Tag Archives: Lesser Antilles

Turdus lherminieri ssp. ‘Martinique’

Martinique Forest Thrush (Turdus lherminieri ssp.)

The Forest Thrush (Turdus lherminieri (Lafresnaye)) inhabits, respectively inhabited some of the islands of the Lesser Antilles, where it is known from Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Montserrat as well as from Saint Lucia.

The species is, however, not known from Martinique, which is located between Dominica and Saint Lucia, but almost for sure did once occur there as well and probably did so with an endemic subspecies; yet currently there is no proof so far for that assumption, thus I will only briefly mention this assumption here.

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edited: 02.05.2022

Megalomys sp. ‘La Desirade’

La Desirade Rice Rat (Megalomys sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from archaeological sites on the small island of La Desirade off the northeast coast of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles.

The remains were dated to about 600 to 1400 AD.. [1][2]

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References:

[1] S. T. Turvey: Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, USA 2009
[2] Myriam Boudadi-Maligne; Salvador Bailon; Corentin Bochaton; Fabrice Casagrande; Sandrine Grouard; Nathalie Serrand; Arnaud Lenoble: Evidence for historical human-induced extinctions of vertebrate specieson La Désirade (French West Indies). Quaternary Research 85: 54-65. 2016

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edited: 17.02.2020

Amazona vittata ssp. ‘Antigua’

Antigua Amazon (Amazona vittata ssp.)

This form is known from at least two subfossil bones recovered from archaeological sites on the island of Antigua, which were identified as being identical to the Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata (Boddaert)).

It is of course possible that the species was brought to the island by early human settlers, which apparently have always hunted parrots for food but have also kept them as pets and transported them from one place to another. The neighboring island of Barbuda, however, is known to once have harbored a native population of this species or maybe a very closely related one, so it is likely that the same form, or rather a subspecies of it inhabited Antigua as well. [1]

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References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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edited: 13.02.2020

Cricetidae gen. & sp. ‘St. Martin’

St. Martin Rice Rat (Cricetidae gen. & sp.)

The St. Martin Rice Rat is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from an archaeological site named Hope Estate on the island of St. Martin/Sint Maarten in the Lesser Antilles. 

The species survived into the Holocene, most likely even well into the 19th century. [1]

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References:

[1] Elizabeth Reitz; C. Margaret Scarry; Sylvia J. Scudder: Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology (Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology). Springer; Second Edition 2007

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edited: 17.02.2020

Galactia nummularia Urb.

Sint Maarten Galactia (Galactia nummularia)

This species was described in 1909, it was endemic to the island of St. Martin, where it apparently was restricted to littoral habitats at the Guana Bay in the southeastern part of the island.

The species is known from a single collection and was never found again, it is now considered extinct.

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edited: 27.01.2020

Lathrotriccus euleri ssp. flaviventris (Lawrence)

Grenadan Euler’s Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri ssp. flaviventris)

The Grenadan Euler’s Flycatcher was a subspecies of Euler’s Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis)), an rather inconspicuous  bird species that is distributed over large parts of northern South America.

The Grenadan subspecies was restricted to the island of Grenada northwest of Trinidad and Tobago; it differed from the nominate form (see photo below) by its slightly more yellow colored underside.

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(Lathrotriccus euleri); nominate form

Photo:  Francesco Veronesi

(under creative commons license (2.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

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edited: 05.05.2022

Amazona vittata ssp. ‘Barbuda’

Barbuda Amazon (Amazona vittata ssp.)

This form is known from a nearly complete rostrum found in 1962 in the deposits of a precultural cave site on the island of Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda.

The specimen agrees with the the rostrum of a modern Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata (Boddaert)), which formerly might have been far more widespead than it was in historical times, let alone today. [1]

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References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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edited: 13.02.2020

Leiocephalus sp. ‘ Guadeloupe’

Guadeloupe Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus sp.)

This undescribed form, which may or may not be related to or even conspecific with the Barbuda Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus cuneus Etheridge) is known from subfossil remains of Latest Holocene age found in 1984 in an unnamed cave at Pointe du Capucin at the northern shore of the island of Basse Terre in the Guadeloupe archipelago.

The Guadeloupe Curly-tailed Lizard survived into historical times, the remains have not yet been dated but were found associated with the bones of rats, which were introduced to the Caribbean only in the 15th century. [1]

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References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992

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edited: 08.09.2019

Ammodramus savannarum ssp. ‘Barbuda’

Barbudan Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ssp.)

The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum (J. F. Gmelin)) is distributed over most of northern America as well as parts of the Caribbean, the species was in fact first described from Jamaica.

The species is known from Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda, in the Lesser Antilles based on a single complete humerus. [1]

The Caribbean populations of the Grasshopper Sparrow are treated as distinct island-endemic subspecies, thus the remains found on Barbuda most likely represent another, now extinct population that once was restricted to Antigua and Barbuda.

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References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill; David W. Steadman; David R. Watters: Late Quaternary vertebrate faunas of the Lesser Antilles: historical components of Caribbean biogeography. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 30: 1-51. 1994

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edited: 17.02.2020

Thalurania belli Verrill

Bell’s Woodnymph (Thalurania belli)

Bell’s Woodnymph is a hypothetical, yet very likely real species of hummingbird that apparently was endemic to the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles, where it seems to have been restricted to the rainforests of the highest mountains.

The species might have been on the brink of extinction when it was discovered and described by Alpheus Hyatt Verrill, an American zoologist, in 1905 (?).:

Upperparts rich iridescent metallic green, becoming deep peacock blue or verditer-green on ferhead and crown; coppery on shoulders and deep bluish or emerald green on rump: scapulars, upperwing-coverts and uppertail-coverts, deep peacock or bluish green. Wings metallic purple or steel blue, the outer web of outer primary narrowly edged with white or pale ash grey. Basal portion of tail dull copper green, the outer half deep steel blue with violet reflections. The three outer feathers on each side broadly tipped with white and the outermost feather white at base also. Lower parts uniform snow white or less washed with greyish on flanks and sides. Flanks and sides beneath wings spotted with isolated bright green feathers. Ear-coverts and loral region deep velvety black in marked contrast to green of occiput. Bill dusky black with lower mandible slightly lighter near base.” [1][2]

No one else did ever see this species and it apparently was extinct shortly after the abovementioned account. 

***

The description appears to be very extensive and correct, and I personally have no reason to doubt the former existence of such a species.

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References:

[1] A. Hyatt Verrill: Additions to the avifauna of Dominica. Notes on species hitherto unrecorded with descriptions of three new species and a list of all birds now known to occur on the island. 1905?
[2] Julian P. Hume: Extinct Birds: 2nd edition 2017

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edited: 11.02.2020

Megalomys sp. ‘Grenada’

Grenada Giant Rice Rat (Megalomys sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains that were excavated on the island of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.

The species was formerly just named as Cricetidae gen. & sp. ‘Grenada’, it was finally formally described in 2021.[1]

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References:

[1] Brittany A. Mistretta; Christina M. Giovas; Marcelo Weksler; Samuel T. Turvey: Extinct insular oryzomyine rice rats (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from the Grenada Bank, southern Caribbean. Zootaxa 4951(3): 434-460. 2021

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edited: 12.04.2021

Cricetidae gen. & sp. ‘Saba’

Saba Rice Rat (Cricetidae gen. & sp.)

The Saba Rice Rat is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from an archaeological site named Kelbey’s Ridge on the small island of Saba in the Caribbean Netherlands.

The remains of this species were dated to about 1290 to 1400 AD.. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Elizabeth Reitz; C. Margaret Scarry; Sylvia J. Scudder: Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology (Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology). Springer; Second Edition 2007
[2] S. T. Turvey: Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, USA 2009

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edited: 17.02.2020

Leiocephalus partidus Pregill

Puerto Rico Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus partidus)

The Puerto Rico Curly-tailed Lizard was described in 1981, as far as I know it is known only from two subfossil remains that had been recovered from the Guánica Bat Cave in the Reserva Forestal Guánica in the Minicipio de Guayanilla, and from the Cueva del Perro in the Municipio de Morovis, Puerto Rico.

The species reached a large size which has been estimated as having been around 30 cm (including the tail).

The radiocarbon age of these remains is not available yet but they are most likely of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene in age. [1]

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References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992

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edited: 07.09.2019

Nesotrochis debooyi Wetmore

Antillean Cave Rail (Nesotrochis debooyi)

The Antillean Cave Rail, which is also known as DeBooy’s Rail, was a large, flightless species that is known exclusively from subfossil remains recovered from cave deposits on the islands of Saint Croix and Saint Thomas in the United States Virgin Islands as well as on Puerto Rico.

The species was originally known exclusively from subfossil midden remains, and it was not clear to which island it originally was native to since the birds appear to have been an important meat-source and to have been transported from island to island by the native inhabitants of the region.:

There is at beast considerable uncertainty as to the exact place of origin of bone remains from kitchen midden deposits, but it may be supposed that where so many bones representing one species are found, that these came from the island on which the midden was located. There is no proof, however, that they belong to a truly indigenous species, nor is it known that they were not brought as needed from somewhere else. The comparative abundance of the remains of this rail in these deposits when compared with other species of birds indicate that it possessed flesh that was held in high esteem as a source of food. This beeing the case, there is no evidence to show that these rails may not have been kept as captives and transported from island to island by their owners.

***

The Antillean Cave Rail was later also found in cave deposits on Puerto Rico without any archaeological context and thus appear to have probably been native to that island. [2]

The species might have survived on Puerto Rico into the 19th century: there are stories of a bird called carroo, that was run down with dogs by hunters prior to 1912; the name is now applied to the Limpkin (Aramus guarana (L.)), which is a wary bird with strong flight abilities, that very unlikely can be captured with dogs. [3]

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References:

[1] A. Wetmore: Bones of birds collected by Theodoor de Booy from Kitchen Midden deposits in the islands of St. Thomas and St. Croix. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 54(2245): 513-522. 1918
[2] Alexander Wetmore: Bird remains from the caves of Porto Rico. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 46: 297-333. 1922
[3] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of Nesotrochis from Hispaniola, with notes on other fossil rails from the West Indies (Aves: Rallidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 87(38): 439-450. 1974
[4] Jessica A. Oswald; Ryan S. Terrill; Brian J. Stucky; Michelle J. LeFebvre; David W. Steadman; Robert P. Guralnick: Supplementary material from “Ancient DNA from the extinct Haitian cave-rail (Nesotrochis steganinos) suggests a biogeographic connection between the Caribbean and Old World”. Biological Letters 17(3). 2021 

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edited: 16.02.2020

Amazona sp. ‘Turks Islands’

Turks and Caicos Amazon (Amazona sp.)

This form is known from at least two subfossil remains, a palatine and a scapula, that were excavated from the Coralie archaeological site on the island of Grand Turk, Turcs an Caicos Islands in the Lesser Antilles.

The species was sympatric with the Cuban Amazon, probably of the Bahamian subspecies (Amazona leucocephala ssp. bahamensis (H. Bryant)), which is now locally extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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edited: 13.02.2020

Pyrrhulagra grandis (Lawrence)

St. Kitts Bullfinch (Pyrrhulagra grandis)

The St. Kitts Bullfinch was described in 1882, originally as a subspecies of the Puerto Rican Bullfinch (Pyrrhulagra portoricensis (Daudin)) (see photo).

… a short description: 

Similar to P. portoricensis but much larger and with the rufous markings darker (intermediate between ferruginous and vinaceous-rufous); that of the throat more restricted, scarcely extending to the chest, and that of the under tail-coverts mixed with black.” [1]

The species was endemic to the island of St. Kitts, where it was restricted to the higher slopes of Mt. Misery, the highest part of the island, it may very likely once have been found all over the island and very likely also on the neighboring islands of Nevis and St. Eustatius, which were connected with St. Kitts during the last glacial period. 

***

The St. Kitts Bullfinch was originally known from nine specimens all of which had been collected in 1880 by Frederick A. Ober, an American naturalist, and the species was considered extinct since that date, however, a specimen that previously had been overlooked, was found in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., USA; this specimen was collected in 1929 or 1937. [2][3]

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References:

[1] Robert Ridgeway: The birds of North and Middle America: A descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the arctic lands to the isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other islands of the Caribbean sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago: Part I. family Fringillidae – the finches. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 1901
[2] Storrs L. Olson: The last St. Kitts Bullfinch Loxigilla portoricensis grandis (Emberizinae) and the extinction of its race. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 104(4): 121-123. 1984
[3] Orlando H. Garrido; James W. Wiley: The taxonomic status of the Puerto Rican Bullfinch (Loxigilla portoricensis) (Emberizidae) in Puerto Rico and St. Kitts. Ornithologia Neotropical 14: 91-98. 2003

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Puerto Rican Bullfinch (Loxigilla portoricensis)
Photo: Carlos Davi Hernández

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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edited: 10.11.2020

Cricetidae gen. & sp. ‘ Bonaire’

Bonaire Rice Rat (Cricetidae gen. & sp.)

This species is known from subfossil material that was found on the island of Bonaire offshore the northern coast of Venezuela, and that was dated to Late Holocene age. [1]

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References:

[1] S. T. Turvey: Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, USA 2009

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edited: 17.02.2020

Megalomys sp. ‘Marie Galante’

Marie Galante Giant Rice Rat (Megalomys sp.)

This species is up to now undescribed, it is known from subfossil remains that had been found on the island of Marie Galante offshore Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles. [1]

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References:

[1] Alexandra van der Geer; George Lyras; John de Vos; Michael Dermitzakis: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Wiley-Blackwell 2010

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edited: 17.02.2020

Troglodytes aedon ssp. guadeloupensis (Cory)

Guadeloupe House Wren (Troglodytes aedon ssp. guadeloupensis 

This form, described in 1886, occurred on the islands of Basse Terre and Grande Terre, Guadeloupe.  

The Guadeloupe House Wren reached a length of about 11,5 cm, it was quite like the Grenada House Wren (Troglodytes aedon ssp. grenadensis (Lawrence)) (see photo) or the Martinique House Wren (Troglodytes aedon ssp. martinicensis (Sclater)), differing by its shorter wings.  

The form was last recorded during field observations from 25 May through 1 June of the year 1973.:  

At 10:30 while standing at the beginning of the trail at the end of the raod a wren sang a few meters down slope then flew to a perch in bright sunlight. We observed it with 7 x 50 binoculars for 1 min at a distance of 10 m, recognizing it as a Guadaloupe House Wren before it flew into dense brush.” [2]

During these field observations at least five birds where seen, including at least four singing males.  

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References:  

[1] Charles B. Cory: Descriptions of new species of birds from the West Indies. The Auk 3(3): 381-382. 1886 
[2] John C. Barlow: Another colony of the Guadeloupe House Wren. Wilson Bulletin 90(4): 635-637. 1978 
[3] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986  

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Photo: Mike’s Birds

(under creative commons license (2.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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edited: 06.09.2019

Ara sp. ‘Marie-Galante’

Marie-Galante Macaw (Ara sp.)

This somewhat enigmatic form is known on the basis of two skeletal remains, both found on the small island of Marie-Galante, an island in the Guadeloupe archipelago; the first one is a subfossil ulna that had been recovered from the Folle Anse archaeological site and the other one is a very much older phalanx recovered from cave deposits that are of Late Pleistocene age. 

The Marie-Galante Macaw most likely wasn’t a distinct species but was identical with the Guadeloupe Macaw (Ara guadeloupensis Clark), for which, however, no skeletal specimen exists and which thus still is considered a hypothetical form. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001
[2] Monica Gala; Arnaud Lenoble: Evidence of the former existence of an endemic macaw in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Journal of Ornithology 156(4): 1061-1066. 2015

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edited: 06.09.2019

Ara autochthones Wetmore

Saint Croix Macaw (Ara autochthones)  

This species was described in 1937 based on a single tibiotarsus of an adult-sized immature that was found during archeological excavations on St. Croix Island, US Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles.  

The species was subsequently found in an archaeological site in south-central Puerto Rico too. [2][3]  

The Saint Croix Macaw may have been native to Puerto Rico and its adjacent islands, or it may have been native to the whole Lesser Antilles. All remains, known so far, originate from archaeological contexts, so are from birds that have to be connected to human activities, they may have been hunted to be cooked and eaten, or they may have been kept as pet birds, having been transported from one island to another etc..  

This will probably never be resolved.  

***

I personally think that there may once have been only two endemic macaw species inhabiting the Caribbean region, one restricted to the Greater – and one to the Lesser Antilles; and these most likely were descendants of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao (L.)), the only red macaw in Middle America.  

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References:  

[1] Matthew I. Williams; David W. Steadman: The Historic and Prehistoric Distribution of Parrots (Psittacidae) in the West Indies. pages 175–189 in: Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile (eds.): Biogeography of the West Indies. CRC Press 2001
[2] S. L. Olson; E. J. Maíz López: New evidence of Ara autochthones from an archeological site in Puerto Rico: a valid species of West Indian macaw of unknown geographical origin (Aves: Psittacidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 44: 215–222. 2008
[3] James W. Wiley; Guy M. Kirwan: The extinct macaws of the West Indies, with special reference to Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist’s Club 133(2): 125-156. 2013  

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edited: 26.03.2017

Megalomys sp. ‘Guadeloupe’

Guadeloupe Giant Rice Rat (Megalomys sp.)

This form, which hitherto has not been described, is known from subfossil material that was found on the island of Guadelopue in the Lesser Antilles. [1]

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References:

[1] Alexandra van der Geer; George Lyras; John de Vos; Michael Dermitzakis: Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Wiley-Blackwell 2010

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edited: 17.02.2020

Cricetidae gen. & sp. A ‘Montserrat’

Large Montserrat Rice Rat (Cricetidae gen. & sp. A)

The Large Montserrat Rice Rat is an up to day undescribed species whose subfossil remains were found at an unnamed archaeological site on the island of Montserrat in the Lesser Antilles.

The species was sympatric with another closely related, yet smaller species which is likewise only known from subfossil remains. [1]

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References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill; David W. Steadman; David R. Watters: Late Quaternary vertebrate faunas of the Lesser Antilles: historical components of Caribbean biogeography. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 30: 1-51. 1994

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edited: 17.02.2020

Turdus lherminieri ssp. sanctaeluciae (P. L. Sclater)

St. Lucia Forest Thrush (Turdus lherminieri ssp. sanctaeluciae)

The Forest Thrush is endemic to the Lesser Antilles, were four subspecies have been described, each inhabiting only a single island (Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia).

***

The St. Lucia Forest Thrush differed from the nominate race by its slightly lighter colored upper side, the absence of black spots on its chest, by its slightly less pronounced rufous shade on the lower throat and the foreneck as well as by the lighter rufous coloration of the inner lining of its quills, by the brown bases of its undertail coverts which have white instead of cream-colored tips, and finally by its nearly completely yellow beak.

R. Bowdler Sharpe writes about this island form in 1902.:

… that it is called in Santa Lucia “Molvie” or “Mauvie”. … This bird is counted as one of our game birds, and is killed in large numbers from August to January yearly. About October to December these birds are found in large numbers in flocks feeding on the berries of certain trees; but for the remainder of the year they are dispersed in pairs, and become very poor. They breed about April or May, the female building a nest of dried leaves, twigs &c. on a bush or low tree, laying two eggs of a blue-green. they take very little shot to kill them.” [1]

***

Formerly considered to be quite common, the St. Lucia Forest Thrush was last seen in 2007 near the town of Chassin in the northern part of the island, it is now believed to be most likely completely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Hannah Wheatley: Forest thrush (Turdus lherminieri): request for information. BirdLife’s Globally Threatened Bird Forums. August 23, 2018

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(bird in foreground)

Depiction from: ‘Henry Seebohm; R. Bowdler Sharpe: A Monograph of the Turdidae or family of thrushes. London: Henry Sotheran 1902’  

(public domain)

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edited: 12.06.2020

Psittacara sp. ‘Barbados’

Barbados Conure (Psittacara sp.)

This form is known from early travelers’ accounts.

Griffith Hughes, a Welsh naturalist and author wrote “The natural history of Barbados” in 1750 in which he briefly mentioned the native birds of the island, including this enigmatic species of parakeet. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Griffith Hughes: The Natural History of Barbados. in ten books. London: printed for the author 1750
[2] P. A. Buckley; Edward B. Massiah; Maurice B. Hutt; Francine G. Buckley; Hazel F. Hutt: The birds of Barbados: An annotated checklist. British Ornithologists’ Union 2009

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edited: 11.02.2020

Battus polydamas ssp. antiquus (Rothschild & Jordan)

Antigua Gold Rim Swallowtail (Battus polydamas ssp. antiquus)

The Antigua Gold Rim Swallowtail, described in 1906, is a subspecies of the Gold Rim Swallowtail (Battus polydamus (L.)); it is thought to have been endemic to the island of Antigua in the Lesser Antilles.

This form is actually known only from a depiction by the British entomologist Dru Drury from 1770 (see below), however, it is quite possible that this form never existed in the first place as it is known that Drury’s book contains lots of geographical and taxonomical errors.

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Depiction: ‘J. O. Westwood: Illustrations of exotic entomology : containing upwards of six hundred and fifty figures and descriptions of foreign insects, interspersed with remarks and reflections on their nature and properties by Dru Drury. London: Henry G. Bohn 1837’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Tyto noeli Arredondo

Noel’s Giant Barn Owl (Tyto noeli)

Noel’s Giant Barn Owl was described in 1972 on the basis of subfossil and fossil remains that had been found at abundant cave sites on the island of Cuba, as well as some very few remains found on Jamaica.

The species occurred also on Barbuda, were its remains originally had been described as a distinct species (Tyto neddi Steadman & Hilgartner) in 1999, but were later assigned to this species.

The Noel’s Giant Barn Owl survived well into the Holocene, the remains that had been found on Jamaica could be dated to an age of about 3700 years.

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References:

[1] William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson: Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae). Zootaxa 4020 (3): 533-553. 2015

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edited: 08.09.2019

Amazona martinica (Clark)

Martinique Amazon (Amazona martinica)

The Martinique Amazon is known from several eyewitness accounts and at least a single, yet brief description.

The species was very closely related to the still existing Red-necked Amazon (Amazona arausiaca (Statius Müller)) from Dominica and the Saint Lucia Amazon (Amazona versicolor (Statius Müller)) from Saint Lucia and formed a superspecies together with them. 

***

The Martinique Amazon appears to have been incredible common, and the early European settlers saw it only as a pest, so did mention it but did never give any description of it, for example: 

Jean-Baptiste Labat, a French glergyman, who was the appointed procurator-general of all the Dominican convents in the Antilles, is the only one who gave at least a brief description of this species in which he mentioned that it was very much identical to the Red-necked Amazon yet differed from it in that its head feathers were rather slate than blue and in that it had less red feathers in its plumage.

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References:

[1] Jean-Baptiste Labat: Nouveau voyage aux isles de l’Amerique: contenant l’histoire naturelle de ces pays, l’origine, les moeurs, la religion & le gouvernement des habitans anciens & modernes: Les guerres & les evenemens singuliers qui y sont arrivez pendant le séjour que l’auteur y a fait. A Paris, au palais: Chez Theodore le Gras 1742
[2] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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Depiction from: ‘Lionel Walter Rothschild: Extinct birds: an attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times: that is, within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. 1907’

(public domain)

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edited: 13.02.2020

Troglodytes aedon ssp. martinicensis (Sclater)

Martinique House Wren (Troglodytes aedon ssp. martinicensis)  

This bird was described in the year 1866, it was restricted to the island of Martinique, where it inhabited the native rain forests.  

The Martinique House Wren was last seen in 1886, having been exterminated by introduced rats and feral cats.  

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References:  

[1] Charles B. Cory: Descriptions of new species of birds from the West Indies. The Auk 3(3): 381-382. 1886 
[2] John C. Barlow: Another colony of the Guadeloupe House Wren. Wilson Bulletin 90(4): 635-637. 1978 

[3] Dieter Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986  

*********************  

edited: 06.09.2019

Pholidoscelis major Duméril & Bibron

Martinique Giant Ameiva (Pholidoscelis major)

The Martinique Giant Ameiva was described in 1839; it is known exclusively from museum specimens, whose origins appear to be unknown, they may have come from the island of Martinique or from the so-called Les Iles de la petite Terre, offshore Guadeloupe.

The species disappeared most likely due to predation by introduced mammalian predators.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Duméril; Gabriel Bibron: Erpétologie générale, ou, Histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Paris: Roret 1834-1854’

(public domain)

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edited: 02.05.2021

Megalomys luciae (Major)

Saint Lucia Giant Rice Rat (Megalomys luciae)

The Saint Lucia Giant Rice Rat, also known as Saint Lucia Pilorie, was a very large rodent that formerly was restricted to the island of Saint Lucia in the Lesser Antilles.

The species was the second largest rice rat of the Caribbean, it almost reached the size of a cat.

The Saint Lucia Giant Rice Rat dissapeared in the latter half of the 19th century, it was last recorded in 1881, the reasons are the same as in all the other extinct Caribbean rice rat species.

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Photo: Vassil

(public domain)

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edited: 17.02.2020

Megalomys georginae Turvey, Brace & Weksler

Georgina’s Barbados Rice Rat (Megalomys georginae)

Georgina’s Barbados Rice Rat was described in 2012 based on subfossil remains that had been recovered from an Amerindian archaeological site on the island of Barbados in the Lesser Antilles.

The species was one of the smallest forms in its genus. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Samuel T. Turvey; Selina Brace; Marcelo Weksler: A new species of recently extinct rice rat (Megalomys) from Barbados. Mammalian Biology 77: 404-413. 2012

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edited: 17.02.2020

Ara sp. ‘Montserrat’

Montserrat Macaw (Ara sp.)

The Montserrat Macaw is known from a nearly complete coracoid that had been recovered from the Trants archaeological site on the island of Montserrat and appears to have been indeed a distinct, yet undescribed species.

The species was nearly the same size as the Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severus (L.)), that is about 50 cm. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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edited: 06.09.2019

Pyrrhulagra sp. ‘Barbuda’

Barbudan Bullfinch (Pyrrhulagra sp.)

This form is known from at least two subfossil remains, a quadrate and a rostrum, found on the island of Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda, in the Lesser Antilles.

The remains were compared to other closely related forms and most agree with the bones of the largest subspecies of the Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Pyrrhulagra violacea ssp. ruficollis (J. F. Gmelin)) from Jamaica, which is about the same size as the now extinct St. Kitts Bullfinch (Pyrrhulagra grandis (Lawrence)). [1]

The Barbudan Bullfinch may have been identical with the St. Kitts species or it might have been a distinct species, I personally like to refer to it as a distinct species. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill; David W. Steadman; David R. Watters: Late Quaternary vertebrate faunas of the Lesser Antilles: historical components of Caribbean biogeography. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 30: 1-51. 1994
[2] D. W. Steadman; R. L. Norton; M. R. Browning; W. J. Arendt: The birds of St Kitts, Lesser Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science 33(1–2):S. 1–20. 1997

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edited: 17.02.2020

Cyclura sp. ‘Barbuda’

Barbuda Iguana (Cyclura sp.)

This form, which might have been a distinct species, is currently known only from a single bone, a braincase, found on the island of Barbuda.

The species apparently disappeared as early as shortly after the occupation of the island by Amerindian settlers.

*********************

References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill; David W. Steadman; David R. Watters: Late Quaternary vertebrate faunas of the Lesser Antilles: historical components of Caribbean biogeography. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 30: 1-51. 1994

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edited: 16.05.2021

Calyptranthes boldinghii Urb.

Sint Maarten-Myrtle (Calyptranthes boldinghii)  

The small, shrubby Sint Maarten-Myrtle was described in 1909, it is known only by the type material which was collected somewhere in the Dutch southern part of the island of Sint Maarten/St. Martin.

The species was not found again since, it is very likely extinct. 

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edited: 07.10.2020

Neochen barbadiana (Brodkorb)

Barbados Goose (Neochen barbadiana)

The Barbados Goose was described in 1965 based on foissl remains that had been found on the island of Barbados in the Lesser Antilles.

The remains were dated to Late Pleistocene age, but the form might well have survived into the early Holocene and is thus mentioned here for the sake of completness. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] P. Brodkorb: Fossil birds from Barbados, West Indies. The Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 31(1): 3-10. 1965
[2] Samuel T. Turvey: Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press, USA 2009

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edited: 17.02.2020

Psittacara sp. ‘Martinique’

Martinique Conure (Psittacara sp.)

It’s a fact that parakeets of the genus Psittacara (formerly included in the genus Aratinga) inhabit the islands of the Greater Antilles, where several species still occur on the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico; at least one additional subfossil form is known from the island of Barbuda in the Lesser Antilles, which makes it likely that others were once distributed on the islands inbetween. 

Again, some other forms are known from accounts only, and some of these accounts are rather scanty and unfortunately sometimes not very trustworthy.

***

The Martinique Conure, however, is known from the description given by M.-J. Brisson in 1760, which again, apparently refers to a description and depiction by George Edwards from 1751 (see below).

G. Edwards in his description just writes:

… My Friend for whom I made the Draught, told me, the Bird was brought from the West-Indies. …” [1]

And then, M.-J. Brisson states:

Habitat in Martinique & variis Americae regionibus

translation:

Lives in Martinique and various American regions

***

The bird depicted here is a Brown-throated Parakeet (Eupsittula pertinax (L.)), which occurs naturally with about 14 subspecies in northern South America as well as on many of the small islands off the northern coast of Venezuela, but cannot be assigned to any of the known subspecies without any doubt whatsoever.

There is now the possibility that this species was once much more widespread and might indeed have inhabited some of the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but I personally think that the parakeet depicted here was just caught somewhere on the South American mainland and was then brought to the West Indies from where again it was purchased by the person in whose possession it was when G. Edwards described and drew it.

If the island of Martinique ever harbored an endemic species of parakeet it probably was more closely realted to the more or less plain green (with a little red) species from the genus Psittacara known from subfossil remains from Barbuda, and found still being alive in the Greater Antilles. 

*********************

References:

[1] George Edwards: A natural history of uncommon birds: and of some other rare and undescribed animals, quadrupedes, fishes, reptiles, insects, &, exhibited in two hundred and ten copper-plates, from designs copied immediately from nature, and curiously coloured after life, with a full and accurate description of each figure, to which is added A brief and general idea of drawing and painting in water-colours; with instructions for etching on copper with aqua fortis; likewise some thoughts on the passage of birds; and additions to many subjects described in this work. London: printed for the author, at the College of Physicians in Warwick-Lane 1743-1751
[2] Mathurin-Jaques Brisson: Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés: a laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires. Parisiis: Ad Ripam Augustinorum, apud Cl. Joannem-Baptistam Bauche, bibliopolam, ad Insigne S. Genovesae, & S. Joannis in Deserto 1760

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Depiction from: ‘George Edwards: A natural history of uncommon birds: and of some other rare and undescribed animals, quadrupedes, fishes, reptiles, insects, &, exhibited in two hundred and ten copper-plates, from designs copied immediately from nature, and curiously coloured after life, with a full and accurate description of each figure, to which is added A brief and general idea of drawing and painting in water-colours; with instructions for etching on copper with aqua fortis; likewise some thoughts on the passage of birds; and additions to many subjects described in this work. London: printed for the author, at the College of Physicians in Warwick-Lane 1743-1751’

(public domain)

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edited: 20.09.2019

Leiocephalus cuneus Etheridge

Barbuda Curly-tailed Lizard (Leiocephalus cuneus)  

This species was described in 1964 based on subfossil bones that had been found one year prior on the island of Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda.  

The species is said to have been the largest within its genus, it might in fact have reached sizes of over 40 cm (including the tail). [1][2]  

***  

The Barbuda Curly-tailed Lizard has survived at least until the 15th century, but died out shortly after the arrival of the first European settlers who also introduced rats to the islands, which again probably killed many of the endemic reptiles.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] David W. Steadman; Gregory K. Pregill; Storrs L. Olson: Fossil vertebrates from Antigua, Lesser Antilles: Evidence for late Holocene human-caused extinctions in the West Indies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 4448-4451. 1984 
[2] Gregory K. Pregill: Systematics of the West Indian Lizard Genus Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 84: 1-69. 1992  

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edited: 08.09.2019

Oligoryzomys victus (Thomas)

St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat (Oligoryzomys victus)

Described in 1898, this species is known from a single specimen that was found some years prior at an unspecified location on the island of Saint Vincent in the Caribbean.

The sole specimen has a length of 21,7 cm (including the tail); the body is dark reddish above and buffy white below, the ears are short and brown, the tail is almost hairless, brown above and slightly paler below.

The St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat apparently disappeared after the introduction of mongooses (Urva sp.) to the island.

***

Some biologists suggest that the St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat wasn’t even native to the Caribbean but that it might have been accidentally imported from somewhere on the South American mainland by pre-Columbian Amerindians. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Samuel T. Turvey; Marcelo Weksler; Elaine L. Morris; Mark Nokkert: Taxonomy, phylogeny, and diversity of the extinct Lesser Antillean rice rats (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of a new genus and species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160(4): 748-772. 2010

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edited: 17.08.2022

Cricetidae gen. & sp. ‘Carriacou’

Carriacou Rice Rat (Cricetidae gen. & sp.)

This undescribed small taxon is known on the basis of subfossil remains that were found in archaeological deposits on the island of Carriacou north of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.

The remains may belong to an island endemic species or perhaps to the so called St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat (Oligoryzomys victus (Thomas)), a species that apparently was accidentally transported from somewhere on the South American mainland to the Antillean islands by pre-Columbian Amerindians. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Samuel T. Turvey; Marcelo Weksler; Elaine L. Morris; Mark Nokkert: Taxonomy, phylogeny, and diversity of the extinct Lesser Antillean rice rats (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of a new genus and species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160(4): 748-772. 2010 

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edited: 02.12.2018

Megalomys sp. ‘Barbuda’

Barbuda Rice Rat (Megalomys sp.)

This species is known from subfossil remains, which originally were not assigned to any known genus.

The Barbuda Rice Rat was endemic to the island of Barbuda, Antigua and Barbuda, in the Lesser Antilles, it was sympatric with another species of the same genus, the Barbuda Giant Rice Rat (Megalomys audreyae Hopwood). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Gregory K. Pregill; David W. Steadman; David R. Watters: Late Quaternary vertebrate faunas of the Lesser Antilles: historical components of Caribbean biogeography. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History 30: 1-51. 1994

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edited: 17.02.2020

Amazona sp. ‘Montserrat’

Montserrat Amazon (Amazona sp.)

The Montserrat Amazon is known only from subfossil remains, a coracoid, a femur, two humeri and an ulna, found at the Trants archaeological site on the island of Montserrat.

The species was the smallest member of its genus found in the Caribbean region so far. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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edited: 13.02.2020

Eleutherodactylus sp. ‘St. Eustatius’

Sint Eustatius Coqui (Eleutherodactylus sp.)  

This species is known from subfossil remains that were collected at the island of Sint Eustatius in the Lesser Antilles. It was not identical with the Antilles Coqui (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei Barbour) (see photo), a species that is quite widespread on the Lesser Antilles, but that apparently was introduced to Sint Eustatius.  

The species disappeared after the introduction of predatory mammals.  

*********************    

Antilles Coqui (Eleutherodactylus johnstonei)  

Photo: Charles J. Sharp  

(under creative commons license (4.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 

*********************  

edited: 07.11.2017

Oleacina guadeloupensis Pfeiffer

Guadeloupe Robber Snail (Oleacina guadeloupensis)  

The Guadeloupe Robber Snail was described in 1856, it was endemic to the Guadeloupe archipelago in the Lesser Antilles.

The species inhabited damp, shady places under plant debris and stones and probably, like most members of its family, fed on other snail species.

The Guadeloupe Robber Snail is now considered extinct.

************************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 19, Oleacinidae, Ferussacidae 1907-1908’  

(public domain)

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edited: 06.09.2019

Allenia fusca ssp. atlantica Buden

Barbuda Scaly-breasted Trasher (Allenia fusca ssp. atlantica

The ca. 23 cm large Scaly-breasted Trasher (Allenia fusca (Statius Müller)) was described in 1776, the species is quite widely distributed over the Lesser Antilles where at least five subspecies can be distinguished.

The subspecies discussed here was endemic to the island of Barbuda, it was described as being distinct in 1993.

The biology of the Barbuda Scaly-breasted Trasher is not well known, it apparently was resticted to dry coastal shrublands and mangroves, where it fed on fruits as well as on small animals.

The Barbudan form was last recorded in 1990 and obviously was never seen again since, it is now fearded to be extinct.

***

The photo below shows the nominate race from the island of Dominica.

*********************

Scaly-breasted Trasher (Allenia fusca (Statius Müller)); nominate form

Photo: Postdlf

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

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edited: 18.09.2019

Amazona sp. ‘Grenada’

Grenada Amazon (Amazona sp.)

The Grenada Amazon, to my knowledge, is known exclusively only by a poorly description given by Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre from 1667. [1][2]

The species, if indeed it was one, was apparently extirpated shortly after. 

*********************

References:

[1] Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre: Histoire generale des Antilles habitées par les François.: Divisée en deux tomes, et enrichie de cartes & de figures. A Paris: Chez Thomas Iolly, au palais, en la salle des merciers, à la palme, & aux armes d’Hollande. 1667-1671
[2] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001

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edited: 23.04.2019

Amphicyclotulus guadeloupensis de la Torre, Bartsch & Morrison

Guadeloupe Land Snail (Amphicyclotulus guadeloupensis)

The Guadeloupe Land Snail was described in 1942, it was endemic to the island of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,28 cm in heigth and about 1,76 cm in diameter. [1]

***

There seems not to be much known about this species.

*********************

References:

[1] Carlos de la Torre; Paul Bartsch; Joseph P. E. Morrison: The cyclophorid operculate land mollusks of America. Washington, United States Govt. Print. Off. 1942

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Photo from: ‘Carlos de la Torre; Paul Bartsch; Joseph P. E. Morrison: The cyclophorid operculate land mollusks of America. Washington, United States Govt. Print. Off. 1942’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 06.09.2019

Ara guadeloupensis Clark

Guadeloupe Macaw (Ara guadeloupensis)  

The Guadeloupe Macaw aka. Lesser Antillean Macaw is the best presented Caribbean macaw species, regarding contemporaneous accounts.  

The first of these accounts dates from 1553, comes from the Spanish historian Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés and is itself referring to another account from 1496, made by Fernando Colón (Ferdinand Columbus), a Spanish bibliographer and the second son of Cristoforo Colombo (Christopher Columbus), who again mentions chicken-sized parrots, which the Island Caribs called Guacamayas, in Guadeloupe. [2]  

There are very detailed accounts made by Jean Baptiste Du Tetre in 1667, who not only describes the bird in detail but also gives some information about its life and the way it was hunted by the natives and so on. [1][2]  

***

A subfossil terminal phalanx, found in late Pleistocene cave deposits on the island of Marie-Galante, a small island offshore the east coast of Basse Terre and Grande Terre, Guadeloupe, has been assigned to a Ara sp., another skeletal remain; a single subfossil ulna recovered from an archaeological site on the same small island is also assignable to a Ara sp.. These two remains are the only evidence for the former presense of a macaw species on the Guadeloupe archipelago. [3][4]  

***

The St. Croix Macaw (Ara autochthones Wetmore), which is known from several subfossil remains, as well as the undescribed Montserrat Macaw (Ara sp.) known from subfossil remains from the island of Montserrat, might be identical with this species.

*********************  

References:  [1] J. B. Du Tetre: Histoire Générale des Antilles Habitées par les François. Paris: T. Lolly 1667 
[2] Austin H. Clark: The Lesser Antillean Macaws. The Auk 22(3): 266-273. 1905 
[3] Charles A. Woods; Florence E. Sergile: Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, Second Edition. CRC Press; Auflage: Subsequent 2001
[4] Monica Gala; Arnaud Lenoble: Evidence of the former existence of an endemic macaw in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Journal of Ornithology 156(4): 1061–1066. 2015  

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘Georges-Louis Leclerc: Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. A Paris: De l’Imprimerie royale 1749-1803’  

(public domain)  

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edited: 06.09.2019

Isolobodon portoricensis Allen

Puerto Rican Hutia (Isolobodon portoricensis 

The Puerto Rican Hutia was described on the basis of remains found in aboriginal midden remains on the island of Puerto Rico.  

The species, however, was actually native only to the island of Hispaniola, perhaps including some small offshore islands, this is known from fossil remains that were found at sites without anthropogenic relations  

The Puerto Rican Hutia was imported by the natives to other islands for nutrition purposes, and indeed all bone remains of this species found outside the island of Hispaniola were found in the litter of former natives settlements.  

The species disappeared at around 1280 to 1425 A.D..  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson: Fossil Vertebrates from the Bahamas. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 48. 1982 
[2] Clare Flemming; R. D. E. MacPhee: Redetermination of holotype of Isolobodon portoricensis (Rodentia, Capromyidae), with notes on recent mammalian extinctions in Puerto Rico. American Museum Novitates 3278: 1-11. 1999 
[3] Donald A. McFarlane; Abel Vale; Keith Christenson; Joyce Lundberg; Gabriel Atilles; Stein-Erik Lauritzen: New specimens of Late Quaternary extinct mammals from caves in Sanchez Ramirez Province, Dominican Republic. Caribbean Journal of Science 36: 163-166. 2000  

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cranium

Photo from: ‘Gerrit S. Miller, Jr.: Bones of mammals from Indian sites in Cuba and Santo Domingo. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 66(12): 1-10. 1916’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 06.09.2019

Pennatomys nivalis Turvey, Weksler, Morris & Nokkert

Nevis Rice Rat (Pennatomys nivalis)  

The Nevis Rice Rat was described in 2010 based on subfossil remains found in Amerindian archaeological sites that date from about 790 B.C. to 1200 A.D..  

The rat inhabited the islands of Nevis and St. Kitts, Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, as well as the nearby Sint Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands, which together formed a single larger island during Quaternary low sea-level stands. [2]  

***

The Nevis Rat may in fact have survived until the 20th century because there are several reports from the early 18th up to the early 20th century of rats being eaten on Nevis and St. Kitts, some of the rats recorded as unusual-looking, so that they may well represent this species, yet this can possibly never be proved.  

In a report by Reverend William Smith from 1720 it can be read.:  

… others will wrap up Cane Rats, in Banano-Leaves, and roast them in Wood Embers.” [1]  

***

Nevis Island is now overrun by introduced predatory mongooses and rats. [2]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] William Smith, Revd. Mr.: A natural history of Nevis and the rest of the English Leeward Charibee Islands in America: with many other observations on nature and art, particularly an introduction to the art of decyphering. Cambridge: printed by J. Bentham 1745 
[2] S. T. Turvey; M. Weksler; E. L. Morris; M. Nokkert: Taxonomy, phylogeny and diversity of the extinct Lesser Antillean rice rats (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of a new genus and species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160(4): 784-772. 2010

*********************  

edited: 17.02.2020