailoa Leptachatina Snail was described in 1856; it was restricted t a small region within the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 1.1 cm heigh; they are shiny dark brown and very finely striated, the apex is white. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Cerion alejandroi Suárez

Alejandro’s Cerion Snail (Cerion alejandroi)

Alejandro’s Cerion Snail was described in 2019 on the basis of subfossil shells that had been collected from deposits at a place named El Júcaro, near the Ramón de Antillas beach in the Holguín Province of Cuba.

The shells reach sizes of about 2,3 to 2,49 cm in height; they have a rather barrel-shaped form. [1]

The species apparently disappeared at the beginning of the Holocene du to naturally occurring changes in the local climate.

*********************

References:

[1] Alexis Suárez: Descripción de dos especies nuevas de Cerion (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Cerionidae) en estado subfósil, para Holguín, Cuba. Novitates Caribaea 14: 121-127. 2019

*********************

edited: 01.11.2020

Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. spiritus Powell

Spirits Bay Flax Snail (Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. spiritus)

This taxon was described in 1947 based on subfossil specimens that were recovered from loose dunes between the camp sites of Kapowairua and Pandora at the Spirits Bay in the far north of New Zealand’s North Island.

Like many other former populations of this snail species, also this one apparently disappeared at the Pleistocene/Holocene border due to natural causes.

***

syn. Placostylus ambagiosus ssp. spiritus Powell

*********************

References:

[1] A. W. B. Powell: On further colonies of Placostylus land snails from northernmost New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 4(2): 134-140. 1951

*********************

edited: 06.02.2024

Anoma tricolor (Pfeiffer)

Tricolored Anoma Snail (Anoma tricolor)

The Tricolored Anoma Snail was desribed in 1847, it apperas toe have been restricted to a place named Moncrieff Gully (named Fern Gully today) in the St. Ann Parish at the north coast of Jamaica. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 cm in heigth, they have up to 15 whorls and are glossy whitish and bear some grayish stripes.

The species is apparently extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904
[2] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 22.09.2020

Succinea pallida Pfeiffer

Pallid Amber Snail (Succinea pallida)

The Pallid Amber Snail was confined to the sister islands of Ra’iatea and Taha’a, where it was historically very abundant and could be found on any moist places on the ground.

The species, which was described in 1847, is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Land and Freshwater Snails of Tahiti and the other Society Islands. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge 2017

*********************

edited: 26.11.2018

Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes Cooke

Small Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes)

This form differs from the nominate form by its smaller size, its compact and closely coiled spire, but especially in its smoother surface marked with finer and more distantly spaced growth-wrinkles. [1]

This is an exceedingly rare form of Amastra. the results of five findings are six whole and three broken specimens. Among the large number of Amastras that have been taken in the Manoa fossil deposits, from the beginning of Oahu Avenue to Awapuhi Street, this form was only taken from four “pockets”.” [1]

These deposits appear to be actually Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Leptachatina laevis Pease

Brown Kauaian Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina laevis)

This species was described in 1869; it was restricted to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached heights of 0.9 to 0.95 cm; they were ovately oblong, imperforate, dextral, somewhat thin, smooth, glossy and dark brown colored.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Lauopa mbalavuana Solem

Lauopa Snail (Lauopa mbalavuana)

This species, the only one in its genus, was described in 1983 based on material that had been collected in 1938 under logs and stones in a dense forest on a limestone hill on the island of Vanua Balavu, Fiji.

As far as I know only two specimens were ever found and both of them appeared to have rather been in a subfossil state; this species almost certainly is extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

*********************

edited: 21.08.2022

Sinployea planospira (Garrett)

Plane-spired Sinployea Snail (Sinployea planospira)

This species was described in 1881; it was restricted to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 0,34 to 0,43 cm in diameter.

The species is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

*********************

edited: 02.08.2022

Vegrandinia trindadensis (Breure & Coelho)

Trindade Vegrandinia Snail (Vegrandinia trindadensis)

This species was described in 1976; it is, or rather was, restricted to the Ilha da Trindade, a volcanic island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1150km offshore the east coast of Brazil.

Apparently, the species is known exclusively from empty shells, which differ greatly in their size depending on their collection date, foreshadowing the reasons for their final extinction.:

Curiously, the shell length of the adult specimens analysed by Breure and Coelho (1976) averaged from 8 to 9 mm (which was an overestimation, our measures of the same specimens average 7 mm), while the ones collected by the MD-55 and later expeditions average 4.8 mm; the shell morphology, though, is the same. It is suspected that this reduction in size reflects inappropriate environmental conditions due to the Island’s much degraded environment.

The native flora of the island is now largely destroyed due to introduced goats, this again led to the extinction of all native (and non-native, except for two spp.) land snail species! [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone: Taxonomic revision of the orthalicid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) from Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of Natural History 47(13-14): 949-961. 2013
[2] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Nílber G. Silva; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone; Ruy J. V. Alves: Rediscovery of living land snails on Trindade Island, Brazil. American Malacological Bulletin 32(1): 140-142. 2014

*********************

Photo: Rodrigo Salvador

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

*********************

edited: 02.05.2022

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.06.2021

Leptachatina fulgida Cooke

Flashing Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

The Flashing Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was found on the slopes of Pu’u Kukui and P’u Lihau in the western part of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell reaches heights of about 0.7 cm; they are imperforate, elongately ovately conic and beautifully glossy greenish yellow colored, except for the embryonic whorls which are whitish, the outer lip is dark brownish.

The species is considered extinct now.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Helenoconcha polyodon (Sowerby)

Many-toothed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha polyodon)

The Many-toothed Saint Helena Snail was described in 1844 based on subfossil shells that were collected from a place named Sugarloaf Quarry on the island of Saint Helena.

The species’ author gives some information about the form of the shells.:

This is the most widely umbilicated of all the species of Patula from St. Helena, and this feature alone is sufficient to distinguish it from the rest. The whorls also, in adult shells eight to nine in number, enlarge very slowly. The striae are fine, regular, arcuately oblique above, and slightly wavy on the last whorl. There are three parietal lirae extending far within the aperture, of which the upper and lower are nearly always double. The plicae within the outer lip are almost invariably (in adult shells) seven in number, subequidistant, but not of equal thickness, two or three towards the columella being stouter than the rest, which are slender and extend some distance within.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Edgar A. Smith: On the land-shells of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1892: 258-270

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 8, Helicidae Vol. 6. 1892’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Perrottetia piriformis (Pfeiffer)

Pear-shaped Perrottetia Snail (Perrottetia piriformis)

This species was described in 1859; it was endemic to the island of Rodrigues in the Mascarenes, however, its taxonomic status is not resolved.:

Taxonomic issues arose concerning two species when they were submitted to experts, although they had never been reported as nonvalid species in the scientific literature; because their taxonomic status is unclear (the biological species designated by their names are unknown), they were classified as impossible to assess. However, due to this taxonomic uncertainty, no data are available apart from their original 19th-century descriptions, and the model evaluates them as extinct. These taxa are Coilostele acus and Perrottetia piriformis.” [1]

***

The genus should not be confused with the plant genus of the same name.

*********************

References:

[1] Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine: Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1-6. 2015

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Vertigo marki Gulick

Mark’s Whorl Snail (Vertigo marki)

Mark’s Vertigo Snail was described in 1904 based on “fossil” material that was found on the Bermuda Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,2 cm in height.

This species has never been documented alive, although empty Recent shells are recorded from leaf litter around church Cave ….” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Rüdiger Bieler; John Slapcinsky: A case study for the development of an island fauna: recent terrestrial mollusks of Bermuda. Nemouria 44: 1-99. 2000

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae), 1918-1920′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 05.05.2022

Leptachatina emerita Sykes

Kalamaula Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina emerita)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.8 cm; according to the species’ author they are “variable in color, shading from brown to a hyaline tint; adult specimens lose their gloss and become of a straw-yellow. The columellar plait is small and inconspicuous.” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Leptachatina sandwicensis (Pfeiffer)

Sandwich Islands Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina sandwicensis)

This species was described in 1846; it was endemic to the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 0.78 cm heigh; they are “ovately conic, obliquely striate, subopaque, dirty corneous; spire conic, somewhat obtuse; suture marginated with an impressed line ….” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola Baldwin

Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola)

The Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail is a form of the Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens(Newcomb)), from the far south of the island of Hawai’i, it was found on an ancient aa (lava) flow at the foothills of the Mauna Lao volcano in the Ka’u District.

This form differs from the nominate race by its more convex whorls of which the last one is rounded peripherally. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Damonita geminoropiformis Climo

Elliot’s Cave Snail (Damonita geminoropiformis)

This tiny snail species was described in 1981, it was originally known from only two specimens that were recovered from the deposits of Elliots Cave as well as ten that were found in the Ngarua Cave in the Takaka Valley. 

Some 103 specimens were subsequently recovered from the Hawke’s Cave in the 1990s; these deposits are dated to Otiran age (Late Pleistocene); however, it might have survived until the beginning of the Holocene and is thus mentioned here as well. 

The shells reach a size of about 0,3 cm in diameter and are highly furrowed. 

*********************

References:

[1] T. H. Worthy; R. N. Holdaway: Quaternary fossil faunas from caves in Takaha Valley and on Takaka Hill, northwest Nelson, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 24(3): 297-391. 1994

*********************

Photo: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
https://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/object/154902

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 15.05.2021

Turricaspia marisnigri Starobogatov in Alexenko & Starobogatov

Black Sea Freshwater Snail (Turricaspia marisnigri)

The Black Sea Freshwater Snail was descried in 1987; it is known only from Holocene deposits; it is known exclusively from subfossil shells that were recovered from Holocene deposits near the coast of the Crimea Peninsula, Ukraine.

The species disappeared for natural reasons. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Frank P. Wesselingh; Thomas A. Neubauer; Vitaliy V. Anistratenko; Maxim V. Vinarski; Tamara Yanina; Jan Johan ter Poorten; Pavel Kijashko; Christian Albrecht; Olga Yu. Anistratenko; Anouk D’Hont; Pavel Frolov; Alberto Martínez Gándara; Arjan Gittenberger; Aleksandre Gogaladze; Mikhail Karpinsky; Matteo Lattuada; Luis Popa; Arthur F. Sands; Sabrina van de Velde; Justine Vandendorpe; Thomas Wilke: Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list. ZooKeys 827: 31-124. 2019

*********************

edited: 18.11.2021

Tryonia shikueii Hershler, Landye, H.-P. Liu, De la Maza-Benignos, Ornelas & Carson

Shi-Kuei’s Tryonia (Tryonia shikueii)

This species was described in 2014, it is known from two populations inhabiting Ojo de Federico and Ojo de San Juan, two closely proximal springs in the lower Río Casas Grandes basin with water temperatures around 23 °C to 27°C.

The two localities dried out sometimes in the 1980s, which means that both populations of this species are lost leading to its extinction. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Hershler; J. Jerry Landye; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Mauricio De la Maza-Benignos; Pavel Ornelas; Evan W. Carson: New species and records of Chihuahuan Desert springsnails, with a new combination for Tryonia brunei. Western North American Naturalist 74(1): 47-65. 2014

*********************

edited: 02.05.2019

Georissa cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Georissa Snail (Georissa cookei)

Cooke’s Georissa Snail was described in 1928, it is known only from the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of this microscopic species reached sizes of only about 0,085 to 0,1 cm, they were composed of three and a half strongly convex whorls and were orange-cinnamon in color. [1]

***

According to a study from 2018 all (two or three) endemic Hawaiian members of the family Hydrocenidae are now extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Orobophana berniceia (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia)

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found near what today is the Limahuli Garden & Preserve, National Tropical Botanical Garden at the northern shore of the osland of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were globosly depressed, with a rounded periphery, quite thin, smooth and minutely marked with growth-striae, they reach sizes of about 0,31 cm in heigth and 0,35 cm in diameter. [2]

***

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Hirasea katoi Habe

Kato’s Hirasea Snail (Hirasea katoi)

Kato’s Hirasea Snail was described in 1973 based on only two specimens that were collected from dune deposits of probable Pleistocene age on the island of Minamijima in the Ogasawara archipealgo, Japan.

The shells reached sizes of 0,3 cm in height, they were very flat, opercular in shape with an extremely depressed spire and a sharply marginated periphery. [1]

***

The species probably disappeared sometimes at the end of the Pleistocene or the beginning of the Holocene.

*********************

References:

[1] Tadashige Habe: Fossil land snails from Minami-jima, Bonin Islands. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Special Volume 6 (Hatai Memorial Volume): pages 51-53. 1973

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edited: 27.02.2024

Pseudohelenoconcha spurca (Sowerby)

Tainted Saint Helena Snail (Pseudohelenoconcha spurca)

The Tainted Saint Helena Snail was described in 1844 on the basis of subfossil, and apparently also quite recent shells that were collected at several localities at higher altitudes on the island of Saint Helena.

***

The species survived at least into the middle of the 19th century, since at least one the forms, (Pseudocampylaea dianae (Pfeiffer)), formerly described as distinct species and now assigned to this one, have been found alive. [1] 

*********************

References:

[1] Edgar A. Smith: On the land-shells of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1892: 258-270

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 8, Helicidae Vol. 6. 1892’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Mautodontha makateaensis Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Makatea Mautodontha Snail (Mautodontha makateaensis)

This species was described in 2014, it is known from subfossil material that was found near the port of Temao on the island of Makatea in the Tuamotu Archipelago.

The shells are less than 0,4 cm in diameter; they are subdepressed, white and do not bear any markings.

*********************

References:

[1] André F. Sartori; Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3771(1): 1-68. 2014  

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edited: 13.03.2021

Naesiotus saeronius (Dall)

Saeronius Galapagos Snail (Naesiotus saeronius)

This species was described in 1917, it was restricted to the Isla Santa Cruz in the Galápagos archipelago.

The species was last seen in 1974; it could not be found alive during the last recent searches and might thus be extinct. 

*********************

References: 

[1] William Healey Dall; Washington Henry Ochsner: Landshells of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Ser. 4. Vol. 17.: 141-185. 1928  

*********************

edited: 01.06.2021

Lyropupa lyrata ssp. lyrata (Gould)

Fiddle-shaped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa lyrata ssp. lyrata)

This species was described in 1843; it was originally found to be very abundant in the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.25 cm; they are described as being small, most generally sinistral, chestnut colored, widely umbilicate and having five convex whorls with about 20 neatly clathrate flexuous riblets; the aperture is somewhat orbicular, bell-shaped, posteriorly armed with two lamella-like teeth and two additional ones in the throat. [1]

***

The variations and races of lyrata will not be understood until specimens from a large number of places are opened for study of the palatal folds. It will probably be found necessary to recognize a number of local races.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Amastra nucleola (Gould)

Nut-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra nucleola)

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1893, it was restricted to lowland areas around the Hanalei Bay at the northern coast of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,1 cm in height and 0,69 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just before the termination of the whorl at the aperture (Gld.).” [1]

***

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail may have gone extinct already in the middle of the 19th century, since all specimens known to exist appear to have been collected dead. [1]  

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 12.03.2021

Newcombia perkinsi Sykes

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia perkinsi)

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail apparently was restricted to the Makakupaia Valley on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, this place is now highly degraded and overgrown by introduced vegetation.

The shells have a size of 2,1 cm in height. [1]

***

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′  

(public domain)  

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edited: 04.06.2021

Libera incognata Solem

Unknown Libera Snail (Libera incognata)

This species was described in 1976; it was restricted to the island of Tahiti in the Society Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 0.68 to 0.79 cm; they are yellowish white with numerous broad wine-red flammulations; the umbilicus is contracted and forms a brood chamber by a broad expansion of the entire last whorl. [1]

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976

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edited: 17.02.2024

Sinployea peasei Solem

Pease’s Sinployea Snail (Sinployea peasei)

Pease’s Sinployea Snail was described in 1983; it is known from the slopes of Mt. Maungaroa and several other mountainous areas on the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, it was formerly quite common and widespread.

The shells reached sizes of 0,29 to about 0,4 cm in diameter.

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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edited: 02.08.2022

Trukrhysa pachystoma ssp. dubloni (Baker)

Chuuk Chronos Snail (Trukrhysa pachystoma ssp. dubloni)

This form was described in 1941; it is known from the forested areas of Mt. Tonomwan on Tonowas Island as well as from Mt. Tonnachau on Weno Island, both in the east of the Chuuk lagoon in Micronesia. [1]

The name of this form does appear in listings of extinct mollusks; thus, I will mention it here as well. [2]

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References:

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid Landsnails from Pacific islands; parts 3 and 4. Bishop Museum Bulletin 166: 201-370. 1941
[2] Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine: Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1-6. 2015

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edited: 22.01.2022

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Vinodolia fluviatlis (Radoman)

River Mudsnail (Vinodolia fluviatlis)

This species is known from the Zrmanja river, where it is now extinct; an additional population might still exist in the lower parts of the Neretva River, where it is restricted to freshwater habitats close to the estuary into the Adriatic Sea.

The plan to build a sluice at this site certainly will lead to the destruction of this last population. [1]

***

I have no idea if this species is now already extinct and thus will mention it here only briefly.

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References:

[1] Dr. Jörg Freyhof: Threatened freshwater fishes and molluscs of the Balkan, potential impact of hydropower projects. Unpublished report, ECA Watch Austria & EuroNatur 2012

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edited: 16.05.2021

Tropidophora vincentflorensi Griffiths

Vincent Florens’ Tropidophora Snail (Tropidophora vincentflorensi)  

Vincent Florens’ Tropidophora Snail was described in 2000; it is known from at least five adult and subadult specimens that were recovered from debris under a basaltic rock overhang in the degraded forest south of the easternmost peak of Trois Mamelles Mountain on the island of Mauritius.

The species is so far only known from the type locality and was never seen alive, it is clearly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Owen Lee Griffiths: Nine new species of Mascarene land snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molluscan Research 20(2): 37-50. 2000

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edited: 29.04.2021

Melanopsis infracincta Martens

Thick-shelled Melanopsis Spring Snail (Melanopsis infracincta)

The Thick-shelled Melanopsis Spring Snail was described in 1874; the species is only known from the headwaters of karstic spring complexes of two tributaries of the Euphrates River in north-eastern Syria along the Syrian-Turkish border (near the village of Ain al-Arous as well as near the cities of Ra’s al-‘Ain and Tell Abyad). [1]

The species has not found since the 1940s and is believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Joseph Heller; Peter Mordan; Frida Ben-Ami; Naomi Sivan: Conchometrics, systematics and distribution of Melanopsis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Levant.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 229-260. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘E. A. Rossmässler, fortgesetzt on Dr. W. Kobelt: Iconographie der Land- und Süsswasser-Mollusken, mit vorzüglicher Berücksichtigung der europäischen noch nicht abgebildeten Artenm. 4. Wiesbaden. C. W. Kreidel’s Verlag 1876′

(public domain)

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edited: 17.11.2021

Leptachatina subula (Gulick)

Awl-shaped Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

This species was described in 1856; it inhabited the Pālolo- and Wai’alae Valleys near the coast of south-eastern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 1.1 cm; they are translucent, shiny dark corneous and very finely striated. [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota Cooke & Pilsbry

Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota)

The Striped Lyropupa Snail was described in 1920; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands where it probably was very widespread but apparently not common.:

There can be no doubt that this species is distributed over the whole of the wooded portion of Molokai. Unfortunately it has never been found in any number in any one locality and in none of the lots are there more than half a dozen specimens – in most of them only 1 to 3.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.27 cm in length. “This species is, at first glance, very similar to some of the forms of lyrata from Oahu. It is easily separated by the different sculpture of the embryonic whorls and the longer lower palatal fold.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Soapitia dageti Binder

Souapitia Snail (Soapitia dageti)

The Souapitia Snail was described in 1961; it was restricted to a single locality, a stretch of rapids in the Kountouré River in the Republic Guinea.

The habitat, rocks in swiftly running waters, does not exist anymore because China International Water & Electric Corporation, a Chinese construction and engineering consulting company, begun to build a dam, the Souapiti Hydropower Station, in 2015, a project that apparently was finished in 2019.

A survival of this highly rheophilic, i.e. adapted to live in fast-moving water, is rather unlikely, it is now extinct.

***

The species was said to have been found in Nigeria recently, however, this is report is erroneous and is based on a misinterpretation of specimens of another snail species, the African Gabbiella Snail (Gabbiella africana(Frauenfeld)). [1]

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References:

[1] S. O. Oladejo; O. A. Morenikeji: Spatial Distribution of Fresh Water Snails in Erinle Reservoir Dam, Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Forest Meteorology Research 3(1): 246-254. 2020

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edited: 04.05.2022