Tag Archives: Australia

Lewinia pectoralis ssp. clelandi (Mathews)

Cleland’s Rail (Lewinia pectoralis ssp. clelandi)

Lewin’s Rail (Lewinia pectoralis (Temminck)) is a ca. 25 cm large bird found in Australia, New Guinea and some parts of the so-called Wallacea; at least eight subspecies are known to exists.

***

The form discussed here, Cleland’s Rail, was endemic to a small region in the far south-west of Western Australia, where it inhabited dense vegetation around saline-, brackish- and freshwater wetlands. This form differed from the nominate (see photo below) by its larger size, its longer and deeper beak and by its breast plumage being clearer grey, with only small olive-buff feather tips.

Cleland’s Rail was probably always a rather rare form, it became finally extinct when its wetland habitats were destroyed, mainly through drainage and clearance burning for agriculture and settlement; the form was last seen in 1932.

*********************

Photo: matthewlh
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/matthewlh
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References: 

[1] Barry Taylor, Ber van Perlo: Rails: A Guide to the Rails, Crakes, Gallinules and Coots of the World. Yale University Press 1998

*********************

edited: 17.02.2024

Cyclonidea carina Laseron

Christmas Island Tower Snail (Cyclonidea carina)

This species was described in 1956; it is known only from the waters surrounding Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916 and might well be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 14.02.2024

Haliclona innominata (Kirkpatrick)

Nameless Sponge (Haliclona innominata)

This species was described and – yes – also named thereby, in 1900; it is only known from the sea surrounding Christmas Island, Australia.

Sponge incrusting; colour pale brown with a faint reddish tinge; texture soft and elastic.

The species has never been found since its description and is now believed to be possibly extinct. [1]

***

syn. Reniera innominata Kirkpatrick

*********************

Depiction from: ‘R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 15.02.2024

Dicliptera maclearii Hemsley

Maclear’s Dicliptera (Dicliptera maclearii)

Maclear’s Dicliptera was described in 1890; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was originally found to be “common on [the] shore platform” [1] but has not been seen since the 1960s and might now be extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 18.02.2024

Amarygmus funebris Arrow

Dark Darkling Beetle (Amarygmus funebris)

The Dark Darkling Beetle was described in 1900 based on nine specimens that had been collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a length of about 0,9 cm; “the colour is black, tinged with a deep purplish or greenish hue, especially upon the head, thorax, and anterior part of the elytra. Some specimens present a slightly sericeous bloom upon the upper surface. Underneath it is a shining black, with the abdominal segment striated longitudinally.” [1]

The Dark Darkling Beetle was not found since the 1930s and is considered very likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 27.04.2022

Zebina acicula Laseron

Needle-like Zebina Snail (Zebina acicula)

The Needle-like Zebina Snail was described in 1956; it is restricted to the sea around Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916, when the type material was collected.

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Turnix olivii Robinson

Buff-breasted Buttonquail (Turnix olivii)  

The Buff-breasted Buttonquail was described in 1900; it is, or maybe was, restricted to the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia.

The species reaches a size of 18 to 23 cm, as in all buttonquail species, the females are larger than the males.

The Buff-breasted Buttonquail was allegedly last seen in 2015; however, this sighting is unconfirmed; subsequent species-targeted surveys between 2018 and 2021 including things like camera trapping, call playback etc. did find all of the other Australian buttonquail species yet not this one.

The species’ population may have been affected by predation by introduced mammals, especially by feral cats, but buttonquails are also known to be highly vulnerable to climate changes due to their high climate change sensitivity and low adaptive capacity; thus it is very likely that this species is already extinct.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. London, Witherby & Co. 1910-1927’

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 19.02.2024

Sympterichthys unipennis (Cuvier)

Smooth Handfish (Sympterichthys unipennis)

The Smooth Handfish, described in 1817, is known from a single specimen (see photo below) that was collected in 1802 (see photo below); it was restricted to a very small area in the D’Entrecasteaux Channel offshore southern Tasmania, Australia.

The species is only about 4.4 cm long; it is strongly compressed and has rough skin without warty protuberances; it is reddish brown, marbled with darker brown.

The Smooth Handfish very likely fell victim to the intensive scallop- and oyster harvesting that went on in the area between the 19th and mid-20th centuries, which dredged every part of the channel, resulting in the destruction of the species’ habitat.

The species was declared extinct in 2020; yet there is still some hope that a small population may have survived somewhere around southern Tasmania.

***

syn. Chironectes unipennis Cuvier

*********************

Photo: Australian National Fish Collection, CSIRO
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/deed.en

*********************

edited: 22.02.2024

Patellapis binghami (Kirby)

Bingham’s Sweat Bee (Patellapis binghami)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The bee reached a length of about 5.5 cm and a wingspan of about 1.1 cm; the head and the thorax are glossy black, sometimes with a very faint greenish tint, very finely punctured; the abdomen is shining black; the wings are iridescent hyaline with an yellowish-brown neuration. [1]

Bingham’s Sweat Bee was last recorded in 1968; it was never found despite considerable dedicated efforts. [2]

***

syn. Halictus binghami Kirby

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 13.02.2024

Choreutis ornaticornis (Walsingham)

(Choreutis ornaticornis)

This species was described in 1900 based on ten specimens; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The head is brownish ochreous, mixed with pale cinerous; the thorax is brownish ochreous, becoming dark brownish grey posteriorly; the abdomen is bronzy brownish; the forewings are olivaceous brownish, with two narrow transverse bands of pale cinereous speckling between the base and the middle; the hind wings are dark bronzy brownish, with some faint pale curved streaks running through them before the margin, the underside with two speckled pale cinereous bands.

The species was never found since and is most likely extinct.

***

syn. Simaethis ornaticornis Walsingham

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 05.01.2024

Tylos nudulus Budde-Lund

Naked Beach Pillbug (Tylos nudulus)

The Naked Beach Pillbug was described in 1906; it is known only from the beaches of Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species has never been found since its description and appears to be extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Tetratheca fasciculata Joy Thomps.

Cronin’s Tetratheca (Tetratheca fasciculata)  

Cronin’s Tetratheca was a small shrub about 20 cm tall with hairy shoots and pink flowers from the area around the town of Wagin in Western Australia. 

The species was last seen in 1895 and is now considered extinct.

***

The photo below shows a congeneric species, the Crowd-leaved Tetratheca (Tetratheca confertifolia Steetz), which is probably more widespread throughout Western Australia.

*********************

Crowd-leaved Tetratheca (Tetratheca confertifolia)

Photo: Melissa Doherty
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/melissadoherty
(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.08.2011

Ascetoderes strigatus (Arrow)

Banded Dry Bark Beetle (Ascetoderes strigatus)

The Banded Dry Bark Beetle was described in 1900 based on a single specimen that was collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 cm; “The colour is black, with the antennae and legs a very dark red. The head and thorax are coarsely punctured, and there are a few scattered punctures on the first and third interstices of each elytron. The third interstice is also angularly elevated, and beyond it the striae are replaced by three sharp costae. Near the base of the thorax is a U-shaped impressed line enclosing a smooth area, and in front of this is a shallow depression.” [1]

The species is now most likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.04.2022

Rhipidura cervina Ramsay

Lord Howe Fantail (Rhipidura cervina)

The Lord Howe Fantail, also known as Fawn-breasted Fantail, was endemic to Lord Howe Island; it is sometimes treated as a subspecies of the New Zealand fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa (Sparrman)).

The species was formerly very plentiful and widespread on its island home.

We obtained the really elegant Rhipidura cervina, Ramsay, another species peculiar to Lord Howe. It is a delicate bird, frequenting any open glades where insects can be taken on the wing.” [1]

Nearly all of the endemic or native birds that formerly inhabited Lord Howe Island disappeared shortly after 1918, when the steamship ‘SS Makambo’ ran aground on Ned’s Beach in the northern part of the island and Black Rats (Rattus rattus (L.)) from the wreck came ashore.

The species was apparently last seen in 1924.

***

syn. Rhipidura fuliginosa ssp. cervina Ramsay, Rhipidura macgillivrayi Sharpe

*********************

lower bird

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The birds of Norfolk & Lord Howe Islands and the Australasian South Polar quadrant: with additions to “birds of Australia”. London: H. F. & G. Witherby 1928’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Etheridge: The general zoology of Lord Howe Island; containing also an account of the collections made by the Australian Museum Collecting Party, Aug.-Sept., 1887. Australian Museum Memoir 2(1): 1-42. 1889

*********************

edited: 27.02.2024

Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans (Butler)

Australian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans)

 

The Australian- or laced Fritillary was described in 1873, originally as a distinct species, but is now regarded as a subspecies of the Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius (L.)) (see photo). It is endemic to eastern Australia, where it is restricted to coastal areas of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales.

The species inhabited damp areas where the host plants of its larvae, Banks’ Violet (Viola banksii K. R. Thiele & Prober) and the Arrow-leaved Violet (Viola betonicifolia Sm.), were found growing abundantly.

Most of the sites that this species was known to inhabit, have been destroyed due to human activities, thus the populations broke down and disappeared completely; the very last known specimen was finally caught on April 17th, 2001, the Australian Fritillary is now most likely totally extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Trevor A. lambkin: Argynnis hyperbius inconsistans Butler, 1873 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae): a review of its collection history and biology. Australian Entomologist 44(4): 223-268. 2017

*********************

Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius)

Photo: Shriram Bhakare
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/milind_bhakare

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 07.08.2022

Anisodes hypomion Prout

Christmas Island Anisodes Geometer Moth (Anisodes hypomion)

This species was described in 1933, apparently based on a single specimen, a female: it has a wingspan of 2,2 cm; its wings have a light pinkish cinnamon color and bear several darker and lighter colored markings. [1]

The species was not found since and is considered possibly extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Louis B. Prout: The Geometridae of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 8: 88-94. 1933
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 08.09.2020

Thomasia gardneri Paunt

Mouth Holland Thomasia (Thomasia gardneri)

The Mount Holland Thomasia was described in 1974, based on the type material that apparently was collected in 1929; it was restricted to a region somewhere near Mt. Holland in southern Western Australia.

The species is now most likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Kelly A. Sheperd: A key to the species of Thomasia (Malvaceae: Byttnerioideae). Nuytsia 30: 195-202. 2019

*********************

edited: 03.05.2022

Hemithea hyperymna Prout

Christmas Island Emerald (Hemithea hyperymna)

The Christmas Island Emerald was described in 1933; it is, or rather was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species hasn’t been seen since the 1930s and might well be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 02.05.2022

Trianthema cypseloides (Frenzl) Benth.

Hawkesbury Pigweed (Trianthema cypseloides)

This species is only known from the type material that was collected from the Hawkesbury River in New South Wales, Australia

This was a small, creeping, ground-dwelling herb with short branches and egg-shaped, about 0,5 cm long, slightly succulent leaves and flowers appearing in loose, flat-topped clusters.

The reasons for the extinction of this species are not known.

***

The photo below shows another congeneric species from Australia, the Star Pigweed (Trianthema oxycalyptrum F.Muell.)

*********************

Star Pigweed (Trianthema oxycalyptrum)

Photo: @WA_Botanist
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/wa_botanist
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 25.01.2024

Graphium macleayanum ssp. insulana (Waterhouse)

Lord Howe Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum ssp. insulana)

Macleay’s Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum (Leach)) is an Australian butterfly species that contains three subspecies, of which two occur in Australia while the third one was restricted to Lord Howe Island.

The larvae feed on several plant species from the Atherospermataceae, the Lauraceae and the Winteraceae.

The Lord Howe subspecies, described in 1920, was last seen in 1893 and is now obviously extinct.

***

The photo below shows the south-eastern Australian subspecies of Macleay’s Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum ssp. moggana Couchman).

*********************

Macleay’s Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum ssp. moggana)

Photo: daniaustin
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/daniaustin
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 02.02.2024

Taylorilygus aldrichi (Izzard)

Aldrich’s Plant Bug (Taylorilygus aldrichi)

Aldrich’s Plant Bug was described in 1936 on the basis of material that had been collected in 1933 on Christmas Island, Australia.

The species has not been recorded since and appears to be extinct now.

***

syn. Lygus aldrichi Izzard

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Taylorilygus murrayi (Izzard)

Murray’s Plant Bug (Taylorilygus murrayi)

This species, which is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, was last recorded in 1933, it may now be extinct. [1]

There appear to exist no further information about this species.

***

syn. Lygus murrayi Izzard

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Leporillus apicalis (Gould)

Lesser Stick-Nest Rat (Leporillus apicalis)

The Lesser Stick-Nest Rat, which is also known as White-tipped Stick-Nest Rat, is a true rodent that formerly inhabited the arid regions of central Australia, where it appears to have formerly been quite widespread.

The species is known to have accumulated large mounds of sticks over years to construct its nests which then could grow to sizes of about 3 m in length and 1 m in height; these nests were placed at the foot of a tree or inside a natural cave.

Native people that were questioned in the 1980s could well remember these conspicuous nests.:

Many people knew stick-nest rats by the large nests remaining in breakaway caves and from the stories that have been handed down about their former occupants. Only the very oldest people could remember nests other than in caves …. We could find no evidence that more than one species was recognised [sic].” [1]

The natives did not distinguish between the two known species and indiscriminately called both of them PurnuwuruTjuyalpiYininma or Yintjurrka.

The Lesser Stick-Nest Rat disappeared during the 1930s or the 1940s; however, there apparently was a sighting of a single individual in the 1970s.

Once apparently very common, at least in some places, since Giles (1889) reported abundant nests out in the open in some areas. However, Spencer (1896) had difficulty in obtaining specimens near Alice Springs, so it may have already been in decline by then. In the 1930s Tindale shot ciné-photography in north-western South Australia of Aborigines huting [sic] stick-nest rats with the aid of dogs.” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘John Gould: The Mammals of Australia. London: Taylor & Francis 1863’

(public domain)

*********************  

References:  

[1] Andrew A. Burbridge; Ken A. Johnson; Phillip J. Fuller; R. I. Southgate: Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 9-39. 1988

*********************

edited: 24.02.2024

Peritropis listeri (Izzard)

Lister’s Capsid Bug (Peritropis listeri)

Lister’s Capsid Bug was restricted to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean; it is apparently known only from specimens that were collected in 1933. [1]

The species was not found since and is believed to be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 9.11.2021

Melobasis empyria Olliff

Fiery Jewel Beetle (Melobasis empyria)

The Fiery Jewel Beetle was described in 1889; it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species reached a length of 1,2 cm; it was “Coppery green, shining; prothorax bright coppery, purplish on the disc; scutellum fiery copper; elytra coppery, with purple refelxions, irregularly striate-punctate, the third and fourth interstices obviously raised.
Head nearly flat in front, coarsely and very densely punctured. Prothorax at the base more than one-third broader than long, considerably narrowed in front, rather strongly and sparingly punctured on the disc, the punctuation at the sides much stronger and denser, the anterior margin slightly produced in the middle, its angles produced and rounded; the sides rounded; the posterior margin nearly straight. Scutellum excessively finely punctured. Elytra about twice as long as broad, coppery, inclining to fiery near the suture and about the middle, rather strongly and irregularly striate-punctate; the sides straight and nearly parallel for about two-thirds of their length, then denticulate, and narrowed to the apex. Underside bright coppery green, the sterna strongly and not very closely punctured, the abdomen with the punctuation somewhat obsolete. legs coppery green, finely punctured, the tarsi darker.
” [1]

The species has not been collected since the 1880s and is very likely extinct now. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889
[2] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Hypocambala exocoeti (Pocock)

Christmas Island Round-backed Millipede (Hypocambala exocoeti)

The Christmas Island Round-backed Millipede was described in 1888.

The species was not seen since its description and is now possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 09.09.2020

Somatidia pulchella Olliff

Beautiful Lord Howe Longhorn Beetle (Somatidia pulchella)

 

The Beautiful Lord Howe Longhorn Beetle was described in 1889; it was endemic to lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species reached a length of 1 cm; it was “Elongate, very convex, narrowed both in front and behind, bronze green, shining, tinged with purple, very sparingly clothed with erect testaceous setae; elytra strongly punctured near the base; antennae, tibiae, and tarsi pale reddish testaceous; femora fuscous. Head transverse, finely and sparingly pubescent, with a few punctures on the disc; the median line distinct. Antennae with the third joint rather longer than the first, the succeeding joints slightly decreasing in length. Prothorax longer than broad, less narrowed in front than behind, sub-cylindrical, rather strongly and closely punctured, the punctures less strong anteriorly, clothed with very fine pubescence and scattered setae. Scutellum triangular, very small. Elytra elongate-ovate, the punctuation strong and moderately dense near the base, gradually effaced posteriorly, clothed with very fine gray pubescence near the suture and at the sides, with four rows of long erect setae which emanate from punctures, and are separated by considerable intervals; each elytron with three longitudinal elevations on the basal half, of which the first only is conspicuous. Legs moderately long, finely pubescent; the femora thickened.” [1]

The species has not been collected since the 1910s and is now considered most likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889
[2] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Elasmotena insulana Olliff

Lord Howe Island Longhorn Beetle (Elasmotena insulana)

 

The Lord Howe Island Longhorn Beetle was described in 1890; it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species reached a length of about 2 cm; it was dark fuscous and was clothed with very fine decumbent griseous brown pubescence as well as sparingly with long erect hairs of the same color.

The Lord Howe Island Longhorn Beetle has not been collected since the 1880s and is now considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Sydney Olliff: Additions to the insect-fauna of Lord Howe Island, and descriptions of two new Australian Coleoptera. Records of the Australian Museum 1: 72-76. 1890’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Howeotranes insularis (Pascoe)

Mt. Gower Weevil (Howeotranes insularis)

The Mt. Gower Weevil was described in 1874; it was originally thought to be endemic to the summit of Mt. Gower but did also occur on the low elevations of Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species hasn’t been collected since the 1920s and is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Comostolopsis regina Thierry-Mieg

Regina’s Comostolopsis Geometer Moth (Comostolopsis regina)

Regina’s Comostolopsis Geometer Moth was described in 1915 based on specimens that had been collected in the years between 1897 and 1898 on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was apparently never found since and might be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 19.08.2022

Tomoxia howensis Lea

Lord Howe Island Pintail Beetle (Tomoxia howensis)

The Lord Howe Island Pintail Beetle was described in 1917; it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species reached a length of about 0,8 cm; it was generally black with a vague bluish iridescence, in some lights the elytral pubescence appears to be of a rusty-brown, and that on the scutellum greyish.

The Lord Howe Island Pintail Beetle has not been collected since the 1880s and is now considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Armactica andrewsi Hampson

Andrew’s Owlet Moth (Armactica andrewsi)

This species was described in 1912, it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean and was formerly considered very common during the greater part of the rainy season. [1]

The species has not been found since the 1930s and might now be extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] H. M. Pendlebury: Lepidoptera (Heterocera). Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 18: 58-73. 1947
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 08.09.2020

Polyura sempronius ssp. tiberius (Waterhouse)

Lord Howe Island Tailed Emperor (Polyura sempronius ssp. tiberius)

The Lord Howe Island Tailed Emperor was described in 1920, it is endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The biology of this form is not well known, it was apparently last recorded in 1969, it is supposed to be extinct, but might in fact still exist.

*********************

edited: 08.05.2021

Bocula limbata (Butler)

Bordered Bocula Moth (Bocula limbata)

The Bordered Bocula Moth was described in 1888; it is, or rather was, restricted to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species has not been found since the 1930s and is thought to be extinct now. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 25.04.2022

Xenopsylla nesiotes (Jordan & Rothschild)

Maclear Rat Flea (Xenopsylla nesiotes)

The Maclear’s Rat Flea was described in 1908; it was strictly adapted to Maclears Rat (Rattus macleari(Thomas)) as its one and only host species.

The species died out together with its host around 1903.

***

syn. Loemopsylla nesiotes Jordan & Rothschild

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Peperomia rossii Rendle ex Baker f.

Ross’s Peperomia (Peperomia rossii)

Ross’s Peperomia was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was an epiphytic herb that reached sizes of about 5 to 10 cm, the stems were glabrous and rooted at their nodes, the leaves were usually opposite, elliptic and 1 to 3 cm long.

Ross’s Peperomia is only known from the type material, which was collected in 1898, it has never been found since and is apparently extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 03.05.2022

Xylotoles wollastoni (White)

Wollaston’s Lord Howe Longhorn Beetle (Xylotoles wollastoni)

Wollaston’s Lord Howe Longhorn Beetle is endemic to Lord Howe Island; it was described in 1856, was apparently only seen one time after 1916 and might now be extinct.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘A. White: Descriptions of some coleopterous insects in the Collection of the British Museum, hitherto apparently unnoticed. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 24. 8-17. 1856’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.04.2021

Cossonus variipennis Gahan

Christmas Island Rotten-Wood Weevil (Cossonus variipennis)

The Christmas Island Rotten-Wood Weevil was described in 1900; it is, or maybe was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was last recorded in 1897-98 and might well be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 14.02.2024

Anas sp. ‘Macquarie Islands’

Macquarie Island Duck (Anas sp.)

 

The Macquarie Island Duck is known only from subfossil bones that were recovered from deposits on the island of Macquarie in the subantarctic Pacific Ocean. [1]

This was a flightless duck, very much alike the likewise flightless Auckland Teal (Anas aucklandica Gray) which inhabits the Auckland Islands in the subantarctic part of New Zealand or the Campbell Island teal (Anas nesiotis J. H. Fleming), which again is restricted to the subantarctic Campbell Islands, and which once was also almost extinct.

The Macquarie Island Duck certainly fell victim to the cats that had been imported to its island home by sailors and whalers that used Macquarie Island as a base camp.

*********************

References:

[1] Trevor H. Worthy, Richard N. Holdaway: The Lost World of the Moa, Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2002
[2] Alan J. D. Tennyson; R. Paul Scofiled: Holocene fossil bird remains from subantarctic Macquarie Island. Paleornithological Research. Proceed. 8th Internat. Meeting Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution 2013

*********************

Auckland Teal (Anas aucklandica Gray) (the two birds on the right) together with New Zealand Brown Duck (Anas chlorotis)

Depiction from: ‘John C. Phillips: A Natural History of the Ducks. Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company; 1922-1926’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 10.11.2021

Eophileurus convexus (Arrow)

Convex Rhinoceros Beetle (Eophileurus convexus)

The Convex Rhinoceros Beetle was described in 1900; the species is known from a  single specimen that had been found in 1897 or 1898 at Flying Fish Cove at the northern coast of Christmas Island, Australia.

This new species is formed for the first representative of the important family Dynastidae so found in the island, a single specimen having been recently discovered by Mr. H. Ross. 
This species is less flattened, and somewhat longer than usual, but does not differ structurally from the larger described forms of Continental Asia, where all its hitherto known allies are found, ….
” [1]

The species has never been found and might well be extinct now. [2]

***

syn. Phileurus convexus Arrow

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 15.02.2024

Aplonis fusca (Gould)

Norfolk Starling (Aplonis fusca)

The Norfolk Starling, aka. Tasman Starling, was restricted to Norfolk Island.

The species reached a size of 20 cm; it was greyish brown colored, with the males having some metallic glossy green feathers on the head.

The Norfolk Starling disappeared due to a combination of several factors, including competition from introduced European Starlings and thrushes, overhunting and destruction of their habitats through agricultural clearings.

The species was apparently last seen in 1923.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The birds of Norfolk & Lord Howe Islands and the Australasian South Polar quadrant: with additions to “birds of Australia”. London: H. F. & G. Witherby 1928’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 30.04.2021

Lacordairia fugax (Olliff)

Swift Lord Howe Ground Beetle (Lacordairia fugax)

The Swift Lord Howe Ground Beetle was described in 1889; it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species reached a length of about 1,3 cm; it was “Elongate-ovate, dark piceous, shining, sometimes with a bluish tinge; elytra strongly striate, the interstices rather narrow, plain; antennae (except the basal joint) and palpi reddish testaceous; legs rufo-piceous.
Head narrow; eyes rather prominent. Antennae more than two-thirds the length of the body, the basal joint piceous. Prothorax narrowed behind, with a distinct median line; the sides rounded in front; posterior angles rounded: Elytra oblong-ovate, very slightly contracted before the middle, strongly and regularly striate, the interstices narrow and smooth, the second stria, on each side, with an obscure puncture before the middle; sides slightly sinuate before the apex. Legs rather long.
” [1]

The Swift Lord Howe Ground Beetle was last recorded before 1900 and is now considered extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889
[2] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Streblorrhiza speciosa Endl.

Phillip Island Glory Pea (Streblorrhiza speciosa)

The Phillip Island Glory Pea, aka. Flesh-colored Glory Pea, was endemic to Phillip Island in the Norfolk Islands; it is the sole member of its monotypic genus.

The species died out in the wild around 1830 due to introduced ungulates, however, it was kept in several botanical gardens for some time, however, all these cultivated plants seem to have subsequently disappeared as well.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Edward’s Botanical Register 27. 1841’

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 25.05.2021

Hesperus gigas (Lea)

Giant Lord Howe Island Roof Beetle (Hesperus gigas)

The Giant Lord Howe Island Roof Beetle was described in 1929 based on specimens that had been collected from the summit of Mt. Lidgbird on Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species was flightless, it reached a size of about 1,7 cm, making it a true giant compared to most other species of its family.

The Giant Lord Howe Island Roof Beetle has never been found again since its description, and it is quite clear that this big insect fell victim to introduced mice and rats, it is now extinct. [1][2]

***

Lord Howe Island still harbors two very large members of the same genus: Hesperus dolichoderes (Lea) and Hesperus pacificus Olliff. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007
[2] Arn Rytter Jensen; Josh Jenkins Shaw; Dagmara Żyła; Alexey Solodovnikov: A total-evidence approach resolves phylogenetic placement of ‘Cafius’ gigas, a unique recently extinct rove beetle from Lord Howe Island. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 190(4): 1159-1174. 2020

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Leptopius etheridgei (Olliff)

Etheridge’s Leptopius Weevil (Leptopius etheridgei)

 

Etheridge’s Leptopius Weevil was described in 1889; it was restricted to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

the species reached a length of about 1,2 cm; it was “Elongate ovate, piceous, densely covered with griseous scales; rostrum long, depressed in the middle; prothorax rugulose, narrowed in front; elytra ample, seriate-punctate, obtusely bi-tuberculate posteriorly.
Head thickly covered with scales, those near the sides inclining to ochraceous; rostrum about as long as the prothorax. Eyes narrow, vertical. Antennae rather long, the scape closely scaled, funiculus finely pubescent. Prothorax decidedly broader than long, moderately strongly rugulose, the scales inclining to ochraceous at the sides, an obscure median carina which is effaced anteriorly. Scutellum distinct, pointed behind. Elytra about two and a half times as long as the prothorax, somewhat flattened above, moderately strongly seriate-punctate, the punctures widely separated and somewhat irregular, the interstices broad and slightly raised, the third interstice slightly and the sixth rather strongly elevated posteriorly, giving the elytra a bi-tuberculate appearance. Underside and legs moderately closely scaled and finely pubescent.
” [1]

The species has not been collected since the 1910s and is now considered extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889
[2] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Sidney Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum memoir 2: 75-98. 1889’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. undulata (Latham)

Norfolk Island Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. undulata)

The Norfolk Island Boobook was described in 1801; it was endemic to Norfolk Island, where it inhabited the subtropical rainforests.

The taxon disappeared after the European settlers begun to clear the forests.

The population was reduced to a last surviving bird in 1986, a female bird named Miamiti, which died in 1996.

***

This female mated with a male boobook of the nominate race that had been introduced to Norfolk Island and produced some offspring, which again has given rise to the small population of hybrid boobooks that now inhabit this island.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Norfolk & Lord Howe Islands and the Australian south polar quadrant with additions to “The Birds of Australia”. London: H. F. & G. Witherby 1928’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 05.11.2021

Moca chlorolepis (Walsingham)

Green-scaled Moca Moth (Moca chlorolepis)

The Green-scaled Moca Moth was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reaches a wingspan of up to 2,8 cm; the head is greyish brown, the thorax is dark brown, sprinkled with greenish and pale cinereous scales, the abdomen is greyish brown, the forewings are dark brown, profusely sprinkled with pale yellowish green scales, the hindwings are greyish brown.

The species has apparently never been recorded since its description and is believed to be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[3] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 08.05.2022

Leucopogon cryptanthus Benth.

Small-flowered Leucopogon (Leucopogon cryptanthus)

The Small-flowered Leucopogon was described in 1868; it was known from the south-west of Western Australia.

The species was described as follows.:

A slender, much-branched, apparently diffuse shrub, not exceeding 6 in., the branches pubescent. Leaves erect, linear or linear-lanceolate, tapering into a pungent point, rigid, concave, prominently ribbed, 1 to 3 lines long. Flowers few, very small and inconspicuous, in short spikes, solitary or clustered at the ends of the branches, forming little leafy cymes. Bracts similar to the leaves, and mostly exceeding the flowers; bracteoles acutely acuminate, more than half as long as the calyx. Sepals acutely acuminate, under 1 line long. Corolla rather shorter than the calyx, the lobes as long as the tube. Anther attached by the middle, oblong, obtuse, with very minute sterile tips or sometimes none. Hypogynous disk sinuate-lobed. Ovary 2-celled; style very short.” [1]

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George Bentham; Ferdinand von Mueller: Flora Australiensis. Vol. 4. London: Lovell Reeve & Co. 1868

*********************

edited: 17.02.2024

Drymodes superciliaris ssp. colcloughi Mathews

Roper River Scrub Robin (Drymodes superciliaris ssp. colcloughi)

The Roper River Scrub Robin, a subspecies of the Scrub Robin (Drymodes superciliaris Gould), was described in 1914 based on two specimens, a female and a male, that are said to had been found in the Northern Territory of Australia.

Differs from D. s . superciliaris in being much redder on the back and entirely reddish-buff on the under-surface. Roper River, Northern Territory.” [1]

There are no additional records of Scrub Robins from the Northern Territory and this subspecies, if it indeed is a valid one, is considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. Vol. 9. London: Witherby & Co. 1921-1922

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. Vol. 9. London: Witherby & Co. 1921-1922’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.05.2021

Conus colmani Röckel & Korn

Colman’s Cone Snail (Conus colmani)

Described in 1990, the taxonomical status of this form is not fully understood and it is in need of a revision.

Colman’s Cone Snail is known only from a quite small area in the so-called Swain Reefs in the southern part of the giant Great Barrier Reef offshore Australia’s northern coast; it is often found as bycatch but only dead specimens have ever been found.

The species is officially listed as Data Deficient but might in fact already be extinct as some researchers suggest.

*********************

Photo: Fabrice Prugnaud
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/fabriceprugnaud
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 19.08.2022

Lepidium drummondii Thell.

Drummond’s Scurvy Grass (Lepidium drummondii)

Drummond’s Scurvy Grass was described in 1906, it was restricted to the vicinity of the Swan River in Western Australia.

The species was last collected in 1846 and is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] B. Dell; J. J. Havel; N. Malajczuk: The Jarrah Forest: A complex mediterranean ecosystem. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

*********************

edited: 16.09.2019

Acacia kingiana Maiden & Blakely

King’s Wattle (Acacia kingiana)

The King’s Wattle was described in 1928, it was endemic to Western Australia.

The species was a shrub of about 2 to 3 m height, like most of its kin it did not have leafes as a fuklly-grown plant but so-called phyllodes, leaf-shaped twigs, which in this species were about 0,1 cm long and 0,2 cm wide [which is a odd size in my opinion], and furthermore had yellow flowers.

The King’s Wattle is now most likely extinct.

***

Two additional wattle species, Acacia mathuataensis A. C. Sm. from Vanua Levu, Fiji and Acacia prismifolia E. Pritz. from Western Australia were formerly thought to be extinct as well, but were both rediscovered in 2015 and 2018 respectively.

************************

edited: 06.02.2020

Angrobia dulvertonensis (J. E. Tenison-Woods)

Macquarie Slug (Angrobia dulvertonensis)

The Macquarie Slug was described in 1876; it was a freshwater snail that was restricted to Port Macquarie, a coastal town on the mid north coast of New South Wales, Australia.

The species was last seen in 1996 and is now considered most likely extinct.

*********************

edited: 14.11.2021

Nyctophilus howensis McKean

Lord Howe Long-eared Bat (Nyctophilus howensis)  

The Lord Howe Long-eared Bat, described in 1975, is known from a single subfossil specimen, an incomplete skull that had been found some years prior on a ledge in the Gooseberry Cave on Lord Howe Island; the age of this skull was estimated to be between 100 and 50 years.

There is also an account from the late 1800s that may be referrable to this species.:

The only indigenous lower mammals existing on Lord Howe are bats, but even these are not plentiful. A single specimen of Scotophilus morio, Gray [Chocolate Wattled Bat (Chalinolobus morio (Gray))], similar to those obtained by Morton was shot by Mr. Unwin, and a larger species was occasionally seen. The “gardens” and other clearings are their favourite haunts, but they are sometimes seen flying around the cottages.” [1]

All attempts to find additional bone material or even living specimens of the species were unsuccessful and it is now considered extinct.

***

The photo below shows the closely related Lesser Long-eared Bat (Nyctophilus geoffreyi Leach) which is found in continental Australia where it appears to be quite common and widespread.

*********************

Lesser Long-eared Bat (Nyctophilus geoffreyi)

Photo: Isaac Clarey
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/isaacclarey
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Etheridge: The general zoology of Lord Howe Island; containing also an account of the collections made by the Australian Museum Collecting Party, Aug.-Sept., 1887. Australian Museum Memoir 2(1): 1-42. 1889

*********************

edited: 27.02.2024

Columba vitiensis ssp. godmanae (Mathews)

Lord Howe White-throated Pigeon (Columba vitiensis ssp. godmanae)

Described in 1915, this species is still exclusively known by some contemporaneous accounts and depictions made in the early 1800s.

This beautiful bird was restricted to Lord Howe island and was one of the first bird forms from that island to go extinct; it was actually hunted (and eaten) to extinction already by the first few European settlers on the island.

The Lord Howe White-throated Pigeon is now usually considered a subspecies of the White-throated Pigeon (Columba vitiensis Qouy & Gaimard) which is distributed from the Philippines to eastern Indonesia, parts of Melanesia to westernmost Polynesia; however, the species is a candidate for splitting, and some forms should rather be regarded as distinct species, including the extinct one from Lord Howe Island.

The pigeons were last recorded in 1853.

*********************

Depiction from an album of watercolor drawings of Australian natural history owned by a man named Robert Anderson Seton; ca. 1800

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 19.08.2022

Amphibromus whitei C. E. Hubb.

White’s Wallaby Grass (Amphibromus whitei)  

White’s Wallaby Grass is only known from the type material, that was collected in the year 1933 at the edge of a large fresh water swamp in an area named Maranoa in the south of Queensland.  

It is an about 20 to 35 cm tall grass.  

The species was never fund again, and is considered most likely extinct.  

*********************  

edited: 23.09.2017

Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. albaria (Ramsay)

Lord Howe Island Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae ssp. albaria)

 

The Lord Howe Island Boobook was endemic to Lord Howe Island, where it inhabited the dense rainforests.

It was larger than the nominate form from New Zealand, and should probably rather be considered a distinct species.

Like so many other bird species from Lord Howe Island, also this owl species was severely affected by the grounding of the steamship ‘SS Makambo’ in 1918 which led to a literal flooding of the island by ship rats which killed many of the birds but especially destroyed their nests and eggs; additionally at least two Australian owl species, Australian Boobooks (Ninox boobook (Latham)) and Australian Masked Owls (Tyto novaehollandiae (Stephens)), were imported to Lord Howe Island in the 1920s to get rid of the rat plague, these owl species may also have taken their toll on the endemic form.

The Lord Howe Boobook might have survived into the 1950s when boobook calls were heard; these calls however, may also have come from the Australian Booboock, which apparently has since also vanished from the island.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Norfolk & Lord Howe Islands and the Australian south polar quadrant with additions to “The Birds of Australia”. London: H. F. & G. Witherby 1928’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 05.11.2021

Amytornis modestus ssp. modestus (North)

Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis modestus ssp. modestus)

The nominate race of the Thick-billed Grasswren once inhabited the Northern Territory of central Australia.

*********************

Photo from: ‘Andrew B. Black; Justin J. F. J. Jansen; Sylke Frahnert; Ulf S. Johansson: Provisional identification of historical grasswren (Amytornis: Maluridae) specimens in European collections draws attention to the incomplete phylogeny of the group. British Ornithologists’ Club 139(3): 228-237. 2019′

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/deed.en

*********************

edited: 02.05.2021

Hemiphaga spadicea (Latham)

Norfolk Island Pigeon (Hemiphaga spadicea)

The Norfolk Island Pigeon is still often regarded to as a subspecies of the New Zealand Pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (Gmelin)) but clearly constitutes a distinct species.

The species reached a size of 50 cm and differed from the New Zealand Pigeon mainly by the coloration of its wings, which were grey instead of green.

The Norfolk Island Pigeon was apparently last recorded in 1838 and appears to have been gone just by one year later, the reasons for its extinction are overhunting but also predation by introduced mammals, especially cats.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Lionel Walter Rothschild: Extinct birds: an attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times: that is, within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. 1907’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 29.05.2019

Porphyrio albus (White)

Lord Howe Swamphen (Porphyrio albus)

The Lord Howe Swamphen was described in 1790, it was endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species was larger than the Australian Swamphen (Porphyrio melanotus (Temminck)), which inhabits Lord Howe Island today, it was furthermore adapted to a terrestrial lifestyle, had shorter toes, was completely flightless – and, the most conspicuous character, was for a long time thought to have had a completely white plumage.

This last assumption is now known to be untrue, the birds started their lifes as black-plimaged chicks, then turned into semiadult, blue-colored birds (the birds were completely blue, darker on the upperside than on the underside, with a rather darkish, almost black head), then later turning into complete white when growing older. 

This also explains the contemporary accounts who report of blue-, blue and white- as well as completely white birds to be found on Lord Howe Island. [1]

***

The Lord Howe Swamphen disappeared shortly after its discovery, most likely due to direkt hunting by sailors of whaling ships and other ships during stays on the island for the purpose of filling up their ship’s proviant.

Today only two specimens of this beautiful and interesting species exist, one, which is kept in Vienna, Austria, is a fully adult bird and even has claws on the edges of its wings. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Heinvan Grouw; Julian P. Hume: The history and morphology of Lord Howe Gallinule or Swamphen Porphyrio albus (Rallidae). Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 136(3): 172-198. 2016

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Lionel Walter Rothschild: Extinct birds: an attempt to unite in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times: that is, within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. 1907’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Lagorchestes asomatus Finlayson

Lake Mackey Hare-Wallaby (Lagorchestes asomatus)

The Lake Mackey Hare-Wallaby, also known as Central Hare-Wallaby, is a not well-known small kangaroo species that was inhabiting the arid desert areas in the Northern Territory of Australia.

The species was described in 1943; it is known from a single specimen that had been caught in 1931 or 1932; only the skull was prepared and preserved.

***

The Natives of the region knew the species very well, they had many names for it and could still recall many facts about it in the 1980s.:

fur soft, long and grey …, long hair on top of feet, extending to the ground …, tail relatively short and thickened, a small wallaby similar in size to B. lesuer [Lesueur’s Rat-Kangaroo (Bettongia lesueur (Quoy & Gaimard))], hopped ‘like a kangaroo’. Many people referred to it as the ‘quiet one’ or ‘deaf one’ or sometimes ‘stupid one’ because it did not flush from its shelter. It was hunted by tracking to its hide and killed by spearing. Sometimes it could be caught by hand. The fur was spun to make belts.” [1]

According to the same native people, the species must have disappeared sometimes during the 1960’s.

*********************  

References:  

[1] Andrew A. Burbridge; Ken A. Johnson; Phillip J. Fuller; R. I. Southgate: Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 9-39. 1988

*********************

edited: 24.02.2024

Amytornis modestus ssp. inexpectatus (Mathews)

Eastern Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis modestus ssp. inexpectatus)  

The Eastern Thick-billed Grasswren was described in 1912, it inhabited dense vegetation in the Murray-Darling basin in the northwestern part of New South Wales.  

The bird reached a length of about 16 cm.  

The Eastern Thick-billed Grasswren was never found again since its description and is considered extinct.  

*********************

birds on top, left and right; together with Short-tailed Grasswren (Amytornis merrotsyi Mellor) (bottom left)  

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby & Co. 1910-1927’  

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 22.03.2018

Deyeuxia lawrencei Vickery

Lawrence’s Bentgrass (Deyeuxia lawrencei)  

Lawrence’s Bentgrass was described in 1940, it is known only from the type specimen that was collected around 1831 probably somewhere near the city of Launceston in the northern part of Tasmania, Australia.  

The species was never recorded again since and is thougth to be extinct. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Mark Wapstra; Fred Duncan; Alex Buchanan; Richard Schahinger: Finding a botanical Lazarus: Tales of Tasmanian plant species ‘risen from the dead’. The Tasmanian Naturalist 128: 61-85. 2006  

*********************  

edited: 08.01.2019

Bothriembryon whitleyi Iredalei

Whitley’s Bothriembryon Snail (Bothriembryon whitleyi)

This land snail species was described in 1939, it appears to be known exclusively from empty shells, some of which are of Late Pleistocene age while others are certainly of Holocene age.

The species is thought to be extinct; however, some of the shells in the Western Australian Museum collection, collected between 1950 and 1970, appear freshly dead, thus some malacologists suggest that this species might still exist somewhere in Western Australia. [1]

*********************

Photo: Loxley Fedec
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/npk
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Corey S. Whisson; Lisa Kirkendale; Mikael Siversson: The presumed extinct Bothriembryon whitleyi Irelade, 1939, remains elusive. The Malacological Society of Australasia Newsletter 163: 1 & 5-6. 2017

*********************

edited: 06.02.2024

Taudactylus acutirostris (Andersson)

Sharp-nosed Torrent Frog (Taudactylus acutirostris)

The Sharp-nosed Torrent Frog, also known as Sharp-snouted Day Frog, was described in 1916 and is resp. was endemic to the upland rainforests of northeastern Queensland, Australia.

The species was locally abundant, but its population begun to decline rapidly in 1988 certainly due to the spread of the deadly chytridiomycosis fungal disease that killed and still kills amphibian species all over the world.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Lars Gabriel Andersson: Results of Dr. E. Mjöbergs Swedish scientific expeditions to Australia 1910-1913; IX Batrachians from Queensland. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 52(9): 1-20.1916’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 13.01.2019

Antrophyum austroqueenslandicum D. L. Jones

Blue Pool Fern (Antrophyum austroqueenslandicum)  

This species was described in 1998, it is known from a single plant that was found in the subtropical rainforest in the Lamington National Park in Queensland, Australia.  

The species was characterized by small, 4 to 8 cm long, coriaceous fronds, narrowly winged stipes and short sori on the lateral veins.  

*********************  

edited: 12.01.2019

Costora iena Mosely

Great Lake Caddisfly (Costora iena)

The Great Lake Caddisfly was described in 1936; it was apparently restricted to the Shannon River including the Shannon Lagoon as well as the Great Lake in the center of Tasmania.

The species was mainly fuscous brown colored and reached a wingspan of about 2 cm.

*********************

edited: 23.04.2022

Amytornis textilis ssp. carteri (Mathews)

Dirk Hartog Island Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis textilis ssp. carteri 

The Dirk Hartog Island Thick-billed Grasswren was endemic to Dirk Hartog island off Western Australia, where it inhabited dense Acacia bushland.  

The birds disappeared due to predation by feral cats and were last recorded in 1916 [or 1918 according to which source].  

*********************

birds on bottom and top; together with Southwestern Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis textilis ssp. macrourus (Gould))

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby & Co. 1910-1927’

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 22.03.2018

Vanvoorstia bennettiana (Harvey) Papenfuss

Bennett’s Seaweed (Vanvoorstia bennettiana 

Bennett’s Seaweed is probably the first marine algae species that was officially declared extinct.  

This very small red alga species was described in 1859, it may probably always only have occurred on two places within the harbor of Sydney at the coast of New South Wales, where it apparently was still quite common at the time when it was discovered.  

The extinction of this species was caused by various human activities that led to a pollution of the water with suspended sediments which again were blocking the very fine clathrate branches of the algae, resulting in the inhibition of photosynthesis and causing the dead of the plants.  

The last living examples were found in 1886.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘William Henry Harvey: Phycologia Australica; or, A History of Australian Seaweeds; comprising coloured figures and descriptions of the more characteristic marine algae of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia and a synopsis of all known Australian algae. London, L. Reeve 1858-63’  

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 21.03.2018

Fanulena perrugosa Iredale

Rugose Fanulena Snail (Fanulena perrugosa)

This species was described in 1945, apparently based on two subfossil shells; it was restricted to Norfolk Island.

Shell small, tall, elevated, recalling imitatrix [Fanulena imitatrix (Sykes)], with the apical whorls apparently smooth; the other whorls rounded, prominently ribbed, about twenty ribs seen on face, base rounded, periphery subkeeled, columella slightly thickened, not toothed. Breath, 3.75.; height, 4 mm.

The species was apparently never found alive and is clearly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Tom Iredale: The Land Mollusca of Norfolk Island. The Australian Zoologist 11: 46-71. 1945-1951
[2] Diana Neuweger; Peter White; Winston F. Ponder: Land snails from Norfolk Island sites. Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 27: 115-122. 2001

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Bettongia pusilla McNamarra

Nullabor Dwarf Bettong (Bettongia pusilla)

The Nullabor Dwarf Bettong was described in 1997 based on subfossil skeletal remains that were found in caves on the Nullabor Plain, an large arid desert region in southern Australia.

The species apparently disappeared shortly after the arrival of European settlers in the region, who brought with them cats and foxes which preyed upon the native mammals and still do so up to this day.

***

The native people of the Pilbara region allegedly have two names for a very small kangaroo species, weelba respectively wirlpa, which may have originally been used for this species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Chris Johnson: Australia’s Mammal Extinctions: a 50000 year history. Cambridge University Press 2006

*********************

Photo from: ‘J. A. McNamarra: Some smaller macropod fossils of South Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 117: 97-106. 1997’

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

*********************

edited: 29.05.2019

Nestor productus (Gould)

Norfolk Island Kaka (Nestor productus)

The Norfolk Island Kaka was described in 1836, it was restricted to the Norfolk Islands, where it was the largest parrot species.

The species reached a size of about 33 cm, it was rather variable but was mainly very bright yellow and brick red colored on the underside, while the upper side was mainly dark brown. The beak was very much elongated and several specimens show strange bill deformities.

The Norfolk Island Kaka disappeared due to overhunting.

*********************

Depiction from: Henry O. Forbes; Herbert C. Robinson: Catalogue of the parrots (Psittaci) in the Derby Museum. bulletin of the Liverpool Museums 1: 5-22. 1898

(public domain)

********************

edited: 16.02.2020

Amytornis textilis ssp. giganturus (Milligan)

Northern Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis textilis ssp. giganturus 

The Northern Thick-billed Grasswren was endemic to Western Australia, it was originally discovered near the town of Mount Magnet, it was also found near the town of Wiluna and around Lake Carnegie, where it inhabited the salt-tolerant vegetation.  

The Northern Thick-billed Grasswren was not found since 1908 [or 1909 according to which source] and is now extinct.  

*********************

birds on bottom, left and right; together with Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis modestus ssp. modestus (North))

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby & Co. 1910-1927’

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 22.03.2018

Oberonia attenuata Dockrill

Elongated Oberonia (Oberonia attenuata)  

The Elongated Oberonia comes from the southern part of the Cape Your Peninsula in northern Queensland, Australia, it allegedly also occurs (or occurred) in New Guinea, however. 

The species is considered extinct, the reasons therefor, however, appear to be unknown.

*********************  

edited: 21.06.2020

Amperea xiphoclada var. pedicellata R. J. F. Henderson

Pedicellate Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada var. pedicellata)  

This variety of the Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada (Sieber ex Spreng.) Druce) is known only from the type material that was collected near Sydney, New South Wales; it differs from the nominate form (see photo below) by the prominently pedicellate female flowers.

Since this form was never found since, it is considered extinct.

*********************

Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada (Sieber ex Spreng.) Druce); nominate race

Photo: Melburnian
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ 

*********************

edited: 30.04.2021

Persoonia prostrata R. Br.

Prostrate Persoonia (Persoonia prostrata)

The Prostrate Persoonia is, or maybe was, endemic to the northern tip of Fraser Island in Queensland, Australia, where it was found growing in sand dunes as well as in woods.

The species was described in 1810, it is known from only two collections and may in fact just be a prostrate form of another species, the Broad-leaved Persoonia (Persoonia stradbrokensis Domin) (see photo), which, however, is not known to grow on Fraser Island. [1]

The Prostrate Persoonia was a prostrate shrub with elliptic to spathulate, up to 5 cm long leaves.

The species is probably extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Peter H. Weston; L. A. S. Johnson: Taxonomic changes in Persoonia (Proteaceae) in New South Wales. Telopea 4(2): 269-306. 1991

*********************

Broad-leaved Persoonia (Persoonia stradbrokensis)

Photo: C. T. Johansson

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Paspalum batianoffii B. K. Simon

Batianoff’s Paspalum Grass (Paspalum batianoffii 

Batianoff’s Paspalum Grass was described in 1992, it was collected in the Statue Bay, about 6,5 km southeast of the town of Yeppon in the Gladstone District (formerly Port Curtis District) in Queensland, Australia.

The species had 20 to 40 cm long, creeping stems. 

Batianoff’s Paspalum Grass inhabited a very narrow foredune with open wood land consisting of some common, widely distributed plant species, it was found growing directly above the flood mark, acting as a sand stabilizer. 

***

The species is apparently extinct today, however, the reasons for this appear to be unknown. 

*********************

edited: 19.06.2020

Conilurus capricornensis Cramb & Hocknull

Capricorn Rabbit Rat (Conilurus capricornensis)

The Capricorn Rabbit Rat was described in 2010 based on fossil and subfossil dental remains that were recovered from the deposits inside the Capricorn Cave in Queensland, Australia and that can be dated to Late Pleistocene- to Early Holocene age.

The species probably died out sometimes during the Early Holocene.

*********************

edited: 19.08.2022

Perameles eremiana Spencer

Desert Bandicoot (Perameles eremiana)

The Desert Bandicoot, described in 1897, was restricted to the arid center of Australia; the natives there knew it by many names including karitjarrikarl-karlkililpinganngarrpanyirnmiwalilya or warralyarri.

The nocturnal and flesh-eating species inhabited dry, sandy areas covered with spinifex (Spinifex spp.) and other tussock grasses; it fed upon beetle larvae, termites and ants, especially honey-pot ants.

The Desert Bandicoot disappeared most likely due to predation by feral cats and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) introduced from Europe; the last sighting took place in 1943 in Western Australia, according to some natives it may have survived into the 1960s. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Andrew A. Burbridge; Ken A. Johnson; Phillip J. Fuller; R. I. Southgate: Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 9-39. 1988

*********************

Photo: David Staples
https://collections.museumvictoria.com.au/specimens/121333
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

*********************

edited: 24.02.2024

Festuca archeri E. B. Alexeev

Archer’s Fescue (Festuca archeri)  

Archer’s Fescue, described in 1987, is known only from the type material that was collected at an unknown locality and that consists only of the upper part of a single culm and its inflorescence.

The species is very doubtful and may in fact not even be valid. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Mark Wapstra; Fred Duncan; Alex Buchanan; Richard Schahinger: Finding a botanical Lazarus: Tales of Tasmanian plant species ‘risen from the dead’. The Tasmanian Naturalist 128: 61-85. 2006  

*********************  

edited: 15.01.2024

Johannesoconcha minuscula Preston

Minuscule Johannesoconcha Snail (Johannesoconcha minuscula)

This species was described in the year 1913 on the basis of subfossil material that was found first in the limestone of the southeast coast of Norfolk Island and later also on other places on the island.  

The shells of this species reached an average size of 0,1 cm in diameter. 

*********************

References:

[1] H. B. Preston: Characters of new Genera and Species of Terrestrial Mollusca from Norfolk Island. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8th ser. Vol. 12: 522-538. 1913
[2] Tom Iredale: The Land Mollusca of Norfolk Island. The Australian Zoologist 11: 46-71. 1945-1951

*********************

edited: 30.11.2018

Leichhardtia tubulosa (F. Muell) P. I. Forst.

Tubulose Marsdenia (Leichhardtia tubulosa)  

The Tubulose Marsdenia, described in 1875, was endemic to Lord Howe Island.

The species is known only from the type material, collected in 1871 on the summit of Mt. Gower, the highest point of the island and, having never been relocated since, is thought to be extinct now.

***

The photo below shows another congeneric species that is also endemic to Lord Howe Island, the Beaked Marsdenia (Leichhardtia rostrata).

***

syn. Marsdenia tubulosa F. Muell

*********************

Beaked Marsdenia (Leichhardtia rostrata (R. Br.) P. I. Forst.)

Photo: Leon Perrie
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/leonperrie
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************  

edited: 12.02.2024

Sirovena stigma Boucek

Stigmated Fig Wasp (Sirovena stigma)

This species was described in 1988; it is, or maybe was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species is known exclusively from old collections that were made in the years between 1897 and 1902; it has not been found since and might well be extinct.

*********************

edited: 12.08.2022

Cosmoclostis quadriquadra Walsingham

Christmas Island Plume Moth (Cosmoclostis quadriquadra)

The Christmas Island Plume Moth was described in 1900; as its name implies, t is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

Antennae white. Palpi scarcely projecting beyond the head; white. Head pale rust-brown above, face white. Thorax yellowish white anteriorly, rust-brown posteriorly; under-side shining white, tinged with yellowish at the sides. Fore wings cleft to beyond middle; yellowish white, the costae and dorsum narrowly pale rust-brown; a few rust-brown scales crossing the wings at one-fourth are succeeded by a rust-brown patch at the base of the fissure, wider on the tornal than on the apical lobe; before the middle of the apical lobe is another transverse oblique rust-brown patch of the same colour which overflows the dorsal but not the costal cilia; on the tornal lobe there is also a broad straight transverse rust-brown patch beyond its middle, colouring the cilia above and below it, the cilia (except where so coloured) are whitish. Exp. al. 11-13 mm. Hind wings and cilia bronzy grey, the cilia of the dorsal lobe paler. Abdomen rich rust-brown, with four quadrate whitish patches above – one basal, one ante-median, one post-median, and one on the anal segment; under-side shining white, tinged with yellowish at the sides. Hind legs white, smeared above on the tibiae and banded on the tarsi with pale rust-brown; spurs white, tinged with rust-brown before their extremities, the scales at the base of the spurs not conspicuously raised, rust-brown mixed with white.” [1]

***

The species has not been recorded since the 1930s and might well be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[3] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 14.02.2024

Senecio tasmanicus I. Thomps.

Tasmanian Fireweed (Senecio tasmanicus)

The Tasmanian Fireweed was described in 2004; it was very likely long extinct at that time.

The species was endemic to the island of Tasmania, where it was found at an unspecified place in the northern Midlands; it probably grew at lowland plains near swamps; it was actually last recorded in the mid 1800s and is now very likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Mark Wapstra; Ian Thompson; Alex Buchanan: An illustrated and annotated key to the Tasmanian species of Senecio (Asteraceae). Kanunnah 3: 49-93. 2008

*********************

edited: 13.08.2022

Dasyornis broadbenti ssp. litoralis (Milligan)

Western Rufous Bristlebird (Dasyornis broadbenti ssp. litoralis)

The Western Rufous Bristlebird, a slightly smaller subspecies of the Rufous Bristlebird, was discovered in 1901 at a place named Ellensbrook near the Margaret River in Western Australia, it was described as a new species in 1902 based on a single specimen. [1]

The bird inhabited an extremely restricted range, an about 50 km long stretch of coastal scrub between Cape Naturaliste and Cape Mentelle in the south-western part of Western Australia, where it inhabited dense, stunted shrubland on cliffs and dunes.

The last reliable record took place in 1908, when a second specimen was collected; since then there have been some unconfirmed sightings only and the Western Rufous Bristlebird has finally been listed as extinct in 1999. The reason for its extinction is thought to be the destruction of its shrubland habitat which was repeatedly burnt in the early 20th century to create pasture.

Everything that we know today about the life of this bird comes from the notices of its discoverer.:

The food of the bird, as revealed by dissection, consisted wholly of land snails, those marine-like looking forms which are found in abundance on the coastal limestone hills, apparently lifeless in hot weather, but full of vitality after a shower of rain. One snail, with the shell perfect, was found in the stomach.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Alex Wm. Milligan: Description of a new Bristle Bird (Sphenura). The Emu 1: 67-69. 1902

*********************

Depiction from: ‘John Gould: The Birds of Australia. Supplement. London: printed by Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. published by the author 1869’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 18.05.2022

Quintalia stoddartii ssp. intermedia Preston

Intermediate Quintalia Snail (Quintalia stoddartii ssp. intermedia)

This subspecies of Stoddart’s Snail was described in 1913; it was restricted to Napean- and Norfolk Island, Norfolk Islands.

This form is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Tom Iredale: The Land Mollusca of Norfolk Island. The Australian Zoologist 11: 46-71. 1945-1951

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Tom Iredale: The Land Mollusca of Norfolk Island. The Australian Zoologist 11: 46-71. 1945-1951’

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

*********************

edited: 17.08.2022

Notomys amplus Brazenor

Short-tailed Hopping Mouse (Notomys amplus)

The Short-tailed Hopping Mouse was described in 1936 based on two female specimens that were collected already in 1896; it inhabited open, stony plains with a vegetation dominated by grasses and low shrubs in the vicinity of the town of Alice Springs in central Australia.

The species apparently disappeared due to predation by introduces cats and foxes, combined with habitat destruction.

*********************

Photo: David Staples;
Museums Victoria Collections
https://collections.museumsvictoria.com.au/specimens/1550320
accessed 12 August 2022

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 11.08.2022

Persoonia laxa L. A. S. Johnson & P. H. Weston

Loose Persoonia (Persoonia laxa)

This taxon was described in 1991, it is known exclusively from herbarium material that was collected in 1908 at what today is a suburban area of Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, Australia.

The species is most likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Peter H. Weston; L. A. S. Johnson: Taxonomic changes in Persoonia (Proteaceae) in New South Wales. Telopea 4(2): 269-306. 1991

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Dromaius novaehollandiae ssp. minor (Spencer)

King Island Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae ssp. minor)

The King Island Emu was a dwarf subspecies of the Australian Emu that was restricted to the small King Island in the Bass Strait between Australia and Tasmania; it was actually the smallest emu form known so far.

The birds reached heights (at the back) of about 50 cm.

The King Island Emus were eradicated by the first European settlers who hunted thousands of them every month; the birds disappeared around 1805. Two birds that were caught and brought into captivity in Paris, France, survived until 1822, outliving their wild fellows; the depiction shown here is based on the skin of one of them, which is now kept in the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle in Paris.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Centenaire de la fondation du Muséum d’histoire naturelle 10 juin 1793 – 10 juin 1893. volume commémoratif. puplié par les Professeurs du Muséum. Paris: Imperimerie nationale 1893’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 17.08.2022

Paranitocrella bastiani Tang & Knott

Bastian’s Copepod (Paranitocrella bastiani)

Bastian’s Copepod was described in 2009 based on several specimens that were collected between 1992 and 1996 from underground freshwater streams in the extensive karstic cave system within the Yanchep National Park in Western Australia.

The species inhabited floating root mats produced by so-called Tuart trees (Eucalyptus gomphocephala DC.) growing above the caves; these root mats provide an abundant and constant food source for several aquatic invertebrates, including this highly specialized copepod.

However, unsustainable use of the Gnangara Mound, which feeds the area’s underground streams, has led to a loss of water and consequently to the loss of the only habitat of this species, which hasn’t been found since the 1990s and which is now believed to be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Danny Tang; Brenton Knott: Freshwater cyclopoids and harpacticoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Gnangara Mound region of Western Australia. Zootaxa 2029: 1-70. 2009

*********************

edited: 20.01.2020

Microcarbo serventyorum van Tets

Serventy’s Cormorant (Microcarbo serventyorum)  

This species was described in 1994 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from a peat swamp near Bullsbrook, a suburb of Perth, the capital of Western Australia, Australia. [1]  

The species was apparently closely related, yet not identical with the Little Pied Cormorant (Microcarbo melanoleucos (Vieillot)) (see photo), which is still quite common in parts of Australia today.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] G. F. van Tets: An extinct new species of cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae, Aves) from a Western Australian peat swamp. Records of the South Australian Museum 27(2): 135–138. 1994  

*********************

Little Pied Cormorant (Microcarbo melanoleucos (Vieillot)) 

Photo: J. J. Harrison

(under creative commons license (3.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 

*********************  

edited: 06.11.2017

Rattus nativitatis (Thomas)

Bulldog Rat (Rattus nativitatis)

The Bulldog Rat was described in 1900.:

Size large; form thick and clumsy, the limbs and tail stout and heavy, but the head peculiarly small, slender, and delicate. General colour dark umber-brown all over, the belly not or scarcely lighter than the back. Ears small, laid forward they barely reach to the posterior canthus of the eye. Fur of back, long, thick, and coarse, but without the extremely long piles so characteristic of M. macleari, the longest hairs being about 40 to 45 mm. in length. Hands and feet very thick and heavy; the claws, especially on the fore feet, enormously broad and strong, not compressed, more than twice the size of those of M. macleari, and evidently modified for burrowing. Palms and soles naked, smooth; the pads broad, low, and rounded, unusually little prominent; last hind foot pad elongate. Tail shorter than the body without the head, very thick, evenly tapering, nearly or quite naked; its scales triangular, very large, the rings averaging about seven or eight to the centimetre; its colour uniform blackish brown throughout, above and below, the white skin, however, showing to a certain extent between the scales.” [1]

The species reached a size of about 45 cm, including the tail.

***

The species was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, it was one of only five mammal species inhabiting that island naturally, all of them endemic and all of them, except for one, now extinct.

The Bulldog Rat inhabited the floor of the dense rainforest, the animals lived in small colonies and built burrows among tree roots or under fallen logs.

The species disappeared due to the introduction of Black Rats (Rattus rattus (L.)), which apparently carried diseases that the endemic rats fell victim to.

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London, Printed by order of the Trustees 1900

*********************

edited: 24.04.2019

Pseudomys sp. ‘Basalt Plains’

Basalt Plains Mouse (Pseudomys sp.)

The The Basalt Plains Mouse has not been formally described yet, despite the fact that this species is known from hundreds of subfossil remains that have been recovered from Arboriginal middens and owl-roost deposits.

The species inhabited the tussock grassland on the basalt plains of western Victoria, Australia, it probably survived into the 19th century but disappeared when its habitat was destroyed due to sheep farming.

*********************

edited: 07.05.2019

Hybomorphus melanosomus Saunders & Jekel

Lord Howe Ground Weevil (Hybomorphus melanosomus)

The Lord Howe Ground Weevil was described in 1855, it was a large, flightless species endemic to Lord Howe Island, Australia.

The species appears to have disappeared very quickly after its discovery and description, as can be taken from an account by A. S. Olliff from 1889.:

A remarkable endemic form. A large number of fragments and dead remains of this species were found by Mr. Masters under logs and in rotten wood during his visit to the island in June, 1869. As far as I am aware, this is the last occasion on which the insect has been found, none of the collectors who have recently visited the island having obtained it.” [1]

The species was apparently eradicated by introduced house mice.

*********************

References:

[1] A. S. Olliff: The insect fauna of Lord Howe Island. The Australian Museum Memoir 2: 75-98. 1889
[2] Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan Appendices, Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney 2007

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. W. Saunders; H. Jekel: Descriptions de quelques Curculionites. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (3)3: 19-306. 1855’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 26.04.2022

Ozothamnus selaginoides Sonder & F. Muel.

Clubmoss Everlasting (Ozothamnus selaginoides)  

This species was described in 1853.  

The Clubmoss Everlasting, also known as Table Mountain Daisy Bush, was restricted to the Table Mountain area in the Central Highlands of Tasmania, Australia.  

It was a slender, branching shrub between 0,5 to 1 m tall, the branches were covered with tiny hairs. Its daisy-like flower-heads, consisting of eight to 12 single flowers, appeared in dense clusters at the ends of the branches, they were creamy-yellow.  

The species was not found since 1849 and is believed to be extinct.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘J. D. Hooker: The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843: under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross. London: Reeve Brothers 1844-1860’  

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 06.11.2017