Category Archives: 1.invertebrates

Amphorella leacociana (Lowe)

Ribeira de Joao Gomes Amphorella Snail (Amphorella leacociana)

The Ribeira de Joao Gomes Amphorella Snail was described in 1852; it is known only from a few regions on the island of Madeira, Portugal, where it was found “under stones, very rare“. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 3.7 in height; they were described as follows.:

The shell is very small, oblong-turrite, widest near the base, very thin and fragile, subtransparent, yellowish-corneous, glossy, with a very narrow gray subsutural margin edged below with a light line. The spire has slightly convex outlines and obtuse summit. Whorls 5 1/2 slowly widening to the last which descends more rapidly. The aperture is small, piriform, very narrow above. Outer lip thin, strongly arched forward in the middle, deeply excised or retracted to the suture above. Columella rather wide, projecting into the aperture, truncate at base.” [1]

***

syn. Achatina leacociana Lowe, Ferussacia leacociana (Lowe)

***

This species can also be found named as Amphorella leacockiana (Lowe), which, of course, is wrong.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 19. Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908’

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Volume 19. Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908

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edited: 15.02.2024

Amastra anthonii (Newcomb)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail (Amastra anthonii)

Anthoni’s Amastra Snail was described in 1888, it was endemic to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, however, the exact locality appears to be unknown.

… from the original description.:

Shell conically ovate, solid, blackish-brown, longitudinally striate. Whorls 6, inflated, suture moderately impressed. Apex obtuse. Aperture obliquely ovate, subangulate below. Lip simple, thickened within. Columella short, straight, with a somewhat callous plication below the middle. White-banded below the suture, and of a dirty white in the umbilical region.” [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 1,6 to 1,8 cm in height.

***

syn. Achatinella anthonii Newcomb

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 06.10.2020

Haliclona innominata (Kirkpatrick)

Nameless Sponge (Haliclona innominata)

This species was described and – yes – also named thereby, in 1900; it is only known from the sea surrounding Christmas Island, Australia.

Sponge incrusting; colour pale brown with a faint reddish tinge; texture soft and elastic.

The species has never been found since its description and is now believed to be possibly extinct. [1]

***

syn. Reniera innominata Kirkpatrick

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Depiction from: ‘R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 15.02.2024

Philodoria spilota (Walsingham)

Haleakala Philodora Moth (Philodoria spilota)

This species was described 1907; it is known only from the forested slopes at elevations of about 1530 m above sea level of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 cm; the head and the thorax are brownish fuscous, the abdomen is fuscous; the forewings are bronze fuscous with silvery white spots, the hindwings are brownish fuscous.

The biology and the host plant of this species remain completely unknown.

The unique holotype is a faded, damaged female and not a male as Walsingham stated in his original description. Walsingham said that the type was “injured when being described”. It is badly broken – the hindwings and abdomen are glued to the fore part of the body; the head is badly abraded and glued to the thorax; the left antenna is missing.” [1]

***

syn. Elachista spilota Walsingham

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Leytea leytensis (Pfeiffer)

Fragile Chloraea Snail (Leytea leytensis)

The Fragile Chloraea Snail was described in 1841; it is apparently endemic to the island of Leyte in the Philippines.

The species is thought to be extinct.

***

syn. Chloraea fragilis (Sowerby), Helix leytensis Pfeiffer

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Depiction from: ‘H. Grosse: Note sur l’Helix Leytensis, Pfeiffer, des Philippines. Journal de Conchyliologie. 3e série – Tome XVe. Vol. 23: 133-136. 1875

(public domain)

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edited: 12.02.2024

Aylacostoma guaraniticum (Hylton Scott)

Guaranita Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma guaraniticum)

This species was described in 1954, it inhabited highly oxygenated freshwater habitats near the Yacyretá-Apipé rapids in the high Paraná river at the border area between Argentinia and Paraguay.

It shared this habitat with two other species from the same genus, the Green Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma chloroticum Hylton Scott) and the Stigmated Aylacostoma Snail (Aylacostoma stigmaticum Hylton Scott), all described by the same author at the same time.

The habitat of these three species was destroyed by the building of dams and by the filling of the Yacyretá reservoir in the early 1990s, leading to the extinction of at least two of the three species, including the Guaranita Aylacostoma Snail. [1]

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References:

[1] Roberto E. Vogler; Ariel A. Beltramino; Juana G. Peso; Alejandra Rumi: Threatened gastropods under the evolutionary genetic species concept: redescription and new species of the genus Aylacostoma (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) from High Paraná River (Argentina–Paraguay). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 501-520. 2014

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edited: 24.11.2018

Pararrhaptica chlorippa (Meyrick)

Green Kolea Leafroller (Pararrhaptica chlorippa)

This species was described in 1928; it is only known from the slopes of the Pu’u Ohia (Mt. Olympus) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae are known to feed on the Hawaiian endemic kōlea lau nui (Myrsine lessertiana A. DC.).

The species was last recorded in 1911 and is now believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscoveries and presumed extinctions of Hawaiian leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 55: 11-27. 2023

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edited: 03.12.2023

Dupontia affouchensis Griffiths

L’Affouche Dupontio Snail (Dupontia affouchensis)

This species was described in 2000 on the basis of a single subfossil specimen that had been found in 1997 in limestone scree of the Caverne L’Affouche on the island of Rodrigues; the specimen was found together with the bones of tortoises (Cylindraspis sp.) and the Solitaire (Pezophas solitarius (Gmelin)) which both are now likewise extinct. Additional specimens were subsequently found in other caves in the south-west of Rodrigues.

The shells reach heights of about 0.55 cm; they are depressed, thin and pale glossy white with a thin brown band bordering the suture and continuing on the last whorl just above the rounded periphery.

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References:

[1] Owen Lee Griffiths: Nine new species of Mascarene land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molluscan Research 20(2): 37-50. 2000

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edited: 29.01.2024

Aptostichus lucerne Bond

Deadman’s Trapdoor Spider (Aptostichus lucerne)

The Deadman’s Trapdoor Spider was described in 2012 during a genus revision; it is known only from two male specimens that were collected in 1957 at a place named as Deadman’s Point in the Lucerne Valley in San Bernardino County, California, USA.

The species has never been found since the collection of the type material and is considered probably extinct. [1]

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Photo from: ‘Jason E. Bond: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252: 1-209. 2012’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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References:

[1] Jason E. Bond: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252: 1-209. 2012

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edited: 08.08.2022

Thyrocopa sapindiella Swezey

Aulu Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa sapindiella)

This species was described in 1913; it is known exclusively from specimens that were found in the Niu Valley near the southeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1.8 cm; the head is whitish brown; the thorax and the abdomen are very light whitish brown; the forewings are mainly very light whitish brown with a few brown scales scattered throughout and a very small, faint brownish spot in the cell; the hindwings are very light whitish brown.

The caterpillars are thought to feed on the leaves of the Hawaiian endemic ko’oloa (Abutilon spp.) and āulu (Sapindus spp.).:

The caterpillars were quite numerous on some trees. The small ones feed on the under surface of the leavs [sic], each producing a web covered with frass under which it feeds, eating off the surface of the leaf. The larger ones hide in rolled-together leaves, often several leaves in a bunch fastened together and there may be two or more caterpillars, each in a silken tunnel.

Pupa 9 mm. … The pupa is formed within the spun-together leaves where the caterpillar fed.
” [1]

***

This species is now possibly extinct.

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References: 

[1] O. H. Swezey: One new genus and eighteen new species of Hawaiian moths. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 269-280. 1908-1913
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009 

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edited: 18.02.2024

Hyperaulax ramagei (E. A. Smith)

Ramage’s Noronha Snail (Hyperaulax ramagei)

Ramage’s Noronha Snail was described in 1890; it is only known from the main island of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago offshore north-eastern Brazil, where they were found to be “imbedded in sandy mud on a raised reef and have a semi-fossilized appearance”. [1]

The species must have gone extinct somewhat prior to their description as many specimens appeared quite fresh and still were bearing an intact periostracum (see photo below).

***

The genus contains one additional species, also endemic to the same archipelago, Ridley’s Noronha snail (Hyperaulax ridleyi (E. A. Smith)); this species is still alive today. [2][3]

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Photo from: ‘Rodrigo B. Salvador; Daniel C. Cavallari: Taxonomic revision of the genus Hyperaulax Pilsbry, 1897 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Odontostomidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 95(2): 453-463. 2019’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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References:

[1] H. N. Smith: Mollusca. In: Ridley HN, ed. Notes on the Zoology of Fernando Noronha. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 473-570. 1890
[2] A. V. L. Freitas; M. S. Miranda; f. D. Passos: Land snails of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brazil. American Malacological Bulletin 37: 66-69. 2019
[3] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Daniel C. Cavallari; Carl C. Christensen; André V. L. Freitas; Marcel S. Miranda; Flávio D. Passos: The endemic land snails of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago, Brasil. Tentacle 30: 6-8. 2022

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edited: 22.01.2024

Anoma gossei (Pfeiffer)

Gosse’s Anoma Snail (Anoma gossei)

Gosse’s Anoma Snail was described in 1846, the species is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Jamaica.

The shells are about 1,8 to 2,1 cm heigth, they appear quite thin, have up to 16 whorls and are somewhat translucent bluish white. [1] 

The species is considered probably extinct.

***

syn. Cylindrella gossei Pfeifer, Macroceramus pfeifferi Martens

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Depiction from: ‘Louis Pfeiffer: Die Gattung Cylindrella Pfr.: in Abbildungen nach der Natur. Nürnberg: Verlag von Bauer und Raspe, Julius Merz 1862’

(not in copyright)

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904

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edited: 22.09.2020

Cirrospilus nireus Walker

Saint Helena Eulophid Wasp (Cirrospilus nireus)

This species was described in 1839, it is apparently known only from material that was collected on the island of Saint Helena but was never recorded since. 

It is, however, “a doubtful species, as Francis Walker is well known for re-naming species that had previously been described.” [1]

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References:

[1] James K. Wetterer; Xavier Espadaler; N. Philip Ashmole; Howard Mendel; Chris Cutler; Judith Endeman: Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37. 2007

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edited: 29.05.2021

Nesopupa sp. ‘Majuro’

Majuro Nesopupa Snail (Nesopupa sp.)

This form is known exclusively from a single specimen that was discovered during excavations on the Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

The genus is in need of a revision, and this might have been a widespread species, introduced to the atoll by humans, but it might also have been an endemic, now extinct species and is thus mentioned here. [1] 

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References:

[1] Carl. C. Christensen; Marshall I. Weisler: Land snails from archaeological sites in the Marshall Islands, with remarks on prehistoric translocations in tropical Oceania. Pacific Science 67(1): 81-104. 2013

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edited: 22.04.2019

Heligmonevra insularis Engel

Seychelles Robber Fly (Heligmonevra insularis)

The Seychelles Robber Fly was described in 1927.

The species was endemic to the forested areas of the Seychelles Islands, where it actively hunted for other insects, especially for other fly species.

The species disappeared due to changes in its habitat due to large-scaled deforestation.

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References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Red Listing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phesluma 20: 9-22. 2012

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edited: 25.04.2022

Plectostoma tenggekensis Liew, Vermeulen, Marzuki & Schilthuizen

Tenggek Karst Snail (Plectostoma tenggekensis)

The Tenggek Karst Snail was described in 2014; it is only known from the type locality: Bukit Tenggek in Pahang, central Peninsular Malaysia.

The shells reach sizes of 0.16 to 0.17 cm in height; the apical spire is depressed, the basal spire is conical and the whorl periphery is moderately convex, the umbilicus is open.

The only known locality where this species was known to occur, is now completely destroyed by limestone quarrying.

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Photo from: ‘Thor-Seng Liew; Jaap Jan Vermeulen; Mohammad Effendi bin Marzuki; Menno Schilthuizen: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393: 1-107. 2014’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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References:

[1] Thor-Seng Liew; Jaap Jan Vermeulen; Mohammad Effendi bin Marzuki; Menno Schilthuizen: A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina. ZooKeys 393: 1-107. 2014

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edited: 01.03.2024

Helenoconcha perarmata (Smith)

Well-armed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha perarmata)

The Well-armed Saint Helena Snail was described in 1893; it was restricted to the island of Saint Helena, where it was found on Diana’s Peak, the island’s highest mountain.

The species is apparently known from only two specimens, which differ from each other in the height of their spire; they reach sizes of about 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

This form might be identical with the Six-toothed Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha sexdentata (Smith)), with which it was described. 

As mentioned under that species, the Saint Helena Gastropoda species are in urgent need of a proper revision! 

***

syn. Patula perarmata Smith

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Depiction from: ‘Edgar A. Smith: Descriptions of two new species of Patula from St. Helena. The Conchologist 2(7): 164-165. 1893’

(public domain)

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References:

Edgar A. Smith: Descriptions of two new species of Patula from St. Helena. The Conchologist 2(7): 164-165. 1893

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edited: 30.05.2021

Carposina sp. ‘new species 3’

Oahu Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

This species is basically known only from an account made in 1913 by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey.:

The larvae mine the leaves of Rollandia racemosa [Cyanea humboldtiana (Gaudich.) Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma]. They feed largely in the midrib, following it outwardly, but eat lateral tunnels out into the mesophyll on both sides as they proceed. Usually there is but one larva in a leaf. I have found this in but one locality so far, on Mt. Olympus, Oahu. The leaves of the shrub were very commonly attacked by it. The leaves are quite large and are not entirely killed by the injury, but many may be seen with the injured portion decayed away leaving an irregular hole or space in mid-portion of leaf. The full-grown larva emerges and passes below to pupate in a slight cocoon amongst dead leaves or trash.” [1]

There appears to have also existed at least one specimen, but it seems to have been lost; because no leaf-mining species of that genus is found today in the type locality or on O’ahu, to be precise, this species is considered extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

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edited: 21.01.2022

Xyleborus exsectus Perkins

Cut-off Bark Beetle (Xyleborus exsectus)

The Cut-off Bark beetle was described in 1900; it is known only from some male specimens that were collected on the slopes of the Haleakalā volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is only known from the type series that was collected in 1894 and 1896 respectively, it is possibly extinct.
***

However, it is possible that this taxon is not valid at all and in fact is identical with the Molokai Bark Beetle (Xyleborus molokaiensis Perkins) which is more widespread and of which only female specimens ae known. [1]

Otherwise, there is also the possibility that it might be rediscovered as it has happened with at least two other congeneric species. [2][3]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981
[2] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of an Enigmatic Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Coleopterists Bulletin 72(4): 811-815. 2018
[3] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; David Honsberger; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of the Hawaiian endemic bark beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuleson, 1981 on Moloka‘i, with records of three new exotic bark beetles for the island (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Journal of Natural History 53(23-24): 1481-1490. 2020

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edited: 16.02.2024

Megalomma sp. ‘Rodrigues 1’

Rodrigues Tiger Beetle (Megalomma sp.)

This species is known from subfossil material (at least one prothorax), which shows that the species apparently was shiny coppery-colored in life.

***

The genus Megalomma contains at least six recent species, all endemic to the Mascarene Islands.

***

The photo below shows a closely related species from the nearby island of Mauritius, the Shining Megalomma Tiger Beetle (Megalomma fulgens (W. Horn))

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Shining Megalomma Tiger Beetle (Megalomma fulgens)

Photo: CORDENOS Thierry
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/thierrycordenos
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 06.02.2024

Xyleborus littoralis Perkins

Littoral Bark Beetle (Xyleborus littoralis)

The Littoral Bark Beetle was described in 1900; it is only known from areas at sea level on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last seen in 189, when the type material was collected, it is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981

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edited: 16.02.2024

Mellissius popei Endrödi

Pope’s Scarab Beetle (Mellissius popei)

This species was described in 1972, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species reaches a length of about 1,7 to 1,8 cm; it is mainly brown colored and differs from its close relative, the Eudoxus Scarab Beetle (Mellissius eudoxus Wollaston) in some characters including a less arched pronotum. [1]

The species was apparently not found during the most recent field searches and is probably extinct.

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References:

[1] S. Endrödi: Monographie der Dynastinae (Col. Lamellicornia, Melolonthidae) 4. Tribus: Pentodontini der äthiopischen Region, III. In: Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Frey Tutzing bei München 27: 118-282. 1976

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edited: 26.05.2021

Dreissena elata Andrusov

Triangular Mussel (Dreissena elata)

The Triangular Mussel was described in 1897; the species was endemic to the shores of the Caspian Sea.

Between 1917 and 1919, the Dwarf Mussel was introduced to the Caspian Sea; this invasive species multiplied successfully and replaced the native mussel banks.

The Triangular Mussel was last found alive in 1957, it is now extinct. [1]

***

syn. Dreissena polynorpha var elata Andrusov

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References:

[1] Frank P. Wesselingh; Thomas A. Neubauer; Vitaliy V. Anistratenko; Maxim V. Vinarski; Tamara Yanina; Jan Johan ter Poorten; Pavel Kijashko; Christian Albrecht; Olga Yu. Anistratenko; Anouk D’Hont; Pavel Frolov; Alberto Martínez Gándara; Arjan Gittenberger; Aleksandre Gogaladze; Mikhail Karpinsky; Matteo Lattuada; Luis Popa; Arthur F. Sands; Sabrina van de Velde; Justine Vandendorpe; Thomas Wilke: Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list. ZooKeys 827: 31-124. 2019

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edited: 18.11.2021

Leuctra laura Hitchcock

Hampshire Needlefly (Leuctra laura)

The Hampshire Needlefly was described in 1969; it is known only from two specimens, a male and a female, that were collected on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, USA.

The species might be extinct; however, its taxonomic validity is questioned.

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edited: 17.02.2024

Orobophana berniceia ssp. ‘Wailua’

Wailua Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia ssp.)

This supposed geographical race, or subspecies of the Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceira(Pilsbry & Cooke)) is known from several shells that were found south of the Wailua River at the western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These shells were nearly all of equal size and in average reached sizes of about 0,27 cm in height and 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

The Wailua Orobophana Snail, whatever its taxonomic status might be, is clearly extinct now.

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References:

[1] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 18.05.2019

Amarygmus funebris Arrow

Dark Darkling Beetle (Amarygmus funebris)

The Dark Darkling Beetle was described in 1900 based on nine specimens that had been collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a length of about 0,9 cm; “the colour is black, tinged with a deep purplish or greenish hue, especially upon the head, thorax, and anterior part of the elytra. Some specimens present a slightly sericeous bloom upon the upper surface. Underneath it is a shining black, with the abdominal segment striated longitudinally.” [1]

The Dark Darkling Beetle was not found since the 1930s and is considered very likely extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 27.04.2022

Camponotus fabricator (F. Smith)

Saint Helena Carpenter Ant (Camponotus fabricator)

The Saint Helena Carpenter Ant was described in 1858 on the basis of at least a single worker (?), which was supposedly collected at an unknown date somewhere on the island of Saint Helena.

The species was repeatedly reclassified as a subspecies of other, African or European, species but was finally accepted as being valid in 1914. [1]

***

There are no recent records of this form, and it is believed to be extinct; however, it might in fact not even be native to Saint Helena but might have been an introduced form brought to the island with imported goods. [1]

***

syn. Formica fabricator F. Smith

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References:

[1] James K. Wetterer; Xavier Espadaler; N. Philip Ashmole; Howard Mendel; Chris Cutler; Judith Endeman: Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37. 2007

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edited: 29.05.2021

Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula Cooke

Maunaloa Amastra Snail (Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula)

The Maunaloa Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the northern shore of Molokai’, Hawaiian Islands.

A very few imperfect specimens were found by Pilsbry and Cooke in 1913 at Moomomi where this variety is extremely rare. Further west, especially in the shifting sands, it occurs more abundantly but is not a common species in any locality. it has been found sparingly in all the known fossil deposits from Puukapele west to the shifting sands. This variety is readily separated from the typical form by its less tumid last whorl, more cylindrical form and malleate surface.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height.

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’

Nuku Hiva Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This interesting taxon is known only on the basis of two subfossil remains that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. [1]

Within the Polynesian region, this genus now very likely contains more species known only from subfossil remains than living ones.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

*********************

edited: 20.02.2024

Amastra montivaga Cooke

Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail (Amastra montivaga)

The Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found on the Kalihi Ridge, which is a mountainous region on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

“A. montivaga is undoubtedly a dirivative [sic] of A. textilis. It differs from the latter species by its smaller size, thinner shell, more convex whorls (which are shouldered below), deeper sutures, etc.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of 1,2 to 1,6 cm in height.

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 6’

Maui Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

We know of the former existence of this taxon only by an account made by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey in 1954, mentioned later by Elwood C. Zimmerman.:

Carposina new species 6.
“Heterocrossa sp., near bicincta” Swezey, 1954: 116

Endemic. Maui (Haelaau)
Hostplant: Clermontia kakeana and arborescens. The larvae mine the leaves.
” [1]

The specimen or specimens that were reared from the caterpillars collected from its host plants are now apparently lost; the species was never recorded again and is thus considered extinct. 

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

*********************

edited: 21.01.2022

Miocalles sp. ‘Nuku Hiva1’

Nukuhiva Miocalles Weevil (Miocalles sp.)

The genus is occurring in French Polynesia with more than 100 species, all of which are endemic to a single island; however, only three of them are found on the Marquesan Islands. This number must once have been larger as being indicated by subfossil findings.

This taxon is one of two that are known from subfossil remains (two in that case) that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

*********************

edited: 20.02.2024

Laemophloeidae gen. & sp. ‘Nuku Hiva 1’

Nuku Hiva Lined Flat Bark Beetle (Laemophloeidae gen. & sp.)

This taxon is known from subfossil material that was recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.

Today, no indigenous member of this family is known to inhabit the Marquesas; however, two genera with one species each are known to be indigenous to the Society Islands which represents the geographically closest region in French Polynesia.

*********************

left elytron

Photo from: ‘Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

*********************  

References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

*********************

edited: 27.01.2024

Orobophana juddii (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana juddii)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found in sand dunes on the beaches in the Koloa District in southern Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were semiglobose with a flattened base and a rounded periphery, they reached sizes of about 0,42 cm in height and 0,46 cm in diameter, the original colors are not preserved. [1]

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

***

syn. Helicina juddii Pilsbry & Cooke

*********************

Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Amastra seminigra Hyatt & Pilsbry

Coal-black Amastra Snail (Amastra seminigra)

The Coal-black Amastra Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the vicinity of Wahiawa and Waimano near Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

It was a quite large species whose shells reached heights of up to 2,12 cm.

The species is very similar to the Sorrowful Amastra Snail (Amastra tristis (Férussac)) and differs from that species only by its narrower shape at all stages of growth.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 05.10.2020

Orobophana cookei Neal

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana cookei)

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1934, it was apparently restricted to a cliff on the west side of the beautiful and often photographed Kalalau Valley on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this quite large species reach sizes of about 0,56 cm in height and 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

***

Since all Kauaian helicinid snails are now thought to be extinct altogether, this species must be considered extinct too. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. baldwiniana Cooke

Lanai Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. lanaiensis)

This form, described in 1920, was restricted to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Specimens from West Maui agree very closely with the type form in shape, color, etc., but are slightly smaller. They differ mainly in that the embryonic whorls are much more finely striate spirally, and in the presence of a minute basal fold and the more axially seated columellar fold. There are usually about two more ribs on the last whorl, which is furnished with from 15 to 17. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5, apert. 1.0 mm.; 51/4 whorls.

From L. r. lanaiensis it is separated by its more convex and swollen whorls, lighter color and much more finely spirally striate embryonic whorls.
” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Pseudolibera solemi Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Solem’s Pseudolibera Snail (Pseudolibera solemi)

Solem’s Pseudolibera Snail was described in 2014 based on subfossil shells, it was endemic to the raised coral island Makatea in French Polynesia.

The shells reach sizes of less than 0,8 cm in diameter, they are depressed to subdepressed, dome-shaped to trigonal, they are white with regularly spaced and bear amber-colored flammulations on the periphery. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. F. Sartori; O. Gargominy; B. Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1): 1–68. 2014

*********************

edited: 13.06.2020

Trachycystis rariplicata (Pfeiffer)

Greenpoint Snail (Trachycystis rariplicata)

The Greenpoint Snail, described in 1849, is known exclusively from Green Point, today a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa.

This species is now extinct, and its extinction is sometimes attributed to the introduction of an invasive Mediterranean snail species, the Mediterranean Coastal Snail (Theba pisana (Müller)), which is now very abundant in that region. However, the true reasons for its disappearance are rather found in the massive habitat destruction by swamp drainage, building of sports fields, houses and other extensive transformations.

***

syn. Helix rariplicata Pfeiffer, Pella rariplicata (Pfeiffer)


*********************

edited: 22.08.2022

Zebina acicula Laseron

Needle-like Zebina Snail (Zebina acicula)

The Needle-like Zebina Snail was described in 1956; it is restricted to the sea around Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916, when the type material was collected.

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Sinployea sp. ‘Bora Bora’

Bora Bora Sinployea Snail (Sinployea sp.)

This species, which has not been described so far, is known on the basis of a single subadult specimen that was found on the slopes of a mountain ridge on the island of Bora Bora, Society Islands.

This form might well be extinct now.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Justin Gerlach: Land and Freshwater Snails of Tahiti and the other Society Islands. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge 2017

*********************

edited: 02.08.2022

Tarphiophasis wollastoni Ardoin

Wollaston’s Darkling Beetle (Tarphiophasis wollastoni)

Wollaston’s Darkling Beetle was described in 1972, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species was apparently not found during recent field searches and might be extinct, I could, however, not find any further information about this species so far.

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Amastra ricei ssp. armillata Cooke

Milolii Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei ssp. armillata)

The Milolii Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on two (sub)fossil specimens that had been collected from the Miloli’i beach at the north-western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, from deposits that might be of late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

This form may in fact not be different from the typical species.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Sulcospira pisum (Brot)

Pea-shaped Sulcospira Snail (Sulcospira pisum)

The Pea-shaped Sulcospira Snail was described in 1868, it was endemic to the island of Java, Indonesia, an exact locality, however, is not known.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height, they are dark chestnut or olive-brown, sometimes with darker vertical flames, their apex is always truncated with less than three remaining whorls and sculptured only with growth lines. [1]

***

syn. Balanocochlis gland (Brot), Balanocochlis pisum (Brot), Melania pisum Brot

*********************

References:

[1] Ristiyanti M. Marwoto; Nur R. Isnaningsih: The freshwater snail genus Sulcospira Troschel, 1857 from Java, with description of a new species from Tasikmalaya, west Java, Indonesia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pachychilidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60(1): 1-10. 2012

*********************

edited: 02.05.2019

Bitoma sp. ‘Rimatara’

Rimataran Bark Beetle (Bitoma sp.)

This up to now undescribed form is known only from subfossil remains, including at least one pronotum and one elytron, that were found on the island of Rimatara in the Austral Islands.

The species had a dark ochre ground color, the elytra were decorated with a pattern of very dark brown square-shaped spots that melted into a complete brown-colored outer margin.

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa (Powell)

Van Diemen Flax Snail (Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. priscus)

The Van Diemen Flax snail was described in 1938 based on subfossil specimens.

This form is known from several disjunct populations: “Cape Maria van Diemen (Mainland) about three-quarters of a mile east of worthyi type locality in consolidated dunes (type); many former colonies on south and eastern slopes of Herangi, – 700 feet, down to Te Werahi Stream and Swamp; Twilight Beach between Cape Maria van Diemen and Scott’s Point …; one mile south of Te Paki Stream and one-quarter mile inland in consolidated dunes ….” [1]

Like most other now extinct populations, also this one died out at the end of the Pleistocene/beginning of the Holocene caused by natural reasons.

***

The photo below is thought to show this form.

***

syn. Placostylus ambagiosus ssp. priscus (Powell)

*********************

Photo: Andrew Spurgeon
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/indeynz
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] A. W. B. Powell: On further colonies of Placostylus land snails from northernmost New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 4(2): 134-140. 1951

*********************

edited: 06.02.2024

Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula Cooke

Kaupulehu Amastra Snail (Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula)

The Kaupulehu Amastra Snail, described in 1917, is known from subfossil material that was found at Ka’ūpūlehu at elevations of about 5500 m above sea level in northern Kona on the island of Hawai’i.

This species is very common in its fossil state along the government road between Waimea and North Kona. A number of the specimens have such a fresh appearence [sic] that it does not seem possible that they have been very long dead. Most of the specimens were found in earth under lava blocks. It differs principally from A. ultima by its larger size and less convex whorls. This varietly differs from typical A. umbilicata morticina not only by its larger umbilicus but also by its proportionally wider and larger aperture which is not distinctly angled below, and is much less developed columellar fold.” [1]

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Succinea papillata Pfeiffer

Papillary Amber Snail (Succinea papillata)

The Papillary Amber Snail was described in 1850.

The species was endemic to the island of Ra’iatea, Society Islands, where it was apparently already quite uncommon when it was discovered and described, it is now entirely extinct.

***

syn. Succinea labiata Pease

*********************

References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Land and Freshwater Snails of Tahiti and the other Society Islands. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge 2017

*********************

edited: 26.11.2018

Amastra johnsoni Hyatt & Pilsbry

Johnson’s Amastra Snail (Amastra johnsoni)

Johnson’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911; it was found in Wailuku in the northeastern part of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach heights of about 1,1 cm; they are nearly imperforate, oblong-conic, rather thin and somewhat glossy, the outlines of the spire are straight above, a little convex below and the whorls nearly flat, they are brown with the last whorl being partially covered with a thin, darker cuticle that has some darker and lighter streaks but no oblique or angular markings. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Patellapis binghami (Kirby)

Bingham’s Sweat Bee (Patellapis binghami)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The bee reached a length of about 5.5 cm and a wingspan of about 1.1 cm; the head and the thorax are glossy black, sometimes with a very faint greenish tint, very finely punctured; the abdomen is shining black; the wings are iridescent hyaline with an yellowish-brown neuration. [1]

Bingham’s Sweat Bee was last recorded in 1968; it was never found despite considerable dedicated efforts. [2]

***

syn. Halictus binghami Kirby

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 13.02.2024

Choreutis ornaticornis (Walsingham)

(Choreutis ornaticornis)

This species was described in 1900 based on ten specimens; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The head is brownish ochreous, mixed with pale cinerous; the thorax is brownish ochreous, becoming dark brownish grey posteriorly; the abdomen is bronzy brownish; the forewings are olivaceous brownish, with two narrow transverse bands of pale cinereous speckling between the base and the middle; the hind wings are dark bronzy brownish, with some faint pale curved streaks running through them before the margin, the underside with two speckled pale cinereous bands.

The species was never found since and is most likely extinct.

***

syn. Simaethis ornaticornis Walsingham

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 05.01.2024

Tsoukatosia evauemgei Reischütz, Reischütz & Reischütz

EVMG Door Snail (Tsoukatosia evauemgei)  

The EVMG Door Snail (so named after the “Erste Voralberger Malakologische Gesellschaft”) was described in 2012 on the basis of a single subfossil shell that had been found in 2000 in a rubble heap on the Peloponnese in Greece.

The species can be distinguished from its congeners in that the lower lamella is only visible as a straight edge when looking at the mouth at a certain angle.

The shell reaches a height of about 0.98 cm; it is dextral, club-shaped, thin and yellowish white colored.

The EVMG Door Snail may be a cave-dwelling species, and the sole found specimen might be an example that was washed out into the open by the rain. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Alexander Reischütz; Nicole Reischütz; Peter L. Reischütz: Helleniká pantoía, 33. Tsoukatosia evauemgei nov. spec. (Clausiliidae: Pulmonata). Nachrichtenblatt der Ersten Voralberger Malakologischen Gesellschaft 19: 19-20. 2012

*********************

edited: 12.02.2024

Endodonta sp. ‘Barbers Point’

Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail (Endodonta sp.)

The Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail is an undescribed species that is known exclusively from subfossil specimens that had been recovered from coastal deposits at Kalaeloa (Barber’s Point) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Turricaspia obventicia (Anistratenko in Anistratenko & Prisyazhniuk)

Kiliya Freshwater Snail (Turricaspia obventicia)

This species was descried in 1992; it is known only from the type that was collected from Holocene deposits near the city of Kiliya in the Odessa Region of the Ukraine.

The species most likely died out for natural reasons. [1]

***

syn. Caspia obventicia Anistratenko in Anistratenko & Prisyazhniuk

*********************

References:

[1] Frank P. Wesselingh; Thomas A. Neubauer; Vitaliy V. Anistratenko; Maxim V. Vinarski; Tamara Yanina; Jan Johan ter Poorten; Pavel Kijashko; Christian Albrecht; Olga Yu. Anistratenko; Anouk D’Hont; Pavel Frolov; Alberto Martínez Gándara; Arjan Gittenberger; Aleksandre Gogaladze; Mikhail Karpinsky; Matteo Lattuada; Luis Popa; Arthur F. Sands; Sabrina van de Velde; Justine Vandendorpe; Thomas Wilke: Mollusc species from the Pontocaspian region – an expert opinion list. ZooKeys 827: 31-124. 2019

*********************

edited: 18.11.2021

Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa (Powell)

Hinemoa Flax Snail (Maoristylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa)

The Hinemoa Flax snail was described in 1947 based on subfossil specimens.

This form was apparently restricted to Cape Maria van Diemen, the westernmost point of New Zealand’s North Island; however, the taxon’s author says: “Restricted to the Island.” [1], thus it appears that this form was probably restricted to the northernmost part of the cape, which is an island that is now joined to the rest of the area by drifting sand.

Again, this is very likely a case of natural extinction due to changes in climate at the end of the Pleistocene.

***

syn. Placostylus ambagiosus ssp. hinemoa Powell

*********************

References:

[1] A. W. B. Powell: On further colonies of Placostylus land snails from northernmost New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 4(2): 134-140. 1951

*********************

edited: 06.02.2024

Trechus torretassoi Jeannel

Torretasso’s Ground Beetle (Trechus torretassoi)

Torretasso’s Ground Beetle was described in 1937, the species was endemic to the island of São Miguel in the Azores, where it obviously inhabited the margins of two large lakes.

The species reached a size of about 0,3 cm in length and was dark colored. [1]

Torretasso’s Ground Beetle was last seen in 1985, it was never found again since, despite several collecting efforts. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] P. A. V. Borges; A. R. M. Serrano; I. R. Amorim: New species of cave-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae) from the Azores. Journal of Natural History 38: 1303-1313. 2004
[2] Paulo A. V. Borges; Pedro Oromí; Artur R. M. Serrano; Isabel R. Amorim; Fernando Pereira: Biodiversity patterns of cavernicolous ground-beetles and their conservation status in the Azores, with the description of a new species: Trechus isabelae n. sp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae). Zootaxa 1478: 21-31. 2007

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Tylos nudulus Budde-Lund

Naked Beach Pillbug (Tylos nudulus)

The Naked Beach Pillbug was described in 1906; it is known only from the beaches of Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species has never been found since its description and appears to be extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Argynnis nokomis ssp. wenona Dos Passos & Grey

Wenona Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis ssp. wenona)

The Wenona Fritillary was described in 1945 as a subspecies of the Nokomis Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis (W. H. Edwards)); it was restricted to Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico

The form was last recorded sometimes during the 1970s and is now considered most likely extinct. [1]

***

The photo below shows another subspecies of that species, the Bluish Nokomis Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis ssp. coerulescens W. Holland), which occurs in parts of Mexico as well as in the southern USA.

***

syn. Speyeria nokomis ssp. wenona Dos Passos & Grey

*********************

Bluish Nokomis Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis ssp. coerulescens)

Photo: Javier Cruz Nieto
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/lorospericos
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Gerald Selby: Great Basin Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria nokomis nokomis [W. H. Edwards]): a technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region 2007

*********************

edited: 13.09.2019

Philonesia arenofunus H. B. Baker

Koloa Philonesia Snail (Philonesia arenofunus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names: –

***

This species is one of several that are known from subfossil or even fossil specimens alone; in this case they were recovered from sand dunes near Aweoweonui near the south-eastern coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

*********************  

References:  

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific islands – part 2: Hawaiian genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 165: 105-223. 1940

*********************  

edited: 15.07.2022

Sinployea titikaveka Brook

Titikaveka Sinployea Snail (Sinployea titikaveka)

The Titikaveka Sinployea Snail was described in 2010; it is known only from subfossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of Rarotonga in the Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of only up to 0,16 cm in diameter.

*********************

References:  

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

*********************

edited: 02.08.2022

Lobogestoria sp. ‘Samoa’

Samoan Lobogestoria Beetle (Lobogestoria sp.)

This unnamed species is known so far only from subfossil remains recovered by Nick Porch from samplings from the Samoan Islands.

***

I do not know if this species is indeed extinct, but given the rather bad condition of the lowland areas of the larger Samoan Islands, it quite possibly is.

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Homoeodera edithia Wollaston

Edith’s Fungus Beetle (Homoeodera edithia)

Edith’s Fungus Beetle was described in 1877, the author named it in honour of his wife.: 

The only example of this most remarkable Homoeodera which I have yet seen was captured by Mrs. Wollaston (after whom I have named the species) in the rotten trunk of a dead Buddleia madagascariensis, Vahl, immediately below Actaeon and Diana’s-Peak ridge, close to a spot called Newfoundland. It is evidently one of the rarest of the St.-Helena Coleoptera; for, in spite of constant researches at the very same tree, we were quite unable to procure a second specimen.” [1]

***

The species was commonly found during field surveys in 1965/66 but could not be traced in 2005/06, it may already be extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877 
[2] Howard Mendel; Philip Ashmole; Myrtle Ashmole: Invertebrates of the Central Peaks and Peak Dale, St. Helena. Report for the St Helena National Trust, Jamestown 2008

*********************

edited: 02.12.2018

Australdonta tubuaiana Solem

Tubuai Australdonta Snail (Australdonta tubuaiana)

The Tubuai Australdonta Snail was described in 1976; it is known only from subfossil specimens that were found in the western parts of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 0.42 to 0.5 cm; they are light yellowish white with broad reddish flammulations that fade out on the shell’s base.

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

*********************

edited: 18.02.2024

Melanoplus ligneolus Scudder

Firewood Spur-throated Grasshopper (Melanoplus ligneolus)

The Firewood Spur-throated Grasshopper was described in 1899 based on specimens that had been collected near the cities of Benicia and Berkely in Solano – and Alameda County of California / USA respectively.

The males reached sizes of about 1,7 cm long, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were yellowish light-brown colored.

The species is considered possibly extinct without any reasons for this assumption being mentioned.

********************

Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

********************

References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899′

********************

edited: 31.08.2019

Coilostele acus (Pfeiffer)

(Coilostele acus)

This species was described in 1854, the type material, however, was apparently lost during World War II, thus the taxonomic validity of this taxon is unclear.:

Taxonomic issues arose concerning two species when they were submitted to experts, although they had never been reported as nonvalid species in the scientific literature; because their taxonomic status is unclear (the biological species designated by their names are unknown), they were classified as impossible to assess. However, due to this taxonomic uncertainty, no data are available apart from their original 19th-century descriptions, and the model evaluates them as extinct. These taxa are Coilostele acus and Perrottetia piriformis.” [1]

***

It is quite unlikely that this taxon is indeed extinct, it is most likely synonymous with some of the other species described in that genus. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Claire Régnier; Guillaume Achaz; Amaury Lambert; Robert H. Cowie; Philippe Bouchet; Benoît Fontaine: Mass extinction in poorly known taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1-6. 2015
[2] A. Martínez-Ortí; M. Prieto; F. Uribe: Addendum to the type catalogue of the malacological collection in the Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona. Arxius de Miscel.lània Zoològica 16.2018

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Proterhinus sp. ‘Mo’orea’

Moorean Proterhinus Weevil (Proterhinus sp.)

This species, which has not yet been described, is known from subfossil remains (at least one pronotum) that were collected on the island of Mo’orea, Society Islands.

***

The genus Proterhinus occurs on some of the islands in the tropical Pacific, with a strinking radiation of more than 130 species inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands alone.

*********************

References:

[1] Jennifer G. Kahn, Cordelia Nickelsen, Janelle Stevenson, Nick Porch, Emilie Dotte-Sarout, Carl C. Christensen, Lauren May, J. Stephen Athens, Patrick V. Kirch: Mid- to late Holocene landscape change and anthropogenic transformations on Mo’orea, Society Islands: A multi-proxy approach. The Holocene 25(2): 1-15. 2014

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Parnassius apollo ssp. ancile Fruhstorfer

Fichtel Mountain (Parnassius apollo ssp. ancile)

This form was described in 1909, apparently already after its extinction; it was restricted to a small region around the city of Bad Berneck in the Franconian part of the Fichtel Mountains.

The reasons for its disappearance are very well known.:

P. apollo ancile Fruhst, von Berneck im Fichtelgebirge hat leider dasselbe tragische Schicksal wie P. apollo posthumus erreicht. An der einzigen Stelle des Fichtelgebirges, wo ancile vorkam, wurde er nach freundl. brieflichen Mitteilungen des Herrn Lehrers Poehlmann in Röhrenhof, Oberfranken, durch „brutales Wegfangen seitens der Sommerfrischler, noch mehr aber durch die Dummheit einer Gärtnersfrau, völlig ausgerottet. Letztere ließ die ancile durch Kinder einfangen, um die apollo den abreisenden Kurgästen auf das übliche Blumenbuket (noch dazu häufig lebend!) zu stecken. 1909 wurde das letzte Stück beobachtet. Ein bezirksamtliches Fangverbot kam zu spät, es gab nichts mehr zu schützen.” [1]

translation:

P. apollo ancile Fruhst, from Berneck in the Fichtel mountains unfortunately met the same tragic fate as P. apollo posthumus. In the only place in the Fichtel Mountains where ancile occurred, it was found, according to a friendly written message by the teacher Poehlmann in Hülsenhof, Upper Franconia, completely eradicated by “brutal capture by the summer visitors, but even more so by the stupidity of a gardener’s wife. The latter had the ancile captured by children in order to pin the apollo on the usual bouquet of flowers (and often alive!) for the departing spa guests. The last specimen was observed in 1909. A district official catching ban came too late; there was nothing left to protect.”

*********************

unspecified subspecies

Depiction from: ‘Jacob Hübner: Das kleine Schmetterlingsbuch: Die Tagfalter, Insel-Bücherei Nr. 213. 1934’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] H. Fruhstorfer: Neue und seltene Parnassius-Rassen. Entomologischer Anzeiger 3(11): 131-133. 1923

*********************

edited: 10.01.2024

Anoma adamsi Pilsbry

Adams’ Anoma Snail (Anoma adamsi)

Adams’ Anoma Snail was described in 1903, the species is, or maybe was, restricted to a small area near Ulster Spring, a settlement in the Trelawny Parish in the northwest of Jamaica.

Surface is glossy, very finely striate throughout; the last third of the last whorl becoming more coarsely rib-striate. Bluish-milky, touched with light brown at the summit; the base, back of the lip and adjecent surface, brownish-fleshy. The keel, a subsutural line on the last whorl, and a wide arcuate stripe (behind the fleshy lip-stripe) are opaque-white; and behind the white stripe there is a second fleshy-brown oblique area, fading on its right side into the blue-white ground-color. These colors show within the mouth. The well-expanded lip is flesh-pink and but slightly thickened, somewhat sinuous, and a little retracted at both ends. Columnella distinctly truncate in oblique view. Length 19.3, diam. 5, length of aperture 4,6 mm., whorls 10.” [1]

The species was not found during recent surveys and might be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 16: Urocoptidae, Achatinidae. 1904
[2] Gary Rosenberg; Igor Muratov: Status Report on the Terrestrial Mollusca of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 155: 117-161. 2006

*********************

edited: 22.09.2020

Philodoria pipturicola Swezey

Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria pipturicola)

The Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth was described in 1915; it is known only from the region around Punalu’u near the northeast shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has a wingspan of about 0,6 to 0,7 cm; the head is grayish fuscous, the thorax is slate gray fuscous colored, the abdomen is dark fuscous; the forewings are fuscous suffused with orange patches and some white bands, the hindwings are dark fuscous.

This is one of the species that was reared from mines, thus its host plant is established as the endemic māmaki (Pipturus sp.); the mine is a serpentine at the beginning and later becomes a blotch, the larva emerges from the mine to spin a light brown cocoon on some matching surface.

***

The species was also recorded from Maui, these records however, were misidentifications with another species, the Haelaau Philodoria Moth (Philodoria haelaauensis Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara). [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Melanopsis germaini Pallary

Germain’s Melanopsis Spring Snail (Melanopsis germaini)

Germain’s Melanopsis Spring Snail was described in 1939; the species is known only from its type localities: the small rivers Nahr as Sinnah and Nahr az Zayrūd between the cities of Baniyas and Jableh on the Syrian coast to the Mediterranean Sea. [1]

Only the lower parts of these rivers still contain water, which is heavily polluted, thus the snail’s habitat appears to be lost now.

Germain’s Melanopsis Spring Snail was last recorded in 1955, it is now probably extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Joseph Heller; Peter Mordan; Frida Ben-Ami; Naomi Sivan: Conchometrics, systematics and distribution of Melanopsis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Levant. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 229-260. 2005

*********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Trechus satanicus Barr

Satanic Ground Beetle (Trechus satanicus)

The Satanic Ground Beetle was described in 1962, it was apparently restricted to a place named Graveyard Fields in Haywood County, North Carolina, USA.

The beetle reached a size of about 0,36 cm in length.

The species is considered likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Wollastonia inexpectata De Mattia & Groh

Unexpected Wollastonia Snail (Wollastonia inexpectata)

This species was described in 2018 during a genus-group revision; it is known only from subfossil material which was collected from near the northern shore of Porto Santa.

The species apparently was already extinct when before the island was scientifically explored. [1]

*********************

Photo from: ‘Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Tenebroides rimatara Kolibáč & Porch

Rimatara Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides rimatara)

This species was described in 2020 on the basis of subfossil remains, ncluding an articulated head and prothorax as well as at least three elytra, that were recovered from sediment cores that had been obtained on the island of Rimatara in the Austral Islands.

The remains can be dates to an age of about 4500 to 3500 BP.. 

the Rimatara Bark-gnawing Beetle reached a size of about 0,48 cm in length, it appears to have been dark brown in color. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Antilissus sp. ‘Mo’orea’

Moorea Bark Beetle (Antilissus sp.)

This taxon, which has not yet been formally described, is known from subfossil remains (at least one pronotum) found on the island of Mo’orea, Society Islands. [1]


The genus is today known only from the Hawaiian Islands and does only contain a single surviving species. 

*********************

References:

[1] Jennifer G. Kahn, Cordelia Nickelsen, Janelle Stevenson, Nick Porch, Emilie Dotte-Sarout, Carl C. Christensen, Lauren May, J. Stephen Athens, Patrick V. Kirch: Mid- to late Holocene landscape change and anthropogenic transformations on Mo‘orea, Society Islands: A multi-proxy approach. The Holocene 1-15. 2014

*********************

edited: 24.10.2020

Helenoconcha minutissima (Smith)

Dwarf Saint Helena Snail (Helenoconcha minutissima)

The Dwarf Saint Helena Snail was described in 1892 on the basis of subfossil shells that were found at Sugarloaf Ridge on the island of Saint Helena.

The following text is a sentence from the species’ description.:

This species is smaller than P. polyodon, more narrowly umbilicated, has fewer whorls, coarser and more remote striae, and a different armature within the aperture. In full-grown shells there are as many as six parietal lirae, as it were, in two groups of three. They are very fine and extend a long way within. The plicae within the outer lip var apparently from seven to eight to ten or eleven, and some of them are more prominent than others. The red markings take the form of radiating blotches on the upper surface, and more undulating or zigzag streaks beneath.” [2]

***

syn. Patula minutissima Smith

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 8, Helicidae Vol. 6. 1892’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Edgar A. Smith: On the land-shells of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1892: 258-270

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Glyphyalinia floridana (Morrison)

Ocala Glossy Snail (Glyphyalinia floridana)

The Ocala Glossy Snail, described in 1937, is only known from subfossil shells that had been found in crevices of limestone rock near the town of Ocala in Marion County, Florida.

The many specimens in the original lot … are all dead shells, weathered to a chalky appearance. It appears unlikely that this species is Pleistocene as doubtfully noted by the collector. It may, however, be extinct at the present time.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.45 cm in diameter; they were described as follows: 

Shell of five whorls, possessing the characteristic sculpture of the subgenus, with regularly and closely spaced major growth wrinkles, of about the size of R. roemeri, but with the base of the body whorl more deeply rounded near the umbilicus, which has consequently steeper walls. The spire is regularly depressed-conic, but constantly higher, as is the body whorl, than in the specimens of roemeri seen. The aperture is roundly lunate, widest below the middle; peristome more sharply rounded at the periphery and in the columellar region. Umbilicus deep, steep-walled; contained about four times in the major diameter of the shell.” [1]

***

syn. Retinella floridana Morrison

*********************

Photo from: ‘J. P. E. Morrison: Five new North American Zonitids. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 50: 55-60. 1937’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

References:

[1] J. P. E. Morrison: Five new North American Zonitids. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 50: 55-60. 1937

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Blackburnia sharpi (Blackburn)

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia sharpi)

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was apparently restricted to the endemic koa forests that in former times covered large areas but are now almost completely lost due to logging as well as compacting of the soil due to trampling by invasive cattle. [1]

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was not found during recent surveys and is most likely already extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] James K. Liebherr: The mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation. Zookeys 544: 1-407. 2015

*********************

edited: 02.09.2019

Trechus mitchellensis Barr

Mitchell’s Ground Beetle (Trechus mitchellensis)

Mitchell’s Ground Beetle was described in 1962, this species is known from at least three localities in the Black Mountains in Yancey County in North Carolina, USA.

The species reached a size of 0,36 to 0,42 cm in length. [1]

The species is considered likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Biantes parvulus (Hirst)

Small Seychelles Harvestman (Biantes parvulus)

The Small Seychelles Harvestman was described in 1911; it is known to have inhabited the islands of Mahé, Praslin and Silhoutette in the Seychelles archipelago.

The species has a body length of about 0.6 cm (including the palpi); it is dark brown; the distal ends of the tibiae of the second- and fourth legs are white; the distal tarsal segment of the third and the distal end of the metatarsus and the tarsal segments of the fourth are also pale-colored; the remaining segments of the legs being dark brown in color. [1]

The Small Seychelles Harvestman was only ever found once on Praslin in 1908 and was last recorded from Mahé and Silhouette in 1972; it has never been found since and is likely extinct now.

***

syn. Hinzuanius parvulus Hirst

*********************

palp from the inner side

Depiction from: ‘ S. Hirst: The Araneae, Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A. Vol 3. No. XVIII. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Vol. 14. Zoology.: 379-395. 1910-1912’

(not in copyright)

*********************

References:

[1] S. Hirst: The Araneae, Opiliones and Pseudoscorpiones. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner, M.A. Vol 3. No. XVIII. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Vol. 14. Zoology.: 379-395. 1910-1912

*********************

edited: 28.02.2024

Dyris amazonicus (Haas)

(Dyris amazonicus)

This species was described in 1949; it is known from only five specimens that were collected in the lower part of the Tapajos River near Belterra in the state of Pará, Brazil.

The species is only known from empty shells, life individuals were never found; it was furthermore never found since its description and appears to be extinct now.

*********************  

References:  

[1] F. P. Wesselingh: On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae). Basteria 64: 129-136. 2000

*********************

edited: 29.01.2024

Helenomelas basilewskyi Ardoin

Basilewsky’s Darkling Beetle (Helenomelas basilewskyi)

This species is/was endmic to the island of Saint Helena in the southern Atlantic Ocean, where it was apparently restricted to the Prosperous Bay Plain at the eastern coast of the island.

The quite large species reaches a length of about 1,5 cm and is shiny black colored, it superficially resembles scarabeid beetles (Scarabeidae).

Basilewsky’s Darkling Beetle was not found during recent searches in 2003 and is feared to be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Philip Ashmole; Myrtle Ashmole: Guide to Invertebrates of Prosperous Bay Plain, St Helena and illustrated account of species found on the Eastern Arid Area (EAA), including Prosperous Bay Plain, Holdfast Tom and Horse Point Plain. Report for St Helena Government 2004

*********************

edited: 02.12.2018

Bitoma sp. ‘Tubuai’

Tubuaian Bark Beetle (Bitoma sp.)

 

This form has up to now not been described, it is known only from subfossil remains, including at least one pronotum and one elytron.

The pronotum was dark reddish brown colored while the elytra had a very light, almost whitish ground color and were decorated with about seven, square-shaped, dark brown spots that formed a bark-like pattern.

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Wollastonia falknerorum Groh, Neiber & De Mattia

Falkner’s Wollastonia Snail (Wollastonia falknerorum)

 

This species was described in 2018; it is known only from subfossil shells that were found in deposits near the south-eastern shores of Porto Santo, Madeira.

The species disappeared before the scientific exploration of the island. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018

*********************

Photo from: ‘Willy De Mattia; Marco T. Neiber; Klaus Groh: Revision of the genus-group Hystricella R. T. Lowe, 1855 from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago), with descriptions of new recent and fossil taxa (Gastropoda, Helicoidea, Geometridae). ZooKeys 732: 1-125. 2018’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Batocnema coquereli ssp. aldabrensis Aurivillius

Aldabra Sphinx Moth (Batocnema coquereli ssp. aldabrensis)

Coquerel’s Sphinx Moth is divided into five subspecies of which two are confined to Madagascar while the other three occur on the island groups to the north of Madagascar.

The Aldabra atoll was inhabited by an endemic form, the Aldabra Sphinx Moth, which was described in 1909 and which is said to have been quite similar to the nominate form (see photo).

This form is now considered extinct, the reasons appear not to be known.

*********************

nominate race

Photo: alcedo77
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/alcedo77
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Pat Matyot: The hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Seychelles: identification, historical background, distribution, food plants and ecological considerations. Phelsuma 13. 55-80. 2005
[2] Justin Gerlach: Red Listing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phelsuma 20: 9-22. 2012

*********************

edited: 04.01.2023

Pseudolibera aubertdelaruei Sartori, Gargominy & Fontaine

Aubert de la Rüe’ Pseudolibera Snail (Pseudolibera aubertdelaruei)

Aubert de la Rüe’ Pseudolibera Snail was described in 2014, it is known from only three specimens which were collected in 1955 by E. Aubert de la Rüe on the island of makatea in the Tuamotu Archipelago.

The shells reach sizes of less than 0,6 cm in diameter, they are white, depressed and decorated with flammulations, the apex is flat, the spire elevated, the peripheral keel is very short. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. F. Sartori; O. Gargominy; B. Fontaine: Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1): 1–68. 2014

*********************

edited: 13.06.2020

Staphylinidae gen. & sp. ‘Austral Islands’

Austral islands Rove Beetle(s) (Staphylinidae gen. & sp.)

The rove beetles (Staphylinidae) contain about 63000 species, making it one of the largest families in the animal kingdom, several new species are being described every year.

So, it is no wonder that this family also contains countless extinct forms – at least 18 are known from subfossil remains found on the Austral Islands so far.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Acanthomerus asperatus Wollaston

Rough Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus asperatus)

The Rough Saint Helena Weevil was described in 1877, as its name implies, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The species seems to have been adapted to the likewise endemic Scrubwood (Commidendrum rugosum (Dryand) DC.), and was apparently already very rare when it was discovered.:

I have seen hitherto but a single example of this curious and well-marked Acanthomerus, – which was taken by Mr. P. Whitehead, amongst the viscous shrubs of the scrubwood (or Aster glutinosus, Hk. f.) [Commidendrum rugosum], on the Barn. It must be regarded therefore as a scrubwood species; and I may add that there are few members of the scrubwood fauna (as yet brought to light) which are more interesting than the A. asperatus.

***

The Rough Saint Helena Weevil was not found during the most recent field surveys and might well be extinct.

***

The depiction below shows the closely related Boring Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus terebrans Wollaston).

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

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Boring Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus terebrans)

Depiction from: ‘T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877’

(public domain)

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edited: 26.05.2021

Protosticta gracilis Kirby

Gracile White-legged Damselfly (Protosticta gracilis)

The Gracile White-legged Damselfly was described in 1889 on the basis of type material that had been collected in 1859 from an unspecified locality on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia.

The species was never found anywhere on the island and may now well be extinct for a long time.

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edited: 24.08.2022

Curculionidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Smaller Rapa Nui Cossonine Weevil (Curculionidae gen. & sp.)

The Smaller Rapa Nui Cossonine Weevil is one of two new weevil species that were recorded from core samples that were collected from the lake in the Rano Kau volcano on Rapa Nui.

The species is known from four heads, six prothoraces, 13 elytra and two first two-fused ventrites, it reached an estimated size of about 0,25 to 0,29 cm. [1]

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] M. Horrocks; M. Marra; W. T. Baisden; J. Flenley; D. Feek; L. González Nualart; S. Haoa-Cardinali; T. Edmunds Gorman: Pollen, phytoliths, arthropods and high-resolution 14C sampling from Rano Kau, Easter Island: evidence for late Quaternary environments, ant (Formicidae) distributions and human activity. Journal of Paleolimnology 50(4): 417-432. 2013

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edited: 10.12.2018

Ascetoderes strigatus (Arrow)

Banded Dry Bark Beetle (Ascetoderes strigatus)

The Banded Dry Bark Beetle was described in 1900 based on a single specimen that was collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 cm; “The colour is black, with the antennae and legs a very dark red. The head and thorax are coarsely punctured, and there are a few scattered punctures on the first and third interstices of each elytron. The third interstice is also angularly elevated, and beyond it the striae are replaced by three sharp costae. Near the base of the thorax is a U-shaped impressed line enclosing a smooth area, and in front of this is a shallow depression.” [1]

The species is now most likely extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

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edited: 27.04.2022

Newcombia pfeifferi ssp. decorata Pilsbry & Cooke

Decorated Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi ssp. decorata)

The Decorated Newcombia Snail was described in 1912, it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

There is obviously no further information available about this species.

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References:

[1] Mike Severns: A new species of newcombia from the Pleistocene of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Achatinellidae). Basteria 73: 57-60. 2009

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edited: 16.05.2020

Blackburnia rugosa Liebherr & Porch

Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia rugosa)

The Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, it is known only from several subfossil remains that had been found in the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 to 1,1 cm and is distinguished from its congeners by its robust sclerotization. [1]

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References:

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2019

Naesiotus alethorhytidus (Dall)

Santa Cruz Snail (Naesiotus alethorhytidus)

This species was described in 1917; it was restricted the southern part of Isla Santa Cruz in the Galapágos Islands and was apparently quite common when it was discovered and described.:

Indefatigable Island, in the moist area on the south side at 350 to 400 feet, and at all attitudes in the interior; (W. H. O.)
This almost comically small and wrinkled species is one of the most interesting finds of the Academy expedition. It is usually pink tipped, with white corrugations and the indentations more or less darkened by volcanic dust.
” [1]

The species was last found alive in 1974 and is thus believed to be possibly extinct.

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References:

[1] William Healey Dall; Washington Henry Ochsner: Landshells of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Ser. 4. Vol. 17.: 141-185. 1928

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Photo from: ‘William Healey Dall; Washington Henry Ochsner: Landshells of the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Ser. 4. Vol. 17.: 141-185. 1928’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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edited: 01.06.2021

Procloeon insignificans (McDunnough)

Insignificant Small Minnow Mayfly (Procloeon insignificans)

The Insignificant Small Minnow Mayfly was described in 1925; it is known only from its type locality which is somewhere in the vicinity of the city of Ottawa in Ontario, Canada.

MALE. – Length of body 3mm., of fore wing 4 mm. Thoracic notum and pleura dark brown, sternum lighter brown, legs white, and wings hyaline, with longitudinal veins faintly yellowish. Basal abdominal tergites white, with a faint red, median streak on tergites 2 and 3, sternites 2 and 3 white; apical tergites light brown, sternites tan; genital forceps and caudal filaments white.” [1]

The species was never found since and is likely extinct now.

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References:

[1] B. D. Burks: The mayflies, or Ephemoptera, Of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Bulletin 26: 1-216. 1953-1955

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edited: 24.08.2022

Tymbopiptus valeas Kuschel

Giant Waitomo Weevil (Tymbopiptus valeas)

The Giant Waitomo Weevil was described in 1987, it is one of the first New Zealand insects to have been described based on subfossil remains.

The remains were recovered from deposits of at least two localities in the Waitomo District in the west of the North Island of New Zealand, one of them being the Buried Forest of Pureora, a site that was formed by pumice ejected during an eruption of Taupo crater at around 186 AD..

The Giant Waitomo Weevil was a very large species, it reached a length of up to 2 to 2,3 cm and was 0,75 to 0,92 cm wide. [1]

***

Many of the larger beetle species dissapeared from the New Zealand main islands as soon as the first Polynesian people arrived here and brought with them Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)), which predated on these large insects; some of the species were widespread and thus survived on rat-free offshore islands while others, that were restricted to certain parts of the main islands, just went extinct.

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References:

[1] G. Kuschel: The subfamily Molytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): general notes and descriptions of new taxa from New Zealand and Chile. New Zealand Entomologist 9: 11-29. 1987
[2] Corinne H. Watts; Maureen J. Marra; Chris J. green; Lynette A. Hunt; Danny Thornburrow: Comparing fossil and extant beetles in central North Island forests, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(1): 1-20. 2019

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Photo: Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

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edited: 05.11.2020

Anchastus atlanticus Candèze

Atlantic Click Beetle (Anchastus atlanticus)

The Atlantic Click Beetle was described in 1859; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

… the present species appears to be attached, in at any rate its larval condition, to the arborescent Compositae of a somewhat high altitude, more particularly (I think), though by no means exclusively, to the Little bastard Gumwood or Aster gummiferus, Hk. fil. [Commidendrum spurium (G. Forst.) DC.]; but in its perfect state it is more often be met with beneath stones in open grassy spots, especially in the vicinity of those particular shrubs. After the early summer rains, about the beginning of February, it makes its appearance in comparative abundance; during which season I took it in profusion just behind the lofty ridge, above West Lodge, overlooking the great Sandy-Bay crater, as well as on the eastern (and well-nigh inaccessible) slopes of High Peak, and also (though more sparingly) so low down as even Plantation. It has been captured by Mr. Whitehead on Halley’s Mount, and likewise (in great profusion), beneath stones, on Green Hill.” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during the latest field searches and is now feared to be extinct.

***

syn. Heteroderes puncticollis Wollaston

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Depiction from: ‘Guy Babault: Voyage de M. Guy Babault dans l’Afrique orientale anglaise: résultats scientifiques. Paris: 1916-1924′

(public domain)

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References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

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edited: 27.05.2021