Tag Archives: Austral Islands

Staphylinidae gen. & sp. ‘Austral Islands’

Austral islands Rove Beetle(s) (Staphylinidae gen. & sp.)

The rove beetles (Staphylinidae) contain about 63000 species, making it one of the largest families in the animal kingdom, several new species are being described every year.

So, it is no wonder that this family also contains countless extinct forms – at least 18 are known from subfossil remains found on the Austral Islands so far.

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edited: 31.10.2020

Cyanoramphus sp. ‚Rapa‘

Rapa Parakeet (Cyanoramphus sp.)


This species is known from subfossil remains that were found during excavations on the island of Rapa, Austral Islands.

These remains somewhat fill the giant gap in the distribution area of the genus, which is found on the one hand with many species in the western Pacific region (New Caledonia and New Zealand faunal regions) and on the other hand with two species on the Society Islands in central Polynesia.

There are hundreds of suitable island groups and islands between these two areas where not a single member of the genus was ever found. [1]

***

The Rapa Parakeet very likely was a ground-dwelling species, like most members of its genus, and was also very likely very tame and thus was probably among the first birds to be eradicated by the first human occupants of the island. [1]

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References:

[1] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012

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edited: 08.02.2020

Tenebroides tubuai Kolibáč & Porch

Tubuai Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides tubuai)

The Tubuai Bark-gnawing Beetle was described in 2020, it is known from subfossil remains, including a head, parts of another head, a left mandible, at least one complete elytron as well as additional elytral fragments, and a incomplete prothorax, all recovered from sediment core samples taken at the Mihiru Swamp on the island of Tubuai in the Austral Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 2500 to 2000 BP..

The Tubuai Bark-gnawing Beetle might have been the largest member of its genus, its size has been reconstructed to have been about 1,57 cm in length, which clearly sets it apart from the congeneric and sympatric Mihiura Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides mihiura Kolibáč & Porch). [1]

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References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

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edited: 02.11.2020

Curculionidae gen. & sp. ‘Rimatara’

Rimataran Cossonine Weevil(s) (Curculionidae gen. & sp.)

The weevils (Curculionidae) are in fact the most species-rich family of the whole animal kingdom, the family is divided into several subfamilies of which the Cossininae is one.

***

The subfossil record of the island of Rimatara, Austral Islands has produced the remains of at least 18 (!) genera/species of cossinine weevils, this shows how species-rich the island faunas once, before the arrival of humans, were … and, how much has already been lost.

The remains are currently under review by Nick Porch, an Australian entomologist specialized in subfossil insect remains.

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edited: 31.10.2020

Tenebroides raivavae Kolibáč & Porch

Raivavae Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides raivavae)


This species was described in 2020, it is so far only known from the holotype material, a subfossil incomplete prosternum, that was obtained from a core sample taken from the Rairua Swamp on the island of Raivavae in the Austral Islands.

The size of this species is estimated to have been about 1,39 cm in length; it appears to have been black in color. [1]

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References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

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edited: 02.11.2020

Todiramphus sp. ‚Rapa‘

Rapa Kingfisher (Todiramphus sp.)

The Rapa Kingfisher is yet a hypothetical species that I like to erect based on an account from the 1920s. [1]

This account speaks about the color symbolism of Rapan feather cloaks and says that royal cloaks incorporated dark blue feathers from a bird named “kotokoto”, which was supposed to have been a kingfisher, apparently most likely the Tuamotu Kingfisher (Todiramphus gertrudae Murphy) [but named Halcyon gambieri in the paper [1]].

I personally think that this is rather unlikely, if the feathers came from any kind of imported kingfisher species, as the paper [1] suggests, then probably not from birds from Mangareva (which were already almost extinct at that time) but even more unlikely from birds from the Niau atoll, which is located far, far away from the island of Rapa. They may, however, have come from the far more closely situated Cook Islands, which harbors more than one endemic kingfisher forms. But there may very well once have been an endemic kingfisher species on the island of Rapa as well, because why not?!

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References:

[1] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012

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edited: 08.02.2020

Tenebroides mihiura Kolibáč & Porch

Mihiura Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides mihiura)

This species was described in 2020, it is known only from the type material, a subfossil prothorax, that was collected from a sediment core sample that had been taken from the Mihiura Swamp on the island of Tubuai in the Austral Islands. 

The species reached a size of about 0,6 cm in length; it might have been black in color. [1]

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References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

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edited: 02.11.2020

Mumfordia sp. ‘Tubuai’

Tubuaian Fungus Beetle (Mumfordia sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains recovered from deposits on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

***

As far as I know, the genus today contains only three species, The Mountain Fungus Beetle (Mumfordia monticola Zimmerman) from Tahiti, Society Islands, and the Spined Fungus Beetle (Mumfordia spinata Van Dyke) as well as the Tubercled Fungus Beetle (Mumfordia tuberculata Van Dyke) from the Marquesas.

It is obviously quite clear that the genus once contained many more species.

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edited: 31.10.2020

Tetrablemmidae gen. & sp. ‘Raivavae’

Raivavaean Armored Spider (Tetrablemmidae gen. & sp.)

The family Tetrablemmidae is a rather small familiy of spiders that mainly occurs in southeast Asia.

This form is known from subfossil remains found on the island of Raivavae, Austral Islands.

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edited: 31.10.2020

Tubuaia voyana ssp. oromanaensis Kondo

Oromana Tubuaia Snail (Tubuaia voyana ssp. oromanaensis)

The Oromana Tubuaia Snail was described in 1962; it was only ever known from its type locality, the Oromana Hills on the island of Rimatara in the Austral archipelago, a place that today is completely degraded and transformed into agricultural fields (like actually most of the island).

This snail is now clearly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 02.05.2022

Gallirallus sp. ‚Rapa‘

Rapa Rail (Gallirallus sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits on the island of Rapa, Austral Islands.

The form apparently was similar yet smaller than the Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis (L.)), like all now extinct Polynesian rails, also this form most likely was completely flightless. [1]

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References:

[1] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012

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edited: 08.02.2020

Minidonta haplaenopla Solem

Simply-armed Minidonta Snail (Minidonta haplaenopla 

This species was described in 1976 from empty shells that were collected at the Matonaa Plateau on the island of Rurutu, Austral Islands.  

The shells are rather large for the genus, about 0,23 to 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]  

***

The species was not recorded during recent searches and is now best considered extinct. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 04.10.2017

Australdonta radiella ssp. rurutuensis (Garrett)

Australdonta Snail (Australdonta radiella ssp. rurutuensis 

This somewhat enigmatic form was described in 1879, apparently from a single specimen from the island of Rurutu that only slightly differs from the ‘normal’ Australdonta radiella (Pfeiffer) from the neighboring island of Tubuai. [1]  

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References: 

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

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edited: 22.03.2018

Microcystis kondoi Baker

Kondo‘s Microcystis-Schnecke (Microcystis kondoi 

This species, described in 1938, is endemic to the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands in French Polynesia. [1]  

The species was not found during recent searches and is thought to be extinct. [2]  

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References:  

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific Islands: Southern genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletins 158: 1-101. 1938 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 22.03.2018

Microcystis andersoni H. B. Baker

Anderson’s Microcystis Snail (Microcystis andersoni)

Anderson’s Microcystis Snail was described in 1938, it is known from specimens that had been collected in 1934 under logs and stones at a hillside of Mt. Tavaetu on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

The author gives a description of the life animal.:

Animal similar to M. ornatella but with row of black dots between pedal grooves, similar squarish ones above this and vaguer, smaller ones below; mantle-lobes and shell-laps edged with dark spots.” [1]

***

The species could not be found during recent searches and is considered most likely extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific Islands: Southern genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletins 158: 1-101. 1938 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 16.05.2019

Electrina succinea ssp. orites Cooke & Clench

Smaller Electrina Snail (Electrina succinea ssp. orites 

This subspecies was described in the year 1943 on the basis of specimens, which were collected at the Mt. Perahu at elevations of about 365 to 548 m, and which differ from the nominate race.  

The shells are smaller, thinner, and obviously distinctly colored.  

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References:  

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.; William J. Clench: Land Shells (Synceridae) from the Southern and Western Pacific. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 17(20): 249-262. 1943 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 10.09.2020

cf. Ducula sp. ‚Rapa‘

Large Rapa Pigeon (cf. Ducula sp.)

This species is known from several subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits on the island of Rapa, Austral Islands. 

These remains come from a larger species, like a larger Ducula sp., and shows some indications of reduced powers of flight or even flightlessness, which is now known from several extirpated Polynesian pigeon species. [1]

***

The sole surviving pigeon species on the island of Rapa today is the Rapa Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus huttoni Finsch), which itself is somewhat aberrant and unusual large for a member of its genus.

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References:

[1] J. D. Tennyson; Atholl Anderson: Bird, reptile and mammal remains from archaeological sites on Rapa Island. In: Atholl Anderson; Douglas J. Kennett: Taking the High Ground; The archaeology of Rapa, a fortified island in remote East Polynesia. In: Terra Australis 37. 105-114. Canberra, ANU E Press 2012

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edited: 08.02.2020

Cookeana vindex H. B. Baker

Vindex Snail (Cookeana vindex)

The Vindex Snail was described in 1938, specimens were collected in 1934 at the northeastern slope of Mt. Pane on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

The shells were turbinate and had large whorls, they were light brown, dull and hairy above with a polished base and bright chestnut with a light-brown band just below the angle.

The author of the species also gives a description of the animal itself.:

Animal with foot usually dark, more deeply pigmented between pedal grooves, in 3 middorsal stripes on head and over mantle-lobes and shell-lap; lung dark or with network of transparent, whitish patches around kidney and pulmonary vein; apical whorls with considerable dark pigment and with blood vessels outlined by chalky deposit, Tail with distinct dorsomedian groove and short tail horn.” [1]

***

This species was not found during all recent surveys and is believed to be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific Islands: Southern genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletins 158: 1-101. 1938 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 16.05.2019

Myoporum rimatarense F. Br.

Rimatara Myoporum (Myoporum rimatarense)  

This species, described in 1935, is known only from the type, collected at the beach near the village of Amaru on the island of Rimatara in the Austral Archipelago.  

The material is sufficient enough to prove that this is indeed a distinct species that differs from the other two Myoporum species that are known to occur on the Austral Archipelago (Myoporum rapense F. Br. and Myoporum stokesii F. Br.).  

The species is considered extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] R. J. Chinnock: Eremophila and Allied Genera: A Monograph of the Plant Family Myoporaceae. Rosenberg Pub. 2007  

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edited: 23.09.2017

Cookeana anathesis H. B. Baker

Cookeana Snail (Cookeana anathesis)

The Cookena Snail was described in 1938 based on specimens that had been collected in 1934 at a lowland hill side at Mt. Tavaetu on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands. The species was originally found, apparently quite abundantly, on all kind of native vegetation as well as under logs and stones.

The Cookeana Snail was similar to the congeneric Vindex Snail (Cookeana vindex H. B. Baker), with which together it was described, but differed from that species by several characters including its shell-lap having a row of black dots. [1]

*** 

This species was not found during all recent surveys and is believed to be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific Islands: Southern genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletins 158: 1-101. 1938 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 16.05.2019

Samoana sp. ‘Rimatara’

Rimatara Samoana Snail (Samoana sp.)

This form is known only on the basis of subfossil material that hasn’t been described so far; nevertheless, it might very well represent a distinct species, endemic to the island of Rimatara, and now extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 04.06.2021

Pampusana sp. ‘Tubuai’

Tubuai Ground Dove (Pampusana sp.)  

This form is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from archaeological deposits on the island of Taubuai, Austral Islands. [1]

The Tubuai Ground Dove may be identical with one of the congeneric forms that had been found on the island of Rurutu, also in the Austral archipelago.

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References:  

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; Robert Bollt: Prehistoric birds and bats from the Atihara Site, Tubuai, Austral Islands, East Polynesia. Pacific Science 65(1): 69-85. 2011

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edited: 09.03.2020

Minidonta sulcata Solem

Sulcate Minidonta Snail (Minidonta sulcata)  

This species was described in 1976, it is apparently known from only four specimens, that were collected from the same locality on the island of Raiavavae, Austral Islands, that also harbored the shells of the Anatonu Minidonta Snail (Minidonta anatonuana Solem), the Micro-coned Minidonta Snail (Minidonta micraconica Solem), and the Planulate Minidonta Snail (Minidonta planulata Solem).  

The shells reach sizes of about 0,2 to 0,23 cm in diameter. [1]  

***

The species wasn’t found during recent searches and is now considered extinct. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 04.10.2017

Microcystis adusta H. B. Baker

Burnt Microcystis Snail (Microcystis adusta)

The Burnt Microcystis Snail was described in 1938, it was in 1934 collected near the shore in littoral forest on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

The species is described as having been similar to the congeneric Anderson’s Microcystis Snail (Microcystis andersoni H. B. Baker) with which tiogether it was described. [1]

***

The Burnt Microcystis snail was not recorded during recent field surveys and may be already extinct.

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References:

[1] H. Burrington Baker: Zonitid snails from Pacific Islands: Southern genera of Microcystinae. Bishop Museum Bulletins 158: 1-101. 1938 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014

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edited: 16.05.2019

Pampusana sp. 2 ‘Rurutu’

Rurutu Ground Dove (Pampusana sp.)  

This is another species from the genus Pampusana (formerly Alopecoenas) that is known from subfossil remains found on the island of Rurutu, Austral Islands. [1]

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References:  

[1] David W. Steadman; Robert Bollt: Prehistoric Birds from Rurutu, Austral Islands, East Polynesia. Pacific Science 64(2): 315-325. 2010

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edited: 09.03.2020

Ptilinopus sp. ‘Tubuai’

Tubuai Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus sp.)

The Tubuai Fruit-Dove is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from a archaeological site on the island of Tubuai, Austral Islands.

These remains differ significantly from the bones of its geographically nearest congeners, the Rapa Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus huttoni Finsch) from Rapa, Austral Islands, and the Lilac-crowned Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus rarotongensis Hartlaub & Finsch) from Rarotonga, Cook islands.

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References:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy; Robert Bollt: Prehistoric birds and bats from the Atihara Site, Tubuai, Austral Islands, East Polynesia. Pacific Science 65(1): 69-85. 2011

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edited: 29.05.2019

Australdonta microspiralis Zimmermann, Gargominy & Fontaine

Micro-spiraled Austral Snail (Australdonta microspiralis)  

This species was described in 2009.  

The Micro-spiraled Austral Snail is endemic to the island of Rurutu, Austral Islands.  

The shells reach sizes of about 3,5 cm in diameter, they are very flat and have a height of only about 0,1 cm, they are decorated with darker ornaments.  

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References:  

[1] Gabrielle Zimmermann; Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: Quatre espèces nouvelles d’Endodontidae (Mollusca, Pulmonata) éteints de Rurutu (Îles Australes, Polynésie française). Zoosystema 31(4): 791-805. 2009

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04.09.2020

Australdonta collicella Zimmermann, Gargominy & Fontaine

Small Rurutu Austral Snail (Australdonta collicella 

The species was described in 2009.  

The shell reached a size of about 0,58 cm in diameter. [1]  

***

The island of Rurutu is now known to have once harbored 11 species of this genus, all of them are now extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Gabrielle Zimmermann; Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: Quatre espèces nouvelles d’Endodontidae (Mollusca, Pulmonata) éteints de Rurutu (Îles Australes, Polynésie française). Zoosystema 31(4): 791-805. 2009 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 21.03.2018

Orangia maituatensis Solem

Maitua Orangia Snail (Orangia maituatensis)  

This species was described in 1976, it is endemic to the island of Rapa, Austral Islands, where it appears to be (or have been) restricted to cliffs near Maitua in the southern part of the island, and Mt. Tautautu.  

The shells reach sizes of about 0,38 to 0,44 cm in diameter. [1]  

***

The Maitua Orangia Snail was not found during recent field surveys and may be extinct. [2]  

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References:  

[1] A. Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 18.03.2017

Orangia cookei ssp. cookei Solem

Cooke’s Orangia Snail (Orangia cookei ssp. cookei)  

The genus Orangia contains three species, of which one again, is split into three subspecies; all are endemic to the island of Rapa, Austral Islands; and all were described together in 1976. [1]  

***

Cooke’s Orangia Snail is thought to consists of three subspecies, besides the nominate race these are, the Montane Orangia Snail (Orangia cookei ssp. montana Solem), and the Mt. Tautautu Orangia Snail (Orangia cookei ssp. tautautuensis Solem).  

The nominate race is (or rather was) restricted to the vicinity of Mt. Orangi, Mt. Tanga, and Mt. Tepiahu.  

The shells reach sizes of about 0,33 to 0,45 cm in diameter. [1]  

***

The Montane Orangia Snail appears to be the sole survivor of its genus, it is the only species that was found during recent field work. [2]  

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References:  

[1] A. Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 18.03.2017

Pampusana sp. 1 ‘Rurutu’

Rurutu Ground Dove (Pampusana sp.)  

This up to now undescribed ground dove species is known exclusively from subfossil remains that were found on the island of Rurutu, Austral Islands.

The species shared its home island with another congeneric species. [1]

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References:  

[1] David W. Steadman; Robert Bollt: Prehistoric Birds from Rurutu, Austral Islands, East Polynesia. Pacific Science 64(2): 315-325. 2010

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edited: 09.03.2020

Opanara caliculata Solem

Mt. Perahu Opanara Snail (Opanara caliculata)

This species was described in 1976 based on several specimens that were collected in 1934; it was inhabiting the native vegetation on the western ridge of Mt. Perahu on the island of Rapa, Austral Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,3 to 0,34 cm in diameter.

This species might now be extinct, it has not been recorded during recent field studies.

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edited: 14.08.2022

Orangia sporadica Solem

Sporadic Orangia Snail (Orangia sporadica)  

The Sporadic Orangia Snail was described in 1976.  

The species is known from 102 specimens which all were collected in 1934. The snails were found hiding under stones in limited quantities at scattered localities.  

The shells reach sizes of about 0,36 to 0,43 cm in diameter.  

***

The Sporadic Orangia Snail was not found during the most recent field studies and may thus be extinct. [2]  

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References:  

[1] A. Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976 
[2] Olivier Gargominy; Benoît Fontaine: A Global Overview of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Molluscs. In: Jean-Yves Meyer; Elin. M. Claridge: Biodiversity of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia. Muséum national d´Histoire naturelle, Paris. 55-91. 2014  

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edited: 18.03.2017