Tag Archives: Hawaii Islands

Amastra anthonii (Newcomb)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail (Amastra anthonii)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail was described in 1888, it was endemic to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, however, the exact locality appears to be unknown.

… from the original description.:

Shell conically ovate, solid, blackish-brown, longitudinally striate. Whorls 6, inflated, suture moderately impressed. Apex obtuse. Aperture obliquely ovate, subangulate below. Lip simple, thickened within. Columella short, straight, with a somewhat callous plication below the middle. White-banded below the suture, and of a dirty white in the umbilical region.” [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 1,6 to 1,8 cm in height.

***

syn. Achatinella anthonii Newcomb

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 06.10.2020

Philodoria spilota (Walsingham)

Haleakala Philodora Moth (Philodoria spilota)

This species was described 1907; it is known only from the forested slopes at elevations of about 1530 m above sea level of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 cm; the head and the thorax are brownish fuscous, the abdomen is fuscous; the forewings are bronze fuscous with silvery white spots, the hindwings are brownish fuscous.

The biology and the host plant of this species remain completely unknown.

The unique holotype is a faded, damaged female and not a male as Walsingham stated in his original description. Walsingham said that the type was “injured when being described”. It is badly broken – the hindwings and abdomen are glued to the fore part of the body; the head is badly abraded and glued to the thorax; the left antenna is missing.” [1]

***

syn. Elachista spilota Walsingham

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Pararrhaptica chlorippa (Meyrick)

Green Kolea Leafroller (Pararrhaptica chlorippa)

This species was described in 1928; it is only known from the slopes of the Pu’u Ohia (Mt. Olympus) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae are known to feed on the Hawaiian endemic kōlea lau nui (Myrsine lessertiana A. DC.).

The species was last recorded in 1911 and is now believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscoveries and presumed extinctions of Hawaiian leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 55: 11-27. 2023

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edited: 03.12.2023

Thyrocopa sapindiella Swezey

Aulu Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa sapindiella)

This species was described in 1913; it is known exclusively from specimens that were found in the Niu Valley near the southeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1.8 cm; the head is whitish brown; the thorax and the abdomen are very light whitish brown; the forewings are mainly very light whitish brown with a few brown scales scattered throughout and a very small, faint brownish spot in the cell; the hindwings are very light whitish brown.

The caterpillars are thought to feed on the leaves of the Hawaiian endemic ko’oloa (Abutilon spp.) and āulu (Sapindus spp.).:

The caterpillars were quite numerous on some trees. The small ones feed on the under surface of the leavs [sic], each producing a web covered with frass under which it feeds, eating off the surface of the leaf. The larger ones hide in rolled-together leaves, often several leaves in a bunch fastened together and there may be two or more caterpillars, each in a silken tunnel.

Pupa 9 mm. … The pupa is formed within the spun-together leaves where the caterpillar fed.
” [1]

***

This species is now possibly extinct.

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References: 

[1] O. H. Swezey: One new genus and eighteen new species of Hawaiian moths. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 269-280. 1908-1913
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009 

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edited: 18.02.2024

Branta hylobadistes Olson & James 

Great Nene (Branta hylobadistes)

The Great Nene was described in 1991 based on subfossil bones found on the island of Maui (it may also have lived at least on the neighboring islands of Lana’i and Moloka’i). 

The extinct species was slightly larger than the Hawaiian Nene (Branta sandvicensis (Vigors)) (see photo below) but was otherwise quite identical to that species.

*** 

Some of the bones, that are assigned to this species, come from individuals that were still volant while others appear to have been flightless. [1]

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Hawaii Geese (Branta sandvicensis)  

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr  
http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

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edited: 05.05.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 3’

Oahu Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

This species is basically known only from an account made in 1913 by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey.:

The larvae mine the leaves of Rollandia racemosa [Cyanea humboldtiana (Gaudich.) Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma]. They feed largely in the midrib, following it outwardly, but eat lateral tunnels out into the mesophyll on both sides as they proceed. Usually there is but one larva in a leaf. I have found this in but one locality so far, on Mt. Olympus, Oahu. The leaves of the shrub were very commonly attacked by it. The leaves are quite large and are not entirely killed by the injury, but many may be seen with the injured portion decayed away leaving an irregular hole or space in mid-portion of leaf. The full-grown larva emerges and passes below to pupate in a slight cocoon amongst dead leaves or trash.” [1]

There appears to have also existed at least one specimen, but it seems to have been lost; because no leaf-mining species of that genus is found today in the type locality or on O’ahu, to be precise, this species is considered extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

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edited: 21.01.2022

Xyleborus exsectus Perkins

Cut-off Bark Beetle (Xyleborus exsectus)

The Cut-off Bark beetle was described in 1900; it is known only from some male specimens that were collected on the slopes of the Haleakalā volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is only known from the type series that was collected in 1894 and 1896 respectively, it is possibly extinct.
***

However, it is possible that this taxon is not valid at all and in fact is identical with the Molokai Bark Beetle (Xyleborus molokaiensis Perkins) which is more widespread and of which only female specimens ae known. [1]

Otherwise, there is also the possibility that it might be rediscovered as it has happened with at least two other congeneric species. [2][3]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981
[2] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of an Enigmatic Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Coleopterists Bulletin 72(4): 811-815. 2018
[3] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; David Honsberger; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of the Hawaiian endemic bark beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuleson, 1981 on Moloka‘i, with records of three new exotic bark beetles for the island (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Journal of Natural History 53(23-24): 1481-1490. 2020

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edited: 16.02.2024

Xyleborus littoralis Perkins

Littoral Bark Beetle (Xyleborus littoralis)

The Littoral Bark Beetle was described in 1900; it is only known from areas at sea level on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last seen in 189, when the type material was collected, it is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981

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edited: 16.02.2024

Orobophana berniceia ssp. ‘Wailua’

Wailua Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia ssp.)

This supposed geographical race, or subspecies of the Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceira(Pilsbry & Cooke)) is known from several shells that were found south of the Wailua River at the western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These shells were nearly all of equal size and in average reached sizes of about 0,27 cm in height and 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

The Wailua Orobophana Snail, whatever its taxonomic status might be, is clearly extinct now.

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References:

[1] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 18.05.2019

Tetramolopium conyzoides (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Horseweed-like Pamakani (Tetramolopium conyzoides)

This species is an upright shrub with copious pubescence, it was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands but is thought to be extinct now.

It was probably restricted to dry forests which are now largely destroyed by introduced ungulates. [1]

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References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986

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edited: 15.01.2019

Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula Cooke

Maunaloa Amastra Snail (Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula)

The Maunaloa Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the northern shore of Molokai’, Hawaiian Islands.

A very few imperfect specimens were found by Pilsbry and Cooke in 1913 at Moomomi where this variety is extremely rare. Further west, especially in the shifting sands, it occurs more abundantly but is not a common species in any locality. it has been found sparingly in all the known fossil deposits from Puukapele west to the shifting sands. This variety is readily separated from the typical form by its less tumid last whorl, more cylindrical form and malleate surface.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height.

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra montivaga Cooke

Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail (Amastra montivaga)

The Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found on the Kalihi Ridge, which is a mountainous region on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

“A. montivaga is undoubtedly a dirivative [sic] of A. textilis. It differs from the latter species by its smaller size, thinner shell, more convex whorls (which are shouldered below), deeper sutures, etc.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of 1,2 to 1,6 cm in height.

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 6’

Maui Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

We know of the former existence of this taxon only by an account made by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey in 1954, mentioned later by Elwood C. Zimmerman.:

Carposina new species 6.
“Heterocrossa sp., near bicincta” Swezey, 1954: 116

Endemic. Maui (Haelaau)
Hostplant: Clermontia kakeana and arborescens. The larvae mine the leaves.
” [1]

The specimen or specimens that were reared from the caterpillars collected from its host plants are now apparently lost; the species was never recorded again and is thus considered extinct. 

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

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edited: 21.01.2022

Orobophana juddii (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana juddii)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found in sand dunes on the beaches in the Koloa District in southern Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were semiglobose with a flattened base and a rounded periphery, they reached sizes of about 0,42 cm in height and 0,46 cm in diameter, the original colors are not preserved. [1]

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

***

syn. Helicina juddii Pilsbry & Cooke

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Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 08.05.2019

Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawaii Nukupuu’

Hawaii Nukupuu (Hemignathus sp.)

The island of Hawai’i today is the home of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni (Rothschild)) (see depiction below), the last of the so-called hetero-billed finches, a group of Hawaiian drepenidine finches with extremely strange bills in which the lower beak is short and, depending on the species, curved up- or downwards, and the upper beak significantly longer and down curved.

This species is depicted below.

The island of Hawai’i, however, once also harbored at least two other hetero-billed finch species, namely the so-called Giant Nukupuu (Hemignathus vorpalis Olson & James), known only by subfossil remains, and the ‘actual’ Nukupuu (Hemignathus aff. lucidus), which is known by a single historical specimen, and which most certainly represented a full and endemic species.

More about this enigmatic form follows below.:

***

Hemignathus lucidus subspp. indet.

A historic specimen of this species, of indeterminate race, was collected on the island of Hawaii by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1840 or 1841, but the species was never again taken on that island. A fossil almost certainly of this species was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.
” [2]

The authors treat all Nukupuu forms as a single species, thus this somewhat misleading statement –  the fossil from Moloka’i, of course, is more closely related to the Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) from Maui.

This sole Hawaii Nukupuu specimen very likely constitutes a sub-adult individual, its plumage appearing to had been in the stage of molting into a yellower garb; the dorsum, the crown and the wings are dull olive with a grayish cast; the underparts are creamy whitish; yellow feathers appear on the lower cheeks and on the midline of the throat and the sides of the upper breast, forming a sort of inverted Y; it also had a faint yellow superciliary line. [1]

This is perhaps one of the most enigmatic of the many Hawaiian drepanidine finches and is shows that these islands have lost an unimaginable precious treasure trove of diversity!

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Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni)

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’      

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: A specimen of Nuku pu’u (Aves: Drepanidini: Hemignathus lucidus) from the island of Hawai’i. Pacific Science 48(4): 331-338. 1994
[2] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

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edited: 09.10.2020

Amastra seminigra Hyatt & Pilsbry

Coal-black Amastra Snail (Amastra seminigra)

The Coal-black Amastra Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the vicinity of Wahiawa and Waimano near Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

It was a quite large species whose shells reached heights of up to 2,12 cm.

The species is very similar to the Sorrowful Amastra Snail (Amastra tristis (Férussac)) and differs from that species only by its narrower shape at all stages of growth.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 05.10.2020

Orobophana cookei Neal

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana cookei)

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1934, it was apparently restricted to a cliff on the west side of the beautiful and often photographed Kalalau Valley on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this quite large species reach sizes of about 0,56 cm in height and 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

***

Since all Kauaian helicinid snails are now thought to be extinct altogether, this species must be considered extinct too. [2]

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 18.05.2019

Chloridops regiskongi Olson & James

King Kong Finch (Chloridops regiskongi)

The King Kong Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This species had the biggest and heaviest beak of all seed-eating Hawaiian finches.

***

This species very likely constitutes a distinct genus.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

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edited: 04.01.2024

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. baldwiniana Cooke

Lanai Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. lanaiensis)

This form, described in 1920, was restricted to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Specimens from West Maui agree very closely with the type form in shape, color, etc., but are slightly smaller. They differ mainly in that the embryonic whorls are much more finely striate spirally, and in the presence of a minute basal fold and the more axially seated columellar fold. There are usually about two more ribs on the last whorl, which is furnished with from 15 to 17. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5, apert. 1.0 mm.; 51/4 whorls.

From L. r. lanaiensis it is separated by its more convex and swollen whorls, lighter color and much more finely spirally striate embryonic whorls.
” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Amastra ricei ssp. armillata Cooke

Milolii Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei ssp. armillata)

The Milolii Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on two (sub)fossil specimens that had been collected from the Miloli’i beach at the north-western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, from deposits that might be of late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

This form may in fact not be different from the typical species.

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 16.05.2022

Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula Cooke

Kaupulehu Amastra Snail (Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula)

The Kaupulehu Amastra Snail, described in 1917, is known from subfossil material that was found at Ka’ūpūlehu at elevations of about 5500 m above sea level in northern Kona on the island of Hawai’i.

This species is very common in its fossil state along the government road between Waimea and North Kona. A number of the specimens have such a fresh appearence [sic] that it does not seem possible that they have been very long dead. Most of the specimens were found in earth under lava blocks. It differs principally from A. ultima by its larger size and less convex whorls. This varietly differs from typical A. umbilicata morticina not only by its larger umbilicus but also by its proportionally wider and larger aperture which is not distinctly angled below, and is much less developed columellar fold.” [1]

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Monarcha sp. ‘Ni’ihau’

Niihau Elepaio (Monarcha sp.)

The island of Ni’ihau, which is located very close to Kaua’i in the Hawaiian Islands, was once covered with typical Hawaiian lowland forests, which now are gone completely.

Today, the island harbors a few sea bird breeding colonies, but once it almost for certain also had several land bird species, some of which might very well have been endemic to the island; among these might have been a distinct form of Elepaio, which otherwise is known to inhabit the islands of Hawai’i, O’ahu and Kaua’i with distinct, island-specific species on each island.

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edited: 07.05.2022

Amastra johnsoni Hyatt & Pilsbry

Johnson’s Amastra Snail (Amastra johnsoni)

Johnson’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911; it was found in Wailuku in the northeastern part of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach heights of about 1,1 cm; they are nearly imperforate, oblong-conic, rather thin and somewhat glossy, the outlines of the spire are straight above, a little convex below and the whorls nearly flat, they are brown with the last whorl being partially covered with a thin, darker cuticle that has some darker and lighter streaks but no oblique or angular markings. [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 16.05.2022

Endodonta sp. ‘Barbers Point’

Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail (Endodonta sp.)

The Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail is an undescribed species that is known exclusively from subfossil specimens that had been recovered from coastal deposits at Kalaeloa (Barber’s Point) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

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References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

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edited: 22.04.2019

Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii Rock

Copeland’s Cyanea (Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii)

Copeland’s Cyanea is an epiphytic species that once inhabited the rainforests of at least two of the Hawai’i Islands, namely Hawai’i and Maui, with its own endemic subspecies on each of the islands. 

The nominate form once occurred on the southeastern slopes of Mauna Loa in Hawai’i, where it was last found in 1957. It is now considered extinct. 

The Maui Island subspecies, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis (H. St. John) Lammers, is itself threatened with extinction.

***

syn. Cyanea crispihirta E. Wimm., Delissea crispihirta (E. Wimm.) H. St. John


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Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 27.04.2012

Chloridops sp. ‘Maui’

Maui Grosbeak (Chloridops sp.)

This form is known from a complete subfossil mandible that was found in the Pu’u Naio Cave on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands and which differs from the Wahi Grosbeak (Chloridops wahi James & Olson) in being about 18% smaller.

More material is needed before it is clear whether this form represents some kind of extreme intraspecific variation in the Wahi Grosbeak or a distinct species. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 08.10.2020

Philonesia arenofunus H. B. Baker

Koloa Philonesia Snail (Philonesia arenofunus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names: –

***

This species is one of several that are known from subfossil or even fossil specimens alone; in this case they were recovered from sand dunes near Aweoweonui near the south-eastern coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

*********************  

References:  

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific islands – part 2: Hawaiian genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 165: 105-223. 1940

*********************  

edited: 15.07.2022

Hemignathus lanaiensis Rothschild

Maui-nui Akialoa (Hemignathus lanaiensis)

The Maui-nui Akialoa aka. Lanai Akialoa was historically only known from the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands, but did formerly also occur on the neighboring islands of Maui and Moloka’i as its known based on subfossils (found at least on Maui). [2]

The species is known by exactly three specimens, two of which appear to be sub-adult males and the third one a female. [3]

***

There is an interesting account made in 1903 (?) by Robert Cyril Layton Perkins, a British entomologist, naturalist and ornithologist about this species in life.:

Almost equally unfortunate was my experience of H. lanaiensis, of which I saw but a single example. This was evidently an adult male, its plumage appearing quite brightly yellow, and unlike any of the figures in Mr Rothschild’s work. There is no doubt hat his figure of the adult bird, if really taken from an adult, represents the bird in its non-breeding stage, for in January, when I saw the one above mentioned, all the adult birds on Lanai were in the fullest and most perfect plumage. It was extremely tame, at times not five yards distant, hunting for insects along the trunk and large limbs of a partly fallen Ohia, which overhung the edge of a precipitous cliff. As, if killed, it would necessarily have fallen in the brush far below, or have lodged in the shrubbery on the side of the cliff, being without a dog I forbore to shoot, and when after some minutes it flew off, it was seen no more. It is probable that this was realy a survivor of the brood obtained by Mr Rothschild’s collectors, since Wolstenholme, who discovered the bird, informed me that all of their specimens were obtained in the same spot and practically at the same time. Certainly the bird seen by me was quite alone, and this at a time when mature birds were all paired, and it may even be feared that it was the sole living representative of its species.” [1]

The Maui-nui Akialoa was extinct shortly after.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Vertebrata. in: Fauna Hawaiiensis 1(4): 365-466. 1899-1913
[2] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[3] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

*********************

edited: 09.10.2020

Philodoria pipturicola Swezey

Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria pipturicola)

The Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth was described in 1915; it is known only from the region around Punalu’u near the northeast shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has a wingspan of about 0,6 to 0,7 cm; the head is grayish fuscous, the thorax is slate gray fuscous colored, the abdomen is dark fuscous; the forewings are fuscous suffused with orange patches and some white bands, the hindwings are dark fuscous.

This is one of the species that was reared from mines, thus its host plant is established as the endemic māmaki (Pipturus sp.); the mine is a serpentine at the beginning and later becomes a blotch, the larva emerges from the mine to spin a light brown cocoon on some matching surface.

***

The species was also recorded from Maui, these records however, were misidentifications with another species, the Haelaau Philodoria Moth (Philodoria haelaauensis Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara). [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Blackburnia sharpi (Blackburn)

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia sharpi)

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was apparently restricted to the endemic koa forests that in former times covered large areas but are now almost completely lost due to logging as well as compacting of the soil due to trampling by invasive cattle. [1]

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was not found during recent surveys and is most likely already extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] James K. Liebherr: The mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation. Zookeys 544: 1-407. 2015

*********************

edited: 02.09.2019

Blackburnia rugosa Liebherr & Porch

Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia rugosa)

The Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, it is known only from several subfossil remains that had been found in the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 to 1,1 cm and is distinguished from its congeners by its robust sclerotization. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Philodoria opuhe Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Opuhe-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria opuhe)

This species was described in 2021; it is apparently known from the Pu’u ‘Ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus) in the Ko’olau Mountains as well as from the Wai’anae Mountains both on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to mine the leaves of the endemic ōpuhe spp. (Urera glabra (Hook. & Arn.) Wedd. and Urera kaalae Wawra).

***

The species was originally included in the description of the Urera-mining Philidoria Moth (Philodoria ureraella(Swezey)), from which it, however, differs in several characters.

*********************

[1] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Amastra fragosa Cooke

Uneven Amastra Snail (Amastra fragosa)

The Uneven Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that had been recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near Ka’ūpūlehu, in Kona, Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 1,1 to 1,3 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris Cooke & Pilsbry

Many-striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris)

This taxon was described in 1920; it is known from Kaunakakai at the central southern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands; they were found quite abundantly among dead leaves in humid, shady places.

The shells reach sizes of about 0.22 to 0.24 cm in height; they differ from the nominate race in being shorter and having rather weaker, less regular spiral striae. [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Amastra flemingi Cooke

Fleming’s Amastra Snail (Amastra flemingi)

Fleming’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on three (sub)fossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of eastern Maui, which may date to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

The shell of the holotype reaches a height of about 1,3 cm, “The shell is indistinctly rimate, sinitral, oblong-turrite, in its fossil state whitish. The spire is elongate, faintly contracted above, with slightly convex outlines.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson

Scissor-billed Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex)

The Scissor-billed Koa Finch is known only by subfossil remains, found on the islands of Kaua’i and Maui, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers on the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************

References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Cyanea comata Hillebr. 

Maui Cyanea (Cyanea comata)  

This species is only known from the type collection, which dates back to 1870. 

The Maui Cyanea grew in the semi-arid forests of the western slopes of Haleakalā Crater on the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

The species reached a height of around 2.5 m, it had a tuftof 15 to 20.5 cm long leaves and had a hanging inflorescence with around 5 cm long, light purple-colored flowers.

***

syn. Delissea comata (Hillebr.) H. St. John

*********************

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.06.2012

Carelia olivacea ssp. olivacea Pease

Olive Carelia Snail (Carelia olivacea ssp. olivacea)

The Olive Carelia Snail was described in 1866; it was found in the eastern part of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands and seems to have once be quite widespread.

The shells reach heights of about 7 cm.

Fire and cattle have played havoc with most of the native forests along the northern side of this range and probably the original localities from which Pease obtained his material have been destroyed.” [2]

***

syn. Carelia olivacea ssp. variabilis Pease

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911
[2] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931

*********************

edited: 25.01.2024

Leptachatina obtusa (Pfeiffer)

Obtuse Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina obtusa)

This species was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 1 cm; they are “imperforate, oblong, nearly smooth, glossy, pellucid, chestnut-corneous ….” [1]

The species is now extinct.

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Antilissus makauwahi Porch

Makauwahi Bark Beetle (Antilissus makauwahi)

The Makauwahi Bark Beetle was described in 2020 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from the deposits in the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 800 years before present. [1]

***

The only other known member of that genus, the Cylindrical Bark Beetle (Antilissus asper Sharp), is found on all of the larger Hawaiian Islands where it lives under the bark of dead or dying trees. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch: A new and likely extinct species of Antilissus Sharp, 1879 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Colydiinae) from Makauwahi Cave, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 4868(1): 135-141. 2020

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edited: 24.10.2020

Amastra pellucida Baldwin

Translucent Amastra Snail (Amastra pellucida)

The Translucent Amastra Snail was described in 1895, it was restricted to the Wai’anae Valley on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is named for the thin pellucid (translucent) texture of its shell, and it is one of only a few of which we know at least a little bit about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform brown color; the head above and tentacles of a darker shade. the action of the heart is plainly visible through the thin texture of the shell. When first collected the pulsations were about fifty per minute, growing slower and fainter from day to day until the animal died.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.09.2020

Philodoria costalis Swezey

Makaha Philodoria Moth (Philodoria costalis)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the forests of the Makaha Ridge at elevations of about 915 m above sea level on the western side of Mt. Ka’ala on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 to 0,8 cm; the head, the thorax and the abdomen are tawny brown; the forewings are tawny brown and bear orange-colored patches.

The species is known to have mined the leaves of endemic māmaki species (Pipturus sp.); the sole description of its biology is the following sentence.:

The larvae form “oval brown cocoons on the surface of the leaves ….” (Swezey, 1934: 525.)” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during recent field work and might be extinct. [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Leptachatina terebralis (Gulick)

Kawailoa Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

The Kawailoa Leptachatina Snail was described in 1856; it was restricted t a small region within the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 1.1 cm heigh; they are shiny dark brown and very finely striated, the apex is white. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild

Greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri)

The Greater Koa Finch, named hopue by the native Hawaiians, was already nearly extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists.

The species originally inhabited dry lowland forests that were dominated by the endemic koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray) whose seed pods and seeds apparently were its main food source, it furthermore fed on the seeds of the native ‘a’ali’i (Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.) and caterpillars. Most of the lowland forests had already been destroyed by the Hawaiian natives long before the first European settlers arrived, and the finches were restricted to the small remains in the northern Kona District in the western part of Hawai’i.

***

When alive, Greater Koa Finch was by far the largest of the Hawaiian endemic drepanidine finches; it reached a size of 23 cm; the males had bright scarlet-orange heads and breasts, while the females were more or less completely plain green colored.

***

syn. Loxioides kona Greenway, Psittiacirostra palmeri (Rothschild), Psittirostra palmeri (Rothschild), Telespiza palmeri (Rothschild)

*********************

References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’      

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes Cooke

Small Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes)

This form differs from the nominate form by its smaller size, its compact and closely coiled spire, but especially in its smoother surface marked with finer and more distantly spaced growth-wrinkles. [1]

This is an exceedingly rare form of Amastra. the results of five findings are six whole and three broken specimens. Among the large number of Amastras that have been taken in the Manoa fossil deposits, from the beginning of Oahu Avenue to Awapuhi Street, this form was only taken from four “pockets”.” [1]

These deposits appear to be actually Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Leptachatina laevis Pease

Brown Kauaian Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina laevis)

This species was described in 1869; it was restricted to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached heights of 0.9 to 0.95 cm; they were ovately oblong, imperforate, dextral, somewhat thin, smooth, glossy and dark brown colored.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Rhyncogonus bryani Perkins

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus bryani)

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1919, it is known from only a single specimen.

The species was endemic to the island of Laysan in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian Islands chain; its biology is completely unknown.

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil disappeared as an aftermath of the complete denudation of Laysan Island’s vegetation following the introduction of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) in 1909.

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

*********************

edited: 27.01.2019

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.06.2021

Archaeoglenes sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Kauai Darkling Beetle (Archaeoglenes sp.)

This is another of the many beetle forms that are known only by subfossil remains, in this case found on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

***

The genus Archaeoglenes has a very odd distribution, some species occur in the Caribbean, some on the Mascarene Islands, others again on the islands of the western Pacific.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Leptachatina fulgida Cooke

Flashing Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

The Flashing Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was found on the slopes of Pu’u Kukui and P’u Lihau in the western part of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell reaches heights of about 0.7 cm; they are imperforate, elongately ovately conic and beautifully glossy greenish yellow colored, except for the embryonic whorls which are whitish, the outer lip is dark brownish.

The species is considered extinct now.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Leptachatina emerita Sykes

Kalamaula Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina emerita)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.8 cm; according to the species’ author they are “variable in color, shading from brown to a hyaline tint; adult specimens lose their gloss and become of a straw-yellow. The columellar plait is small and inconspicuous.” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Leptachatina sandwicensis (Pfeiffer)

Sandwich Islands Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina sandwicensis)

This species was described in 1846; it was endemic to the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 0.78 cm heigh; they are “ovately conic, obliquely striate, subopaque, dirty corneous; spire conic, somewhat obtuse; suture marginated with an impressed line ….” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola Baldwin

Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola)

The Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail is a form of the Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens(Newcomb)), from the far south of the island of Hawai’i, it was found on an ancient aa (lava) flow at the foothills of the Mauna Lao volcano in the Ka’u District.

This form differs from the nominate race by its more convex whorls of which the last one is rounded peripherally. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Blackburnia agonoides (Sharp)

Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia agonoides)

The Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded from cavities in trunks or branches of the endemic Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray). [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Eupithecia dryinombra (Meyrick)

Wailuku Pug Moth (Eupithecia dryinombra)

The Wailuku Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the male type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,7 cm, it is rather pale and narrow-winged, there are obscure medial bands on its forewings that are marked by a series of short, disconnected longitudinal dashes.

The species inhabited the native rain forest above a place named Wailuku on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, a habitat that is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores. 

The Wailuku Pug Moth was never recorded since its description and is likely extinct. [1][2]

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

*********************  

edited: 06.01.2019

Georissa cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Georissa Snail (Georissa cookei)

Cooke’s Georissa Snail was described in 1928, it is known only from the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of this microscopic species reached sizes of only about 0,085 to 0,1 cm, they were composed of three and a half strongly convex whorls and were orange-cinnamon in color. [1]

***

According to a study from 2018 all (two or three) endemic Hawaiian members of the family Hydrocenidae are now extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 08.05.2019

Orobophana berniceia (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia)

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found near what today is the Limahuli Garden & Preserve, National Tropical Botanical Garden at the northern shore of the osland of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were globosly depressed, with a rounded periphery, quite thin, smooth and minutely marked with growth-striae, they reach sizes of about 0,31 cm in heigth and 0,35 cm in diameter. [2]

***

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 18.05.2019

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 02.06.2021

Lyropupa lyrata ssp. lyrata (Gould)

Fiddle-shaped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa lyrata ssp. lyrata)

This species was described in 1843; it was originally found to be very abundant in the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.25 cm; they are described as being small, most generally sinistral, chestnut colored, widely umbilicate and having five convex whorls with about 20 neatly clathrate flexuous riblets; the aperture is somewhat orbicular, bell-shaped, posteriorly armed with two lamella-like teeth and two additional ones in the throat. [1]

***

The variations and races of lyrata will not be understood until specimens from a large number of places are opened for study of the palatal folds. It will probably be found necessary to recognize a number of local races.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Blackburnia koebelei (Sharp)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia koebelei)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the western part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and might very well be extinct.

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 02.09.2019

Amastra nucleola (Gould)

Nut-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra nucleola)

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1893, it was restricted to lowland areas around the Hanalei Bay at the northern coast of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,1 cm in height and 0,69 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just before the termination of the whorl at the aperture (Gld.).” [1]

***

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail may have gone extinct already in the middle of the 19th century, since all specimens known to exist appear to have been collected dead. [1]  

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 12.03.2021

Fletcherana giffardi (Swezey)

Giffard’s Geometer Moth (Fletcherana giffardi)

Giffard’s Geometer Moth was described in 1913; it seems to have been restricted to the slopes of the Kīlauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has a wingspan of about 2.4 cm; the head and the thorax are white, slightly mixed with fuscous, the palpi and the antennae are pale ochreous; the abdomen is fusco-cinereous, the segmental margins are white; the forewings are white with a few scattered fuscous scales and are much strigulated with fuscous, the median band has nearly straight anterior and posterior edges and is marked with blackish lines, the anterior line is discontinued between the cell and the costa, the discal dot is round and black; the hind wings are similar to the forewings but with less distinct strigulations.

This species was not found during recent searches and is thought to be extinct.

***

syn. Hydriomena giffardi Swezey

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References:

[1] Jon G. Griffin: A comparison of moth diversity at Kilauea (1911-1912) and upper Waiakea Forest Reserve (1998-2000), island of Hawaii. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 39: 15-26. 2007

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edited: 15.01.2024

Apetasimus kauaiensis (Scott)

Kauai Sap Beetle (Apetasimus kauaiensis)

The Kauai Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was endemic to the Waimea region on the island of Kaua’i in the Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a length of about 0,53 cm; it was brick red colored, with the lateral margins of the elytra being dark brown. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Wollastonia populifolia (Sherff) Orchard

Poplar-leaved Melanthera (Wollastonia populifolia)

This species was described in 1933, originally as a variety of the Subcordate Melanthera (Wollastonia subcordata (A. Gray) Orchard) from the island of Hawai’i.

The Poplar-leaved Melanthera is known only from the type material that was collected in 1918 somewhere in the Maunalei Valley on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, it is now considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

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edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Hemignathus affinis ssp. ‘Moloka’i’

Molokai Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis ssp.)

The Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) was historically known only from the island of Maui, yet, this species or at least a very closely related one also once inhabited the neighboring island of Moloka’i – and very likely also Lana’i.:

A fossil almost certainly of this species [Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein] was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.” [1]

***

Given the fact that the Amakihi (Hemignathus virens (Gmelin)) is known to have inhabited the island of Hawai’i (with the nominate form) as well as the islands of Lana’i, Maui, and Moloka’i (with another subspecies), it is quite certain that the Molokai Nukupuu was identical with the Maui species, perhaps even on subspecific level.

***

All species formerly known as Nukupuu are now extinct.

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References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

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edited: 09.10.2020

Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild

Lesser Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis flaviceps)

The Lesser Koa Finch was already almost extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists in 1892; it was only found only once, in its type locality, a place called Pu’u Lehua in the lowlands of the northern Kona District almost in the middle of the western coast of Hawai’i.

It was found in mixed flocks with Greater Koa-Finches (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) feeding on the seeds of koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray), eight specimens were taken back than by bird collectors, which did not recognize that they were dealing with two distinct species at that time. [1]

***

The species reached a size of about 19 cm; males had bright yellow heads and bellies, while females were nearly completely green colored. [1]

***

The Lesser Koa-Finch was never found again since, so was probably extinct already shortly after. [1]

***

syn. Loxioides flaviceps (Rothschild), Psittiacirostra flaviceps (Rothschild), Psittirostra flaviceps (Rothschild), Telespiza flaviceps (Rothschild)

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’ 

(public domain)

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Leptachatina subula (Gulick)

Awl-shaped Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

This species was described in 1856; it inhabited the Pālolo- and Wai’alae Valleys near the coast of south-eastern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 1.1 cm; they are translucent, shiny dark corneous and very finely striated. [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota Cooke & Pilsbry

Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota)

The Striped Lyropupa Snail was described in 1920; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands where it probably was very widespread but apparently not common.:

There can be no doubt that this species is distributed over the whole of the wooded portion of Molokai. Unfortunately it has never been found in any number in any one locality and in none of the lots are there more than half a dozen specimens – in most of them only 1 to 3.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.27 cm in length. “This species is, at first glance, very similar to some of the forms of lyrata from Oahu. It is easily separated by the different sculpture of the embryonic whorls and the longer lower palatal fold.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Laminella straminea (Reeve)

Straw-colored Laminella Snail (Laminella straminea)

The Straw-colored Laminella Snail was described in 1850; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from several valleys, including the Makiki-, Nu’uanu-, Palolo-, Pauoa, and Waiala’e nui Valleys. The species was almost entirely found on the leaves of the endemic olonā (Touchardia latifolia Gaudich.). [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 to 2,4 cm in height; they are “acuminately oblong, sinistral, whorls convex, obliquely striated, columella strongly twist-plaited; straw-colored, unspotted.” [1]

We have a little information about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform light flesh color, oral aperture margined with a line of orange.” [1]

***

This species is now considered most likely extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Fringillidae gen. & sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Additional Kauai Finch (Fringillidae gen. & sp.)

This is a form of drepanidine finch that is still only insufficiently known, its very fragmenary remains were recovered from the deposits of the the Makawehi Dunes on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains consist only of the caudal part of a mandibular ramus, differing from all other Hawaiian finch species, alive or extinct.

The form is currently known only as ‘Additional Kauai Finch’, it might have been a Psittirostra sp.. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 06.11.2020

Melicope macropus (Hillebr.) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Kaholuamanu Melicope (Melicope macropus 

The Kaholuamanu Melicope was restricted to the Kaholuamanu region of Waimea on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last recorded in 1987, 1919 and finally in 1997 and was never found since, it may be extinct. However, the region, where this species is known to have occurred, is privately owned, thus no surveys have been conducted to relacate the species, which in fact might well be still surviving. [1]

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References:

[1] Kenneth R. Wood: Survey results for eight possibly extinct plant species from Kaua’i, Hawai’i. Prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS Agreement No. F12AC00737. 293 pp.. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2020

Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John

Kahili Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia kahiliensis)

The island of Kaua’i harbors seven Phyllostegia species, of which five are endangered to critically endangered, some of these species have populations of less then 10 individuals making them very vulnerable to the slightest disturbances like grazing by cattle etc.. [2]

***

The Kahili Phyllostegia was described in 1987, the species is known from three collections (1974, 1983, and 1987) that originally were thought to be identical with Heller’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia helleri Sherff), but differ from that species by their retrorsely appressed pubescence.

The species had an extremely narrow geographic range, it was restricted to steep jagged ridges and precipitous side slopes just below the summit of Mt. Kahili on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Kahili Phyllostegia was declared extinct in 2014, yet there is a slight chance that it might be rediscovered someday in one of the steep ravines of Mt. Kahili. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999
[2] Kenneth R. Wood: Delissea rhytidosperma H. Mann (Campanulaceae) and Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John (Lamiaceae) possibly extinct on Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: Articles. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 31-33. 2015

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edited: 24.09.2019

Blackburnia perkinsi (Sharp)

Perkins’ Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia perkinsi)

Perkins’ Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not found during recent surveys and is very likely extinct. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 03.09.2019

Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta Cooke

Carved Amastra Snail (Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta)

The Carved Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in the forests of Punalu’u near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

The shells reach sizes of 1,4 to 1,7 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Banza sp. ‘Hawai’i’

Giant Hawaiian Katydid (cf. Banza sp.)

Hawaiian tradition tells us of a large cricket-like insect, called ‘uhini pa’awela, that lived in the Ka’u District of the island of Hawai’i, and which was a favorite food among the natives until the late 1800s – a few of these animals roasted on a skewer provided a full meal.

There are no surviving specimens of that species, and it is speculated that it was a large cricket, perhaps a Banza or Thaumatogryllus sp.. [1]

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References:

[1] F. G. Howarth; W. P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and their kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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edited: 15.01.2019

Amastra nana Baldwin

Small Amastra Snail (Amastra nana)

The Small Amastra Snail was described in 1895; it inhabited the floors of the forests of Makawao in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it was once considered common, but very local in its distribution.

The animal was described when it was alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle light brown. Foot above and below brown with spots of deeper shade on the sides. Tentacles and front above almost black.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,1 to 1,2 cm in height; their coloration was quite variable.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Rhodacanthis litotes ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis sp.)

The Oahu Koa Finch was apparently very closely related to the so-called Primitive Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson), described in 2005 based on subfossil remains.

The difference in aperture of the nasal cavity in the Oahu vs. Maui fossils of R. litotes suggests that those two populations might be recognized as distinct species if more fossils or genetic data were available for them.” [1]

This species has not yet been described.

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidino: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 04.01.2024

Leptachatina exilis (Gulick)

Exiled Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina exilis)

This species was described in 1856; it was apparently restricted to the Ka’a’awa Valley near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Island, where it was found “under stones in places not shaded by trees.” [1]

The shells reached heights of only about 0.6 cm; they were very thin, glassy transparent, shining, and scarcely striated.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Apetasimus atratus (Scott)

Blackish Sap Beetle (Apetasimus atratus)

The Blackish Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was found on the Haleakala region on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, but is also known to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i too.

The species reached a length of about 0,45 to 0,56 cm; it was dark, nearly black in color with some brick red areas on the elytra that were limited to the elytra’s bases, the antennae and legs were red to dark brown in color. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 0.2.06.2021

Amastra rubida Gulick

Glowing Red Amastra Snail (Amastra rubida)

The Glowing Red Amastra Snail was found at a place named Kahuku, probably in the northeastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found on the ground in the forest. [1]

… from the original description.: 

It is allied to Am. elliptica Gk., but differs in being more elongate in form, thicker iin structure, and for the most part destitute of epidermis. It is always dextral.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

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edited: 06.10.2020

Achatinella pupukanioe Pilsbry & Cooke

Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella pupukanioe)

This species was described in 1914.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,6 cm in height; they are glossy white or ivory yellow with a white sutural line, or either of these tints with a burnt sienna band immediately above a wider and darker band. [1] 

***

The species was last found in 1980 in the forest along the Aiea Ridge Trail in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most likely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 08.06.2021

Amastra forbesi Cooke

Forbes’ Amastra Snail (Amastra forbesi)

Forbe’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known only from (sub)fossil remains found in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the Makua beach at the foot of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The material on which this species is based consists of two whole adult specimens and the lower portion of two additional specimens. all the specimens were taken by Mr. Forbes in a single pocket in sand deposits along the railroad track north of Makua. On a later visit by Mr. Forbes and the author, no additional specimens were found though all the exposed surfaces of the sand pockets along the track were carefully gone over. These pockets consist of beach sand covered by talus.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1,3 to 1,4 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis Pilsbry & Cooke

Moomomi Amastra Snail (Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis)

The Mo’omomi beach at the northwestern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, is one of the last remaining dune sides found on these islands; thousands of shells poke out of the sandstone cliffs near the beach, some bleached completely, some still bearing hints of their former coloration; these are the shells of land snails that formerly inhabited this now quite desert-like place.

In the Pleistocene, the climate of the Hawaiian Islands was much wetter than it is today and the area that is now covered by sand dunes was forested back then. When the climate became dryer at the beginning of the Holocene about 10000 BP., these forests disappeared, leading to the extinction of the local snail populations.

In fact, the shells can be dated to ages from 42000 to about 3000 years, which means that this form died out during the Holocene, and, that this is a case of a natural extinction.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

(public domain)

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edited: 31.10.2020

Blackburnia haleakala Liebherr & Zimmerman

Haleakala Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia haleakala)

The Haleakala Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2000, it was endemic to the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded on the ground under dead wood. [1]

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References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

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edited: 03.09.2019

Hylaeus melanothrix (Perkins)

Smoky-winged Masked Bee (Hylaeus melanothrix)  

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee was described in 1899, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the wet montane forests on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is nearly completely black, except for some very small markings on its head, its wings are dark smoky brown.

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee has not been found during recent searches and is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020

Laminella remyi (Newcomb)

Remy’s Laminella Snail (Laminella remyi)

Remy’s Laminella Snail was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The shells reach sizes of about 1,4 cm in height; they are “… very pale buff, with some pink suffusion on the last whorl and the embryonic whorls. The first half-whorl is smooth, convex and uniform pinkish-brown; next whorl streaked, flattened ad unevenly, rather weakly costate; on part of the third whorl the costation or corrugation is stronger, more or less irregular, after that weakening. The last whorl is very finely striatulate. There are reddish streaks between the ribs on the embryonic whorls; near the end of the third whorl these give place to a few widely-spaced oblique blackish stripes; after which the angular, zigzag or netted pattern begins. This pattern is essentially like that of L. tetrao. The interior of the aperture and the columella are pink; columellar lamella simple, steeply ascending.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Leptachatina cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina cookei)

Cooke’s Leptachatina Snail was described in 1914, it is known only from subfossil specimens that had been found at a few scattered locations in western O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

This was apparently a coastal, respectively lowland species and thus disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers.

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References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

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edited: 22.04.2019

Amastra cornea (Newcomb)

Horn-like Amastra Snail (Amastra cornea)

This species inhabited the forests of the Mt. Ka’ala and parts of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the species’ description.:

Shell irregularely, acutely conical, the apex ponted; last whorl inflated; thin, corneous, with minute longitudinal striae; whorls 7, rounded; aperture subovate; lip thin, translucent; columella straight, white, and armed with a transverse plaited tooth. Color uniform dark horn, columella and tooth white.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of 1,1 to 1,75 in heigth and up to 0,85 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.11.2020

Leptachatina exoptabilis Cooke

Desirable Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina exoptabilis)

The Desirable Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it is known from two subfossil shells that were found at Lē’ahi (Diamond Head) in the south-eastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This shells reach a height of about 0.78 cm.

The description is based on two specimens one of which is not adult and is slightly broken. it is most closely related to L. exilis Gul. from the same island. L. exoptabilis is, however, larger, with less convex outlines and is narrower in proportion to its length.” [1]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Eupithecia prasinombra (Meyrick)

Ukulele Pug Moth (Eupithecia prasinombra)

The Ukulele Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the female type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,9 cm, it was originally described as being green, but the sole surviving specimen has faded so much that there is no green color any more, instead it shows some plae cream colored areas, some scales are orange – or rosy-tipped.

The Ukulele Pug Moth inhabited native rain forest areas at a place named Ukulele somewhere in the Haleakala region of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, the habitat is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores and the species, which was never found since its description, may already be extinct.

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

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edited: 06.01.2019

Lyropupa truncata Cooke

Truncated Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa truncata)

This species was described in 1908, it was endemic to the Kohala Volcano in the northern part of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were very distinct, they were covered with transverse striae that were strongly developed, with cuticular margins which could very easily be broken, they reached sizes of about 0,26 cm in length. 

***

According to a study from 2018, sadly all Hawaiian species of the genus Lyropupa are now extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: A new species of Lyropupa. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 211-212. 1908
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke Jr.: A new species of Lyropupa. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 211-212. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 08.05.2019

Achatinella taeniolata Pfeiffer

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1846; like all members of its genus, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height; they are dextral, ovate-oblong, spiro-conic, solid, striatulate, more obsolete toward the apex and with slightly convex whorls; glossy white, ornamented with varying brown bands; the white columella is strongly toothed above and the margin is dilated, reflexed and appressed; the white aperture is irregularly semioval; the peristome is narrowly thickened outside and strongly lipped within. [1] 

***

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was last seen in 1966 at the Hawai’iloa- and the Kuliouou Ridges in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most like exinct. [1]

***

According to some authors, this species is actually a subspecies of the Green Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella viridans Mighels), as there seems to be a complete integration between them. [1] 

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus sordidus (Sharp)

Dirty Sap Beetle (Apetasimus sordidus)

The Dirty Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was restricted to the slopes of the Mauna Loa on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a length of about 0,46 to 0,55 cm; it was dark brown to black, with the elytra having brick red markings. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra praeopima Cooke

Waiahole Amastra Snail (Amastra praeopima)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at a place named Waiahole at the crest of the Ko’olau Mountains along the eastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1 to 1,2 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Leptachatina saxatilis (Gulick)

Rock-dwelling Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina saxatilis)

The Rock-dwelling Leptachatina Snail was described in 1856; it is known from Mokulē’ia near the north-western shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found under stones in open places.

The shells are only about 0.6 cm heigh; they are glass-like transparent, shining, and very finely striated.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Ciridops tenax Olson & James

Stout-legged Finch (Ciridops tenax)

This species was described in 1991 on the basis of subfossil remains that were recovered from Holocene deposits on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The biology of this species is not known.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 26.08.2022

Hylaeus gliddenae Magnacca & Daly

Glidden’s Masked Bee (Hylaeus gliddenae 

This species was described in 2003 based on a single (?) specimen, a male that had been collected sometimes in the early 20th century at an not further specified locality on the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i.

The species is known to have nested in the burrows left behind by the larvae of beetles from the genus Halcobius in the stems of kolea (Myrsine spp.).

The species differs from nearly all others by its red metasoma (the posterior part of the body), which it shares only with the Paradox Masked Bee (Hylaeus paradoxus (Schrottky)), and by its somewhat u-shaped facial markings. [1]

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References:

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020