Tag Archives: Hawaii Islands

Blackburnia rugosa Liebherr & Porch

Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia rugosa)

The Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, it is known only from several subfossil remains that had been found in the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 to 1,1 cm and is distinguished from its congeners by its robust sclerotization. [1]

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References:

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2019

Philodoria opuhe Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Opuhe-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria opuhe)

This species was described in 2021; it is apparently known from the Pu’u ‘Ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus) in the Ko’olau Mountains as well as from the Wai’anae Mountains both on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to mine the leaves of the endemic ōpuhe spp. (Urera glabra (Hook. & Arn.) Wedd. and Urera kaalae Wawra).

***

The species was originally included in the description of the Urera-mining Philidoria Moth (Philodoria ureraella(Swezey)), from which it, however, differs in several characters.

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[1] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Amastra fragosa Cooke

Uneven Amastra Snail (Amastra fragosa)

The Uneven Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that had been recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near Ka’ūpūlehu, in Kona, Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 1,1 to 1,3 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Amastra flemingi Cooke

Fleming’s Amastra Snail (Amastra flemingi)

Fleming’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on three (sub)fossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of eastern Maui, which may date to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

The shell of the holotype reaches a height of about 1,3 cm, “The shell is indistinctly rimate, sinitral, oblong-turrite, in its fossil state whitish. The spire is elongate, faintly contracted above, with slightly convex outlines.” [1]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson

Scissor-billed Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex)

The Scissor-billed Koa Finch is known only by subfossil remains, found on the islands of Kaua’i and Maui, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers on the Hawaiian Islands.

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Antilissus makauwahi Porch

Makauwahi Bark Beetle (Antilissus makauwahi)

The Makauwahi Bark Beetle was described in 2020 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from the deposits in the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 800 years before present. [1]

***

The only other known member of that genus, the Cylindrical Bark Beetle (Antilissus asper Sharp), is found on all of the larger Hawaiian Islands where it lives under the bark of dead or dying trees. [1]

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References:

[1] Nick Porch: A new and likely extinct species of Antilissus Sharp, 1879 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Colydiinae) from Makauwahi Cave, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 4868(1): 135-141. 2020

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edited: 24.10.2020

Amastra pellucida Baldwin

Translucent Amastra Snail (Amastra pellucida)

The Translucent Amastra Snail was described in 1895, it was restricted to the Wai’anae Valley on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is named for the thin pellucid (translucent) texture of its shell, and it is one of only a few of which we know at least a little bit about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform brown color; the head above and tentacles of a darker shade. the action of the heart is plainly visible through the thin texture of the shell. When first collected the pulsations were about fifty per minute, growing slower and fainter from day to day until the animal died.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 28.09.2020

Philodoria costalis Swezey

Makaha Philodoria Moth (Philodoria costalis)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the forests of the Makaha Ridge at elevations of about 915 m above sea level on the western side of Mt. Ka’ala on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 to 0,8 cm; the head, the thorax and the abdomen are tawny brown; the forewings are tawny brown and bear orange-colored patches.

The species is known to have mined the leaves of endemic māmaki species (Pipturus sp.); the sole description of its biology is the following sentence.:

The larvae form “oval brown cocoons on the surface of the leaves ….” (Swezey, 1934: 525.)” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during recent field work and might be extinct. [2]

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[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild

Greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri)

The Greater Koa Finch, named hopue by the native Hawaiians, was already nearly extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists.

The species originally inhabited dry lowland forests that were dominated by the endemic koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray) whose seed pods and seeds apparently were its main food source, it furthermore fed on the seeds of the native ‘a’ali’i (Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.) and caterpillars. Most of the lowland forests had already been destroyed by the Hawaiian natives long before the first European settlers arrived, and the finches were restricted to the small remains in the northern Kona District in the western part of Hawai’i.

***

When alive, Greater Koa Finch was by far the largest of the Hawaiian endemic drepanidine finches; it reached a size of 23 cm; the males had bright scarlet-orange heads and breasts, while the females were more or less completely plain green colored.

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes Cooke

Small Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes)

This form differs from the nominate form by its smaller size, its compact and closely coiled spire, but especially in its smoother surface marked with finer and more distantly spaced growth-wrinkles. [1]

This is an exceedingly rare form of Amastra. the results of five findings are six whole and three broken specimens. Among the large number of Amastras that have been taken in the Manoa fossil deposits, from the beginning of Oahu Avenue to Awapuhi Street, this form was only taken from four “pockets”.” [1]

These deposits appear to be actually Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

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edited: 04.05.2022

Rhyncogonus bryani Perkins

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus bryani)

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1919, it is known from only a single specimen.

The species was endemic to the island of Laysan in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian Islands chain; its biology is completely unknown.

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil disappeared as an aftermath of the complete denudation of Laysan Island’s vegetation following the introduction of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) in 1909.

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

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edited: 27.01.2019

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

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edited: 04.06.2021

Archaeoglenes sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Kauai Darkling Beetle (Archaeoglenes sp.)

This is another of the many beetle forms that are known only by subfossil remains, in this case found on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

***

The genus Archaeoglenes has a very odd distribution, some species occur in the Caribbean, some on the Mascarene Islands, others again on the islands of the western Pacific.

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edited: 31.10.2020

Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola Baldwin

Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola)

The Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail is a form of the Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens(Newcomb)), from the far south of the island of Hawai’i, it was found on an ancient aa (lava) flow at the foothills of the Mauna Lao volcano in the Ka’u District.

This form differs from the nominate race by its more convex whorls of which the last one is rounded peripherally. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

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edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Blackburnia agonoides (Sharp)

Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia agonoides)

The Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded from cavities in trunks or branches of the endemic Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray). [1]

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References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

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edited: 03.09.2019

Eupithecia dryinombra (Meyrick)

Wailuku Pug Moth (Eupithecia dryinombra)

The Wailuku Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the male type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,7 cm, it is rather pale and narrow-winged, there are obscure medial bands on its forewings that are marked by a series of short, disconnected longitudinal dashes.

The species inhabited the native rain forest above a place named Wailuku on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, a habitat that is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores. 

The Wailuku Pug Moth was never recorded since its description and is likely extinct. [1][2]

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

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edited: 06.01.2019

Georissa cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Georissa Snail (Georissa cookei)

Cooke’s Georissa Snail was described in 1928, it is known only from the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of this microscopic species reached sizes of only about 0,085 to 0,1 cm, they were composed of three and a half strongly convex whorls and were orange-cinnamon in color. [1]

***

According to a study from 2018 all (two or three) endemic Hawaiian members of the family Hydrocenidae are now extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 08.05.2019

Orobophana berniceia (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia)

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found near what today is the Limahuli Garden & Preserve, National Tropical Botanical Garden at the northern shore of the osland of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were globosly depressed, with a rounded periphery, quite thin, smooth and minutely marked with growth-striae, they reach sizes of about 0,31 cm in heigth and 0,35 cm in diameter. [2]

***

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 18.05.2019

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 02.06.2021

Blackburnia koebelei (Sharp)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia koebelei)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the western part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and might very well be extinct.

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 02.09.2019

Amastra nucleola (Gould)

Nut-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra nucleola)

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1893, it was restricted to lowland areas around the Hanalei Bay at the northern coast of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,1 cm in height and 0,69 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just before the termination of the whorl at the aperture (Gld.).” [1]

***

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail may have gone extinct already in the middle of the 19th century, since all specimens known to exist appear to have been collected dead. [1]  

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 12.03.2021

Apetasimus kauaiensis (Scott)

Kauai Sap Beetle (Apetasimus kauaiensis)

The Kauai Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was endemic to the Waimea region on the island of Kaua’i in the Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a length of about 0,53 cm; it was brick red colored, with the lateral margins of the elytra being dark brown. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Wollastonia populifolia (Sherff) Orchard

Poplar-leaved Melanthera (Wollastonia populifolia)

This species was described in 1933, originally as a variety of the Subcordate Melanthera (Wollastonia subcordata (A. Gray) Orchard) from the island of Hawai’i.

The Poplar-leaved Melanthera is known only from the type material that was collected in 1918 somewhere in the Maunalei Valley on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, it is now considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

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edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Hemignathus affinis ssp. ‘Moloka’i’

Molokai Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis ssp.)

The Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) was historically known only from the island of Maui, yet, this species or at least a very closely related one also once inhabited the neighboring island of Moloka’i – and very likely also Lana’i.:

A fossil almost certainly of this species [Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein] was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.” [1]

***

Given the fact that the Amakihi (Hemignathus virens (Gmelin)) is known to have inhabited the island of Hawai’i (with the nominate form) as well as the islands of Lana’i, Maui, and Moloka’i (with another subspecies), it is quite certain that the Molokai Nukupuu was identical with the Maui species, perhaps even on subspecific level.

***

All species formerly known as Nukupuu are now extinct.

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References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

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edited: 09.10.2020

Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild

Lesser Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis flaviceps)

The Lesser Koa Finch was already almost extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists in 1892; it was only found only once, in its type locality, a place called Pu’u Lehua in the lowlands of the northern Kona District almost in the middle of the western coast of Hawai’i.

It was found in mixed flocks with Greater Koa-Finches (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) feeding on the seeds of koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray), eight specimens were taken back than by bird collectors, which did not recognize that they were dealing with two distinct species at that time. [1]

***

The species reached a size of about 19 cm; males had bright yellow heads and bellies, while females were nearly completely green colored. [1]

***

The Lesser Koa-Finch was never found again since so was probably extinct already shortly after. [1]

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Laminella straminea (Reeve)

Straw-colored Laminella Snail (Laminella straminea)

The Straw-colored Laminella Snail was described in 1850; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from several valleys, including the Makiki-, Nu’uanu-, Palolo-, Pauoa, and Waiala’e nui Valleys. The species was almost entirely found on the leaves of the endemic olonā (Touchardia latifolia Gaudich.). [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 to 2,4 cm in height; they are “acuminately oblong, sinistral, whorls convex, obliquely striated, columella strongly twist-plaited; straw-colored, unspotted.” [1]

We have a little information about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform light flesh color, oral aperture margined with a line of orange.” [1]

***

This species is now considered most likely extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Fringillidae gen. & sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Additional Kauai Finch (Fringillidae gen. & sp.)

This is a form of drepanidine finch that is still only insufficiently known, its very fragmenary remains were recovered from the deposits of the the Makawehi Dunes on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains consist only of the caudal part of a mandibular ramus, differing from all other Hawaiian finch species, alive or extinct.

The form is currently known only as ‘Additional Kauai Finch’, it might have been a Psittirostra sp.. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 06.11.2020

Melicope macropus (Hillebr.) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Kaholuamanu Melicope (Melicope macropus 

The Kaholuamanu Melicope was restricted to the Kaholuamanu region of Waimea on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last recorded in 1987, 1919 and finally in 1997 and was never found since, it may be extinct. However, the region, where this species is known to have occurred, is privately owned, thus no surveys have been conducted to relacate the species, which in fact might well be still surviving. [1]

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References:

[1] Kenneth R. Wood: Survey results for eight possibly extinct plant species from Kaua’i, Hawai’i. Prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS Agreement No. F12AC00737. 293 pp.. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2020

Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John

Kahili Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia kahiliensis)

The island of Kaua’i harbors seven Phyllostegia species, of which five are endangered to critically endangered, some of these species have populations of less then 10 individuals making them very vulnerable to the slightest disturbances like grazing by cattle etc.. [2]

***

The Kahili Phyllostegia was described in 1987, the species is known from three collections (1974, 1983, and 1987) that originally were thought to be identical with Heller’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia helleri Sherff), but differ from that species by their retrorsely appressed pubescence.

The species had an extremely narrow geographic range, it was restricted to steep jagged ridges and precipitous side slopes just below the summit of Mt. Kahili on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Kahili Phyllostegia was declared extinct in 2014, yet there is a slight chance that it might be rediscovered someday in one of the steep ravines of Mt. Kahili. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999
[2] Kenneth R. Wood: Delissea rhytidosperma H. Mann (Campanulaceae) and Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John (Lamiaceae) possibly extinct on Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: Articles. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 31-33. 2015

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edited: 24.09.2019

Blackburnia perkinsi (Sharp)

Perkins’ Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia perkinsi)

Perkins’ Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not found during recent surveys and is very likely extinct. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta Cooke

Carved Amastra Snail (Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta)

The Carved Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in the forests of Punalu’u near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

The shells reach sizes of 1,4 to 1,7 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Banza sp. ‘Hawai’i’

Giant Hawaiian Katydid (cf. Banza sp.)

Hawaiian tradition tells us of a large cricket-like insect, called ‘uhini pa’awela, that lived in the Ka’u District of the island of Hawai’i, and which was a favorite food among the natives until the late 1800s – a few of these animals roasted on a skewer provided a full meal.

There are no surviving specimens of that species, and it is speculated that it was a large cricket, perhaps a Banza or Thaumatogryllus sp.. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] F. G. Howarth; W. P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and their kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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edited: 15.01.2019

Amastra nana Baldwin

Small Amastra Snail (Amastra nana)

The Small Amastra Snail was described in 1895; it inhabited the floors of the forests of Makawao in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it was once considered common, but very local in its distribution.

The animal was described when it was alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle light brown. Foot above and below brown with spots of deeper shade on the sides. Tentacles and front above almost black.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,1 to 1,2 cm in height; their coloration was quite variable.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Apetasimus atratus (Scott)

Blackish Sap Beetle (Apetasimus atratus)

The Blackish Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was found on the Haleakala region on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, but is also known to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i too.

The species reached a length of about 0,45 to 0,56 cm; it was dark, nearly black in color with some brick red areas on the elytra that were limited to the elytra’s bases, the antennae and legs were red to dark brown in color. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

*********************

edited: 0.2.06.2021

Amastra rubida Gulick

Glowing Red Amastra Snail (Amastra rubida)

The Glowing Red Amastra Snail was found at a place named Kahuku, probably in the northeastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found on the ground in the forest. [1]

… from the original description.: 

It is allied to Am. elliptica Gk., but differs in being more elongate in form, thicker iin structure, and for the most part destitute of epidermis. It is always dextral.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 06.10.2020

Achatinella pupukanioe Pilsbry & Cooke

Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella pupukanioe)

This species was described in 1914.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,6 cm in height; they are glossy white or ivory yellow with a white sutural line, or either of these tints with a burnt sienna band immediately above a wider and darker band. [1] 

***

The species was last found in 1980 in the forest along the Aiea Ridge Trail in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 08.06.2021

Amastra forbesi Cooke

Forbes’ Amastra Snail (Amastra forbesi)

Forbe’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known only from (sub)fossil remains found in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the Makua beach at the foot of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The material on which this species is based consists of two whole adult specimens and the lower portion of two additional specimens. all the specimens were taken by Mr. Forbes in a single pocket in sand deposits along the railroad track north of Makua. On a later visit by Mr. Forbes and the author, no additional specimens were found though all the exposed surfaces of the sand pockets along the track were carefully gone over. These pockets consist of beach sand covered by talus.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1,3 to 1,4 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis Pilsbry & Cooke

Moomomi Amastra Snail (Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis)

The Mo’omomi beach at the northwestern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, is one of the last remaining dune sides found on these islands; thousands of shells poke out of the sandstone cliffs near the beach, some bleached completely, some still bearing hints of their former coloration; these are the shells of land snails that formerly inhabited this now quite desert-like place.

In the Pleistocene, the climate of the Hawaiian Islands was much wetter than it is today and the area that is now covered by sand dunes was forested back then. When the climate became dryer at the beginning of the Holocene about 10000 BP., these forests disappeared, leading to the extinction of the local snail populations.

In fact, the shells can be dated to ages from 42000 to about 3000 years, which means that this form died out during the Holocene, and, that this is a case of a natural extinction.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Blackburnia haleakala Liebherr & Zimmerman

Haleakala Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia haleakala)

The Haleakala Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2000, it was endemic to the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded on the ground under dead wood. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Hylaeus melanothrix (Perkins)

Smoky-winged Masked Bee (Hylaeus melanothrix)  

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee was described in 1899, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the wet montane forests on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is nearly completely black, except for some very small markings on its head, its wings are dark smoky brown.

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee has not been found during recent searches and is possibly extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Laminella remyi (Newcomb)

Remy’s Laminella Snail (Laminella remyi)

Remy’s Laminella Snail was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The shells reach sizes of about 1,4 cm in height; they are “… very pale buff, with some pink suffusion on the last whorl and the embryonic whorls. The first half-whorl is smooth, convex and uniform pinkish-brown; next whorl streaked, flattened ad unevenly, rather weakly costate; on part of the third whorl the costation or corrugation is stronger, more or less irregular, after that weakening. The last whorl is very finely striatulate. There are reddish streaks between the ribs on the embryonic whorls; near the end of the third whorl these give place to a few widely-spaced oblique blackish stripes; after which the angular, zigzag or netted pattern begins. This pattern is essentially like that of L. tetrao. The interior of the aperture and the columella are pink; columellar lamella simple, steeply ascending.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Leptachatina cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina cookei)

Cooke’s Leptachatina Snail was described in 1914, it is known only from subfossil specimens that had been found at a few scattered locations in western O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

This was apparently a coastal, respectively lowland species and thus disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers.

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

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edited: 22.04.2019

Amastra cornea (Newcomb)

Horn-like Amastra Snail (Amastra cornea)

This species inhabited the forests of the Mt. Ka’ala and parts of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the species’ description.:

Shell irregularely, acutely conical, the apex ponted; last whorl inflated; thin, corneous, with minute longitudinal striae; whorls 7, rounded; aperture subovate; lip thin, translucent; columella straight, white, and armed with a transverse plaited tooth. Color uniform dark horn, columella and tooth white.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of 1,1 to 1,75 in heigth and up to 0,85 cm in diameter.

*********************    

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Eupithecia prasinombra (Meyrick)

Ukulele Pug Moth (Eupithecia prasinombra)

The Ukulele Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the female type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,9 cm, it was originally described as being green, but the sole surviving specimen has faded so much that there is no green color any more, instead it shows some plae cream colored areas, some scales are orange – or rosy-tipped.

The Ukulele Pug Moth inhabited native rain forest areas at a place named Ukulele somewhere in the Haleakala region of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, the habitat is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores and the species, which was never found since its description, may already be extinct.

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

*********************  

edited: 06.01.2019

Lyropupa truncata Cooke

Truncated Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa truncata)

This species was described in 1908, it was endemic to the Kohala Volcano in the northern part of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were very distinct, they were covered with transverse striae that were strongly developed, with cuticular margins which could very easily be broken, they reached sizes of about 0,26 cm in length. 

***

According to a study from 2018, sadly all Hawaiian species of the genus Lyropupa are now extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: A new species of Lyropupa. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 211-212. 1908
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke Jr.: A new species of Lyropupa. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 211-212. 1908’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Achatinella taeniolata Pfeiffer

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1846; like all members of its genus, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height; they are dextral, ovate-oblong, spiro-conic, solid, striatulate, more obsolete toward the apex and with slightly convex whorls; glossy white, ornamented with varying brown bands; the white columella is strongly toothed above and the margin is dilated, reflexed and appressed; the white aperture is irregularly semioval; the peristome is narrowly thickened outside and strongly lipped within. [1] 

***

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was last seen in 1966 at the Hawai’iloa- and the Kuliouou Ridges in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most like exinct. [1]

***

According to some authors, this species is actually a subspecies of the Green Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella viridans Mighels), as there seems to be a complete integration between them. [1] 

************************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus sordidus (Sharp)

Dirty Sap Beetle (Apetasimus sordidus)

The Dirty Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was restricted to the slopes of the Mauna Loa on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a length of about 0,46 to 0,55 cm; it was dark brown to black, with the elytra having brick red markings. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra praeopima Cooke

Waiahole Amastra Snail (Amastra praeopima)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at a place named Waiahole at the crest of the Ko’olau Mountains along the eastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1 to 1,2 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Hylaeus gliddenae Magnacca & Daly

Glidden’s Masked Bee (Hylaeus gliddenae 

This species was described in 2003 based on a single (?) specimen, a male that had been collected sometimes in the early 20th century at an not further specified locality on the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i.

The species is known to have nested in the burrows left behind by the larvae of beetles from the genus Halcobius in the stems of kolea (Myrsine spp.).

The species differs from nearly all others by its red metasoma (the posterior part of the body), which it shares only with the Paradox Masked Bee (Hylaeus paradoxus (Schrottky)), and by its somewhat u-shaped facial markings. [1]

*********************  

References:

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020

Amastra rugulosa ssp. annosa Cooke

Aged Amastra Snail (Amastra rugulosa ssp. annosa)

The Aged Amastra Snail is one of many forms of its genus that are actually known only based on (sub)fossil material; this one was found in deposits of the Hanama’ulu plains near the eastern coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This extremely variable form is abundant in road cuttings on the coastal plain south of the Wailua river. There are several distinct forms found associated in the different deposits. The typical form described above might be considered a distinct species if it did not occur with numerous intergrades of other forms which closely approach A. rugulosa normalis. A constant differentiating character between all these specimens of annosa and normalis is the very weak, oblique, deeply situated columellar fold of the former. Some of the specimens of annosa at first glance seem to belong to the subgenus Cyclamastra but the embryonic whorls are less convex than those of any species of this subgenus.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Blackburnia menehune Liebherr & Porch

Menehune Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia menehune)

The Menehune Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, it is known from several subfossil remains, mainly head capsules and elytra, that had been recovered from the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2019

Agrotis photophila (Butler)

Light-loving Cutworm (Agrotis photophila)

The Light-loving Cutworm was described in 1879, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a wingspan of about 3,6 cm.

***

The Light-loving Cutworm obviously was a lowland species, it was always found near the sea.

The species is now extinct.

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’  

(public domain)

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edited: 22.01.2019

Orthiospiza howarthi James & Olson

Maui Upland Finch (Orthiospiza howarthi)

The Maui Highland Finch aka. Maui Upland Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that had been collected from cave deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

When alive, the species appears to have been restricted to higher elevations, its remains were never found in lowland deposits. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 29.04.2022

Amastra textilis ssp. kaipaupauensis Hyatt & Pilsbry

Kaipaupau Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. kaipaupauensis

The Kaipaupau Amastra Snail was described in 1911, as far as I understand, it is known from a single specimen that was collected at a place named Kaipaupau, which may actually be the area around the Kaipapa’u Waterfall near the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.  

***

… from the description.:

The shell is short, subperforate, thin, with straightly conic spire and convex whorls, the last quite rotund; dull purplish-brown, the thin cuticle yellowish on theearly whorls. Embryo finely striate; later whorls with fine, irregular sculpture of growth-wrinkles. Aperture purplish within, the lip very narrowly thickened. Columnellar lamella thin, its lower edge subhorizontal. 
….
Near The above, yet with narrower, straightly conic spire and more convex whorls. ….
” [1]

The shell has a length of 1,1 cm and reaches 0,7 cm in diameter.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 26.04.2019

Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson

Primitive Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes)

The Primitive Koa Finch was described in 2005 based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

At least on Maui the species occurred in sympatry with another closely related species, the Scissor-billed Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson), a constellation which is known also from the island of Hawai’i, where two other congeneric species, the Lesser- (Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild) and the greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) formed mixed flocks feeding together.

The primitive Koa-Finch aka. Oahu Koa-Finch disappeared before the first Europeans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. 

*********************

References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Achatinella vulpina (Férussac)

Foxy Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella vulpina)

The Foxy Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1824.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are glossy yellow, green, olive or chestnut, often banded with green or chestnut; the extremely color patterns were already mentioned by the species’ author.:

The colouring of this species is extremely variable; there is, however, but one prevailing idea in its manner of distribution. The columella is of a livid purple-rose in all the varieties.” [1]

This is one of the most common shells met with on Oahu, and passes through numerous slight variations, which have led to their description as distinct species.” [1]

***

The species was last found in 1965 along the slopes of the Pu’u ‘ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus); it is now considered extinct. [2]

************************

References:

[1] E. W. Thwing: Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus Achatinella. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(1): 1-196. 1907
[2] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 06.06.2021

Achatinella apexfulva (Dixon)

Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella apexfulva)

The tree snails of the genus Achatinella are only found on the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian archipelago; 41 species are currently accepted, of which about 20 may still survive.

All species inhabit trees and shrubs where they feed on fungi by scraping them from the surfaces of leaves or trunks; the snails are hermaphroditic and give birth to live young, however, only to a few each year. The snails can live to about ten years or even more, the growth rate is very low, and they reach maturity only with about six years. 

The tree snails are very vulnerable to loss of individuals through over-collecting, but also to habitat destruction and especially to the introduction of predators like rats, or more recently the snail-eating Rosy Wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea (Férussac)). [1]

***

The Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail was indeed the first member of its genus to reach Europe – as part of a shell lei, given by native Hawaiians to George Dixon, a British ship captain in 1786, and to be scientifically described – in 1789.

The species was restricted to some of the ridges of the Ko’olau Mountains, where it was last found in 1985. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are dextral or sinistral and are quite variably colored; the embryonic whorl might be yellow, the following whorls are blackish brown to chestnut-colored, sometimes with some whitish streaks and spiral lines; the narrow suture is light-edged; the moderately thickened lip is flesh- to salmon-colored while the columellar fold is nearly white; the aperture is bluish white within. [1]

***  

The species was last seen in the wild at the Poamoho Trail and was considered extinct in the wild since then; a little captive population (brought into captivity in 1997) was all that was left of this species. This population, however, did not breed and finally was down to a last surviving individual. 

This individual, named George (see photo below), died today (1. January 2019) at the age of 14 years, an exceptional age for an invertebrate species. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993
[2] Jacina Bowler: Lonely George – A Hawaiian Tree Snail – Has Died, Taking His Species With Him. Science Alert January 9, 2019

*********************

Photo: Brenden Holland
http://portugal.inaturalist.org/people/bholland

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************  

edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus guttatus (Sharp)

Speckled Sap Beetle (Apetasimus guttatus)

The Speckled Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was apparently found near the city of Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, but is otherwise also known to have occurred on the island of Hawai’i.

The species reached a length of about 0,52 to 0,61 cm; it was brick red to nearly blackish, with some pale yellow to orange-red markings. [1]

***

The Speckled Sap Beetle was living subcortical in the wood of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray); this microhabitat was severely disrupted on all of the Hawaiian main islands by the introduction of terrestrial isopods, leading to the disappearance of nearly all invertebrates that shared the same modus vivendi. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

*********************

edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra textilis ssp. textilis (Férussac)

Woven Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. textilis)

The Woven Amastra Snail was described in 1824, it appears to have been quite widespread around the center of southern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and indeed has repeatedly been described independently by several authors under a bunch of different names.

The shells are quite variable and reach sizes of 1,25 to 1,8 cm in heigth and 0,8 to 0,95 cm in diameter. [1]

At least three distinct subspecies have been described.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.09.2020

Amastra thaanumi Hyatt & Pilsbry

Thaanum’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thaanumi

Thaanum’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911, it was restricted to a place named Ka’a’awa in the Koʻolauloa District on the northeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was described on the basis of a single living specimen and several dead shells.

… from the description.:

The shell is sinistral, imperforate, moderately solid, oblong, having a somewhat silky luster. Spire widely conic with somewhat convex outlines and rather obtuse summit. Embryonic whorls marked with faint, very fine growth-striae only; later whorls distinctly striate obliquely, the striae fine and somewhat thread-like. Upper whorls purplish-brown ith irregular whitish streaks, the last two whorls covered with a rich dark chestnut cuticle, yellowish next the suture, and deciduous in front of the aperture, showing a glossy light green under layer. Aperture rather oblique, livid or bluish white whithin, with a whitish callous rim within the dark-edged lip. Columella short, bearing a strong, triangular, downward-bent lamella. Parietal callus thin.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.09.2020

Laminella venusta (Mighels)

Graceful Laminella Snail (Laminella venusta 

The Graceful Laminella Snail was described in 1845, it was found in the Mapulehu Valley near the southeastern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This species differs from the congeneric Alexander’s Laminella Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)) and the Depicted Laminella Snail (Laminella depicta (Baldwin)) by its more swollen last whorl and the sunken black markings, which are generally coarser than in L. depicta and which do not form the characteristic patterns.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,35 cm in heigth and 0,62 to 0,73 in diameter.

The animal itself is also mentioned in the description.:

The animal … is slender, body flesh-color with black puncta down the sides; tentacles very black. When extended, two-thirds as long as the shell.” [1]

***

The Graceful Laminella Snail has three additional color morphs assigned to it, orginally described as varieties, which in fact may well be distinct subspecies: var. muscaria Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. orientalis Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. semivestita Hyatt & Pilsbry. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 01.10.2020

Amastra ricei Cooke

Rice’s Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei)

Rice’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917, apparently based on only five recently dead specimens, it was restricted to a small part of the Miloli’i Valley near the northwestern coast of Kaua’i.

The shells reached sizes of about 2,4 cm in heigth and 1,2 to 1,3 cm in diameter.

***

The author of the species also described a variety, named as var. armillata, from the same locality, based on two dead specimens (empty shells) which may be of Pleistocene age or may just have been old surface shells.

This variety differs from the normal form in the following way …:

… the fourth and fifth whorls are slightly swollen, and the surface is more coarsely but not as closely sculptured with growth-wrinkles. The periphery is distinctly carinated on the last whorl; the carina is margined along its upper edge by a deep narrow sinus. The lower halff of the last whorl descends rather rapidly, with the carina appearing slightly above the suture. The outer margin of the aperture is distinctly modified by the carina. The upper portion being flattened, the lower evenly arched. The columellar fold is weak, thread-like, very oblique and deeply situated.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************


Depiction from: ‘ C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 03.10.2020

Blackburnia blaptoides (Blackburn)

Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia blaptoides)

The Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was apparently restricted to the Pu’u Konahuanui, the tallest peak of the Ko’olau Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is thought to be extinct due to predation by introduced ants. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Hylaeus finitimus (Perkins)

Kauai Masked Bee (Hylaeus finitimus)  

This species was described in 1899, it is apparently endemic to the coastal areas of the island of Kaua’i, Hawiian Islands, only female specimens are known. 

The head and mesosoma are black, the metasoma is dark reddish brown, the legs are dark brown with a pale area on the fore tibias, the wings are yellowish colored.

The species was not recorded during recent searches and might well be extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Amastra malleata Smith

Hammered Amastra Snail (Amastra malleata)

The Hammered Amastra Snail was described 1873; it was found in the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Anisolabis oahuensis Brindle

Oahu Earwig (Anisolabis oahuensis)

The Oahu Earwig was described in 1980; it is endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and is one of the four species that was split off Perkin’s Earwig (Anisolabis perkinsi Burr) during a genu revision in 1980.

The species is about 1,2 to about 1,9 cm long.

The Oahu Earwig was last recorded in the 1920s and may in fact be extinct now. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. Brindle: The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes: 12. A new species of blind troglobitic earwig (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), with a revision of the related surface-living earwigs of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Insects 21(4): 261-274. 1980

*********************

edited: 08.12.2021

Talpanas lippa Olson & James

Mole Duck (Talpanas lippa)

The Mole Duck, or Kauai Mole Duck was described in 2009 based on subfossil remains found on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was flightless and apparently had extremely small eyes and thus might have been almost blind in life, it had a distinct wide beak which it very likely used for probing the soil for invertebrates. [1]

The Mole Dock most likely disappeared, together with countless additional species, when humans first reached the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************    

References:    

[1] A. L. Iwaniuk; S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Extraordinary cranial specialization in a new genus of extinct duck (Aves: Anseriformes) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 2296: 47–67. 2009

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020

Newcombia gagei Severns

Gage’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia gagei

This species was described in 2009, it was described based on subfossil shells that were collected from the Waipoli Dune fossil deposit on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. The age of these deposit is not known but is most likely Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene.

The shells of this species reached sizes of 2,49 cm, making it one of the largest species in its genus. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Mike Severns: A new species of newcombia from the Pleistocene of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Achatinellidae). Basteria 73: 57-60. 2009

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Phyllostegia hillebrandii H. Mann ex Hillebr.

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia hillebrandii)

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia was described in 1888, it is known from two collections from eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands; one from Kula in the center -, and the other one from ‘Ulupalakua near the southern shore of the island.

The species is now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

*********************

edited: 24.09.2019

Chaetoptila sp. ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Oahu Kioea is known only from subfossil remains that were found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has not been described yet, but appears to have been distinct from the historically known Hawaiian Kioea. [1] 

*********************  
References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020

Ciridops anna (Dole)

Ula Ai Hawane (Ciridops anna)

The Ula Ai Hawane was described in 1879, the species is historically known for certain only from the island of Hawai’i, however, it is possible that two of the five existing specimens were collected on the island of Moloka’i (these two are of a supposed female and a likewise supposed immature male (see depiction below)). [2]

The species reached a size of about 11 to 12 cm; the males had a light grey head and neck, a black breast and a bright red rump, the wings were black and red as well, with the outer webs of the tertials white; the females were olive green and brown in color. [4]

Since the only two specimens that possibly come from Moloka’i differ from the other three, they might as well be interpreted as a distinct subspecies. 

***

The Hawaiian name ʻula-ʻai-hāwane means “red eating hawane”, hawane are the fruits of the endemic lo’ulu palms (Pritchardia spp.). The birds were only ever found near the lo’ulu palms and are thought to have fed on their flowers and fruits or perhaps on insects hiding in the leaf axilles. [3]

***

Subfossil remains found on Moloka’i were also assigned to this species, however, it is definitely possible that the Moloka’ian birds differed from the Hawaiians at the subspecies level. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Storrs L. Olson: William T. Brigham’s Hawaiian birds and a possible historical record of Ciridops anna (Aves: Drepanidini) from Molokai. Pacific Scenice 46(4): 495-500. 1992
[3] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005
[4] Storrs L. Olson: History, structure, evolution, behaviour, distribution, and ecology of the extinct Hawaiian genus Ciridops (Fringillidae, Carduelini, Drepanidini). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124(4): 651-674. 2012

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 18.10.2020

Blackburnia micantipennis (Sharp)

Waimea Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia micantipennis)  

The Waimea Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it occurred only at elevations of 600 to 1270 m on the leeward reaches of the Waimea Canyon on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. It is thought to have been a riparian species, since all localities, at which this species was found, are along the tributaries of the Waimea River.  

The last specimens of this species were apparently collected in 1935 and it is now thought to be possibly extinct. [1]  

********************* 

References: 

[1] J. K. Liebherr; E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii: Hawaiian Carabidae (Coleoptera), Part 1: Introduction and Tribe Platynini. University of Hawaii Press 2000

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi Cooke

Spalding’s Planamastra Snail (Planamastra spaldingi ssp. spaldingi

This species was described in 1933, it is restricted to Pukaloa in the Wai’anae Mountains of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

Planamastra spaldingi should be considered a very rare species. In the Museum collection are eight lots; five are from the small valley of Pukaloa. In only one of the lots are there more than two specimens, and not more than 25 to 30 shells have come to my notice.

***

This species should not be mistaken for Spalding’s Amastra Snail (Amastra spaldingi Cooke).

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

*********************

edited: 27.09.2020

Blackburnia mothra Liebherr & Porch

Mothra Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia mothra)

This species was described in 2015, it is one of several, mostly very large ground beetle species that are known exclusively from subfossil remains found in the makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Mothra Blackburnia Ground is the second-largest member of its genus, it died out shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesians on the Hawaiian Islands. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Newcombia philippiana (Pfeiffer)

Philippiana Newcombia Snail (Newcombia philippiana) 

The Philippiana Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, the species is known only from the type series which was collected on one of the Hawaiian Islands (most likely Moloka’i), its taxonomic status, however, is not fully understood.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis Sherff

Lanai Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis)

The Lanai Phyllostegia was described in 1934 based on material that had been collected in 1914, it was restricted to the Kaiholena Gulch on Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The plant is thought to have been seen sometimes in the 1980s, however, it is thought that this might rather have been the nominate form. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

*********************

edited: 24.09.2019

Omiodes giffardi Swezey

Giffard’s Leaf-roller (Omiodes giffardi)

Giffard’s Leaf-roller was described in 1921, the species was restricted to the slopes of the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a wingspan of about 2,5 cm.

The caterpillars fed on the native grass Ohe (Isachne distichophylla Munro ex Hillebr.). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

*********************

edited: 23.09.2019

cf. Chloridops sp.

Unassigned Maui Finch (cf. Chloridops sp.)

This form is known by a fragment of a cranium including the frontal and parts of the interoribital septum and maxilla, which where excavated from deposits of the Pu’u Naio Cave on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

This species was about the size of the Wahi Crosbeak (Chloridops wahi James & Olson), that is 13 to 14,5 cm, but probably was not a close relative of it.

***

There appear to exist remains of at least two additional finch forms in the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., USA, that were collected on Maui and still await their description as soon as more material is found.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 08.10.2020

Amastra pagodula Cooke

Pagoda-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra pagodula)

The Pagoda-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known only from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from late Pleistocene/early Holocene deposits at Pu’u Wa’awa’a, an ancient cinder cone in Kona on the island of Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 0,8 to about 1 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. ‘Maui’

Maui Thrush (Myadestes lanaiensis ssp.)

This form is known only from reports from the 1850s as well as from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Taken into account the fact that all known island forms of the species are considered distinct subspecies, the form that formerly inhabited the island of Maui, must also have been a distinct form.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Phyllostegia variabilis Bitter

Coastal Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia variabilis)

The Coastal Phyllostegia or Variable Phyllostegia was described in 1900, the species was originally discovered on the island of Laysan but was subsequently also found on the Kure- and Midway atolls in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Hugo H. Schauinsland wrote the first notes about this species, that he discovered in 1896.:

Phyllostegia variabilis Bitter nov. sp. Here and there on the E and W side near the beach. The numerous small flowers appear first during winter, beginning in November. It is a herbaceous plant, with few unbranched runners which I found to be 3/4 to 1 m long.” [2]

***

… In 1896 it was scattered near the beach of the west and east sides (Schauinsland, 1899: 97). It was still present in small patches in 1903, mostly on the windward side (Christophersen and Caum, 1931: 11). it disappeared from Laysan before 1911.” [1]

The species is now completely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Charles A. Ely; Roger B. Clapp: The natural history of Laysan Island, northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 171. 1973
[2] Hugo H. Schauinsland: Three months on a coral island (Laysan); translated by Miklos D. F. Udvardy. Atoll Research Bulletin 432. 1996

*********************

edited: 19.10.2020

Chaetoptila sp. ‘narrow-billed’

Narrow-billed Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Narrow-billed Kioea is known from subfossil bones that were found on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species had a much narrower bill than the Hawaiian Kioe, with which it occurred sympatrically (at least if the form known as Chaetoptila sp. ‘Maui Nui’ indeed turns out to be identical with this species) [1]. 

*********************  
References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020 

Amastra fragilis Pilsbry & Cooke

Fragile Amastra Snail (Amastra fragilis)

The Fragile Amastra Snail was found in the vicinity of a freshwater spring near a pipeline trail in Kaunakaki, a place at the southern coast of the Hawaiian island of Moloka’i, as well as some other places further east.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,9 cm in height, they were:

“… thin, fragile, perforate, narrowly ovate-conic, chestnut brown, scarcely shining, very finely, irregularely striate and with larger striae at irregular intervals; commonly dubed with faecal matter and soil.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra grayana (Pfeiffer)

Gray’s Amastra Snail (Amastra grayana)

Gray’s Amastra Snail was described in 1855, it was endemic to the Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, were it was found on the ground of the native forests.

This was a rather large species, its shells reached sizes of up to 2,1 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Hyles hawaiiensis (Rothschild & Jordan)

Hawaiian Sphinx Moth (Hyles hawaiiensis)

The Hawaiian Sphinx Moth was originally thought to be a subspecies of the Maui-nui Sphinx Moth (Hyles calida (Butler)) which itself occurs on the islands of Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu; the population of the island of Kaua’i is now known to constitute another, not yet described, distinct species. [1]

The moth reaches a wingspan of slightly over 6 cm, males and females are superficially identical.

The larvae of these genus were thought to be quite polyphagous, however, it is now known that they feed exclusively on the endemic members of the Coffee family (Rubiaceae) including Bobea spp., Coprosma spp.Gardenia spp.Kadua spp., and Psychotria spp..

***

The Hawaiian Sphinx Moth has not been recorded in recent years and is now believed to be extinct. 

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7; Macrlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Daniel Rubinoff; Michael San Jose; Anna K. Hundsdoerfer: Cryptic diversity in a vagile Hawaiian moth group suggests cmplex factors drive diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 152. 2020

*********************

female

Photo: The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

*********************

edited: 04.11.2020

Amastra tenuilabris Gulick

Pauoa Amastra Snail (Amastra tenuilabris)

The Pauoa Amastra Snail was described in 1873, it comes from the Nu’uanu Valley and the small adjecent Pauoa Valley in the vicinity of the Pu’u Konahuanui in the eastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

Shell dextral, ovate-conic, hardly shining, somewhat roughly striated with growth-lines; white under a fulvous epidermis, which is generally worn off below the suture on the last whorl. Whorls 5 1/2, a little convex. Aperture subquadrate, white, not as long as the spire; peristome thin; columella straight, provided with a small median fold; lips connected by a very thin callus. length 15, diam. 8 mm.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′ 

(public domain)

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edited: 05.10.2020

Amastra porcus Hyatt & Pilsbry

Piglet Amastra Snail (Amastra porcus)

The Piglet Amastra Snail was described in 1911, it was apparently restricted to the Mokuleia Valley in the northernmost part of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the original description.:

A this shell of unusually swollen shape. In contour it is not unlike some of the small, subglobose individuals of A. tristis, such as occur in Moanalua, but it differs by lacking a dark deciduous outer layer of cuticle and in the sculpture of the embryonic whorls, so that the relationship cannot be thought close. its relationships are not clear to us. No other described oahu shell resembles it.” 

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Newcombia sulcata (Pfeifer)

Furrowed Newcombia Snail (Newcombia sulcata

The Furrowed Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, like most of its congeners, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of 1,1 cm in heigth.

***

This species can be confused with no other. the whorls are regularely, obsoletely, transversely striate, increasing in strength to the last whorls and disappear on the lower half of the last whorl. the color is red-brown, becoming more intense with the increase of the whorls, and on the last whorl it is quite shining dark red-brown.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′  

(public domain)

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edited: 16.06.2020

Blackburnia godzilla Liebherr & Porch

Godzilla Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia godzilla)

This species was described in 2015, the species is known from several subfossil remains that had been excavated from the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Godzilla Blackburnia Ground Beetle is the largest species of its genus, it might have reached sizes of over 4 cm. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

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edited: 12.02.2020

Amastra decorticata Gulick

Debarked Amastra Snail (Amastra decorticata)

This species was endemic to the western parts of the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it could be found in the forests under dead leaves.

The shells reached sizes of 1,5 to 1,64 cm in heigth.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra mucronata ssp. mucronata (Newcomb)

Sharp-pointed Amastra Snail (Amastra mucronata ssp. mucronata)

The Sharp-pointed Amastra Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the Halawa-, the Mapulehu-, and the Moakea Valley in the eastern part of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,7 cm in lenght and about 0,9 cm in diameter. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Auriculella crassula Smith

Thick Auriculella Snail (Auriculella crassula)

The Thick Auriculella Snail was described in 1873, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands where it apparently was quite common.

Several varieties are known, of which some were originally described as distinct species.:

This species runs through a number of color varieties, the most common of which is an olive yellow; others have the spire dark, and the suture broadly white-bordered. The white-belted pattern, though it occurs in nearly all the species of this genus, and is fairly common in A. uniplicata, does not seem to be found in this species; at least no specimen of this color variety was found among over 1500 specimens seen, but there is sometimes a brown belt at the periphery. The spire is nearly always darker than the last whorl, and there is usually a broad white band just below the suture.” [1]

The species is now extinct like so many of the terrestrial snail species from the Hawaiian Islands.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916′

(public domain)

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edited: 17.11.2021

Amastra modicella Cooke

Small-sized Amastra Snail (Amastra modicella)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at elevations of 1828 m north-western Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reached average sizes of about 0,96 cm length.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Melicope wailauensis (H. St. John) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Wailau Valley Melicope (Melicope wailauensis 

The Wailau Valley Melicope was obviously restricted to the Kukuinui Ridge in the Wailau Valley on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is considered extinct.

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edited: 03.09.2020