Tag Archives: Molokai

Pararrhaptica trochilidana (Walsingham)

Emerald Kolea Leafroller (Pararrhaptica trochilidana)

This beautiful species was described in 1907; it is known from the mountains on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is now considered extinct. 

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’  

(public domain)  

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References:

[1] Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscoveries and presumed extinctions of Hawaiian leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 55: 11-27. 2023

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edited: 03.12.2023

Thyrocopa minor Walsingham 

Small Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa minor)

This species was described in 1907; it is endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands. 

The moth has a wingspan of about 1.8 cm; the head is very light whitish brown with a few brown scales; the thorax is very light brown to brown; the forewings are mottled light brown and brown, the discal areas are clouded with poorly defined brownish spots in the cell, they bear poorly defined whitish bands running through the terminal areas and evenly spaced spots on the distal half of the costa and at the vain endings along the termen; the hindwings are brown, the anal margins are darker. 

The biology of this species in not known and it is apparently extinct.

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain)

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References: 
[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978 
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009 

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edited: 15.02.2024

Xyleborus exsectus Perkins

Cut-off Bark Beetle (Xyleborus exsectus)

The Cut-off Bark beetle was described in 1900; it is known only from some male specimens that were collected on the slopes of the Haleakalā volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is only known from the type series that was collected in 1894 and 1896 respectively, it is possibly extinct.
***

However, it is possible that this taxon is not valid at all and in fact is identical with the Molokai Bark Beetle (Xyleborus molokaiensis Perkins) which is more widespread and of which only female specimens ae known. [1]

Otherwise, there is also the possibility that it might be rediscovered as it has happened with at least two other congeneric species. [2][3]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981
[2] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of an Enigmatic Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Coleopterists Bulletin 72(4): 811-815. 2018
[3] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; David Honsberger; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of the Hawaiian endemic bark beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuleson, 1981 on Moloka‘i, with records of three new exotic bark beetles for the island (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Journal of Natural History 53(23-24): 1481-1490. 2020

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edited: 16.02.2024

Xyleborus littoralis Perkins

Littoral Bark Beetle (Xyleborus littoralis)

The Littoral Bark Beetle was described in 1900; it is only known from areas at sea level on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last seen in 189, when the type material was collected, it is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981

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edited: 16.02.2024

Tetramolopium conyzoides (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Horseweed-like Pamakani (Tetramolopium conyzoides)

This species is an upright shrub with copious pubescence, it was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands but is thought to be extinct now.

It was probably restricted to dry forests which are now largely destroyed by introduced ungulates. [1]

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References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986

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edited: 15.01.2019

Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula Cooke

Maunaloa Amastra Snail (Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula)

The Maunaloa Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the northern shore of Molokai’, Hawaiian Islands.

A very few imperfect specimens were found by Pilsbry and Cooke in 1913 at Moomomi where this variety is extremely rare. Further west, especially in the shifting sands, it occurs more abundantly but is not a common species in any locality. it has been found sparingly in all the known fossil deposits from Puukapele west to the shifting sands. This variety is readily separated from the typical form by its less tumid last whorl, more cylindrical form and malleate surface.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height.

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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edited: 04.05.2022

Newcombia pfeifferi ssp. decorata Pilsbry & Cooke

Decorated Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi ssp. decorata)

The Decorated Newcombia Snail was described in 1912, it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

There is obviously no further information available about this species.

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References:

[1] Mike Severns: A new species of newcombia from the Pleistocene of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Achatinellidae). Basteria 73: 57-60. 2009

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edited: 16.05.2020

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris Cooke & Pilsbry

Many-striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris)

This taxon was described in 1920; it is known from Kaunakakai at the central southern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands; they were found quite abundantly among dead leaves in humid, shady places.

The shells reach sizes of about 0.22 to 0.24 cm in height; they differ from the nominate race in being shorter and having rather weaker, less regular spiral striae. [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

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edited: 04.06.2021

Eupithecia dryinombra (Meyrick)

Wailuku Pug Moth (Eupithecia dryinombra)

The Wailuku Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the male type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,7 cm, it is rather pale and narrow-winged, there are obscure medial bands on its forewings that are marked by a series of short, disconnected longitudinal dashes.

The species inhabited the native rain forest above a place named Wailuku on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, a habitat that is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores. 

The Wailuku Pug Moth was never recorded since its description and is likely extinct. [1][2]

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

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edited: 06.01.2019

Newcombia perkinsi Sykes

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia perkinsi)

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail apparently was restricted to the Makakupaia Valley on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, this place is now highly degraded and overgrown by introduced vegetation.

The shells have a size of 2,1 cm in height. [1]

***

Perkin’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′  

(public domain)  

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edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Hemignathus affinis ssp. ‘Moloka’i’

Molokai Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis ssp.)

The Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) was historically known only from the island of Maui, yet, this species or at least a very closely related one also once inhabited the neighboring island of Moloka’i – and very likely also Lana’i.:

A fossil almost certainly of this species [Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein] was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.” [1]

***

Given the fact that the Amakihi (Hemignathus virens (Gmelin)) is known to have inhabited the island of Hawai’i (with the nominate form) as well as the islands of Lana’i, Maui, and Moloka’i (with another subspecies), it is quite certain that the Molokai Nukupuu was identical with the Maui species, perhaps even on subspecific level.

***

All species formerly known as Nukupuu are now extinct.

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References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

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edited: 09.10.2020

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota Cooke & Pilsbry

Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota)

The Striped Lyropupa Snail was described in 1920; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands where it probably was very widespread but apparently not common.:

There can be no doubt that this species is distributed over the whole of the wooded portion of Molokai. Unfortunately it has never been found in any number in any one locality and in none of the lots are there more than half a dozen specimens – in most of them only 1 to 3.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.27 cm in length. “This species is, at first glance, very similar to some of the forms of lyrata from Oahu. It is easily separated by the different sculpture of the embryonic whorls and the longer lower palatal fold.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 25.02.2024

Blackburnia perkinsi (Sharp)

Perkins’ Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia perkinsi)

Perkins’ Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not found during recent surveys and is very likely extinct. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 03.09.2019

Apetasimus atratus (Scott)

Blackish Sap Beetle (Apetasimus atratus)

The Blackish Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was found on the Haleakala region on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, but is also known to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i too.

The species reached a length of about 0,45 to 0,56 cm; it was dark, nearly black in color with some brick red areas on the elytra that were limited to the elytra’s bases, the antennae and legs were red to dark brown in color. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 0.2.06.2021

Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis Pilsbry & Cooke

Moomomi Amastra Snail (Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis)

The Mo’omomi beach at the northwestern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, is one of the last remaining dune sides found on these islands; thousands of shells poke out of the sandstone cliffs near the beach, some bleached completely, some still bearing hints of their former coloration; these are the shells of land snails that formerly inhabited this now quite desert-like place.

In the Pleistocene, the climate of the Hawaiian Islands was much wetter than it is today and the area that is now covered by sand dunes was forested back then. When the climate became dryer at the beginning of the Holocene about 10000 BP., these forests disappeared, leading to the extinction of the local snail populations.

In fact, the shells can be dated to ages from 42000 to about 3000 years, which means that this form died out during the Holocene, and, that this is a case of a natural extinction.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

(public domain)

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edited: 31.10.2020

Newcombia canaliculata (Baldwin)

Channeled Newcombia Snail (Newcombia canaliculata)

The Channeled Newcombia Snail was described in 1905, it was restricted to the easternmost part of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The author gave some information about the live animal.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle slate color, margined with brown. Foot light slate, studded on the sides and head above with spots of deeper shade. Tentacles short and slender, dark slate.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella venusta (Mighels)

Graceful Laminella Snail (Laminella venusta 

The Graceful Laminella Snail was described in 1845, it was found in the Mapulehu Valley near the southeastern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This species differs from the congeneric Alexander’s Laminella Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)) and the Depicted Laminella Snail (Laminella depicta (Baldwin)) by its more swollen last whorl and the sunken black markings, which are generally coarser than in L. depicta and which do not form the characteristic patterns.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,35 cm in heigth and 0,62 to 0,73 in diameter.

The animal itself is also mentioned in the description.:

The animal … is slender, body flesh-color with black puncta down the sides; tentacles very black. When extended, two-thirds as long as the shell.” [1]

***

The Graceful Laminella Snail has three additional color morphs assigned to it, orginally described as varieties, which in fact may well be distinct subspecies: var. muscaria Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. orientalis Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. semivestita Hyatt & Pilsbry. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 01.10.2020

Ciridops anna (Dole)

Ula Ai Hawane (Ciridops anna)

The Ula Ai Hawane was described in 1879, the species is historically known for certain only from the island of Hawai’i, however, it is possible that two of the five existing specimens were collected on the island of Moloka’i (these two are of a supposed female and a likewise supposed immature male (see depiction below)). [2]

The species reached a size of about 11 to 12 cm; the males had a light grey head and neck, a black breast and a bright red rump, the wings were black and red as well, with the outer webs of the tertials white; the females were olive green and brown in color. [4]

Since the only two specimens that possibly come from Moloka’i differ from the other three, they might as well be interpreted as a distinct subspecies. 

***

The Hawaiian name ʻula-ʻai-hāwane means “red eating hawane”, hawane are the fruits of the endemic lo’ulu palms (Pritchardia spp.). The birds were only ever found near the lo’ulu palms and are thought to have fed on their flowers and fruits or perhaps on insects hiding in the leaf axilles. [3]

***

Subfossil remains found on Moloka’i were also assigned to this species, however, it is definitely possible that the Moloka’ian birds differed from the Hawaiians at the subspecies level. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Storrs L. Olson: William T. Brigham’s Hawaiian birds and a possible historical record of Ciridops anna (Aves: Drepanidini) from Molokai. Pacific Scenice 46(4): 495-500. 1992
[3] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005
[4] Storrs L. Olson: History, structure, evolution, behaviour, distribution, and ecology of the extinct Hawaiian genus Ciridops (Fringillidae, Carduelini, Drepanidini). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124(4): 651-674. 2012

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Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 18.10.2020

Newcombia philippiana (Pfeiffer)

Philippiana Newcombia Snail (Newcombia philippiana) 

The Philippiana Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, the species is known only from the type series which was collected on one of the Hawaiian Islands (most likely Moloka’i), its taxonomic status, however, is not fully understood.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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edited: 16.06.2020

Amastra fragilis Pilsbry & Cooke

Fragile Amastra Snail (Amastra fragilis)

The Fragile Amastra Snail was found in the vicinity of a freshwater spring near a pipeline trail in Kaunakaki, a place at the southern coast of the Hawaiian island of Moloka’i, as well as some other places further east.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,9 cm in height, they were:

“… thin, fragile, perforate, narrowly ovate-conic, chestnut brown, scarcely shining, very finely, irregularely striate and with larger striae at irregular intervals; commonly dubed with faecal matter and soil.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

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edited: 15.06.2020

Newcombia sulcata (Pfeifer)

Furrowed Newcombia Snail (Newcombia sulcata

The Furrowed Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, like most of its congeners, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of 1,1 cm in heigth.

***

This species can be confused with no other. the whorls are regularely, obsoletely, transversely striate, increasing in strength to the last whorls and disappear on the lower half of the last whorl. the color is red-brown, becoming more intense with the increase of the whorls, and on the last whorl it is quite shining dark red-brown.” [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′  

(public domain)

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edited: 16.06.2020

Leptachatina laevigata Cooke

Polished Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina laevigata)

The Polished Leptachatina Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the Mapulehu Ridge on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached heights of about 0.76 cm; the spires were either reddish brown above and yellowish corneous below or unicolored brownish corneous.

This species is now extinct like most of its congeners.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 14.01.2024

Melicope wailauensis (H. St. John) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Wailau Valley Melicope (Melicope wailauensis 

The Wailau Valley Melicope was obviously restricted to the Kukuinui Ridge in the Wailau Valley on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is considered extinct.

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edited: 03.09.2020

Leptachatina molokaiensis Cooke

Molokai Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina molokaiensis)

The Molokai Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was found, amongst other places, near the village of Kalua’aha in eastern Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 0.73 cm heigh, glossy light brownish corneous colored and minutely striated with growth lines.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

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References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 15.01.2024

Laminella depicta (Baldwin)

Depicted Laminella Snail (Laminella depicta)

The Depicted Laminella Snail is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it inhabited the lowland forests in the Pelekunu Valley and the Ha’upu Bay.

The shells reached sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in heigth.

***

The Depicted Laminella Snail was also treated as a subspecies of Alexander’s Amastra Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)), which, however, occurs on the island of Maui.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)

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edited: 12.06.2020

Amastra perversa Hyatt & Pilsbry

Wicked Amastra Snail (Amastra perversa)

The Wicked Amastra Snail was described in 1911, apparently on the basis of a single (sub)fossil specimen that was obtained from the Halawa Valley near the eastern end of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species appears to be very closely related to the Awkward Amastra Snail (Amastra laeva Baldwin) from eastern Maui and differs from that species only in being smoother and in having whorls of a slightly smaller caliber and a smaller aperture. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Amastra violacea (Newcomb)

Violet Amastra Snail (Amastra violacea)

The Violet Amastra Snail was described in 1853, it was found in the Halawa-, the Mapulehu-, and the Pelekunu Valleys in the eastern part of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

It was one of the larger species of its genus, some shells reach sizes of 2,8 to 3 cm in lenght and 1,3 to 1,5 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

Shell dextral, ovate-oblong, solid; whorls 7, convex, strongly striate longitudinally; suture plain and deeply impressed. Aperture ovate; columella short, terminating in a twisted plait; lip simple, color violaceous with light colored striae.” [1]

*********************    

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′ 

(public domain) 

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Omiodes musicola Swezey

Maui Banana Moth (Omiodes musicola)

The Maui Banana Moth was described in 1909, the species was originally found somewhere in the forests of the ‘Iao Valley on western Maui, but was later also recorded from the neigboring island of Moloka’i.

The moth reached a wingspan of about 2,4.

The caterpillars are known to have fed on banana leaves, their native larval food plant appears to be unknown but may have been some grass species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

*********************

edited: 23.09.2019

Cookeconcha luctifera (Pilsbry & Vanatta)

Mourning Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha luctifera 

This species was described in 1905, it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,39 to 0,52 cm, they had a light yellow ground color and were decorated with brown flammulations. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘H. A. Pilsbry; E. G. Vanatta: Notes on some Hawaiian Achatinellidae and Endodontidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia 57: 570-575. 1905’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 13.06.2020

Hylaeus niloticus (Warncke)

Obscure Masked Bee (Hylaeus niloticus 

The Obscure Masked Bee is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it apparently inhabited coastal areas and dry lowland regions.

The species has not been found in recent years and might indeed be extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Peperomia degeneri Yunck.

Degener’s Peperomia (Peperomia degeneri)  

Degener’s Peperomia is known exclusively by the type collection that was made in 1928 in eastern Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The forests of Moloka’i are overrun by introduced invasive plant species and by plant-eating ungulates, the species was never recorded since the type collection and is very likely extinct. 

*********************  

edited: 20.09.2020

Amastra kaunakakaiensis Pilsbry & Cooke

Kaunakakai Amastra Snail (Amastra kaunakakaiensis)  

The Kaunakakai Amastra Snail was apparently restricted to in the vicinity of a freshwater spring near a pipeline trail in Kaunakaki, a place at the southern coast of the Hawaiian island of Moloka’i, a place that it shared with at least one other species of the same genus, the Fragile Amastra Snail (Amastra fragilis Pilsbry & Cooke).

The shells reached sizes of about 1,3 to 1,4 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Agrotis crinigera (Butler)

Poko Cutworm (Agrotis crinigera)  

The Poko Cutworm, so named for its native name Poko, was one of the moth species, that in the time after the arrival of European settlers on the Hawai’i Islands were able to adapt quite well to the new set of circumstances.  

The species reached a wingspan of about 4,9 cm.  

The natural host plants of the caterpillars were several native species of Ihi (Portulaca spp.) as well as ‘Ilima (Sida fallax Walp.), but in the meantime they also adapted themselves to introduced plant species and fed on the leaves of thorn-apple plants (Datura spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Furthermore they fed on several garden plants, especially of the legume family, e.g. beans, and therefore may not have been very welcome to gardens.  

In 1899, Hugo H. Schauinsland wrote the following notes about his observations of this species on the island of Laysan.:

Of the insects I found on Laysan, only the following … Spaelotis crinigera Butl.; the latter occurred in astonishingly hugh numbers. Its “grublike caterpillar” lives under ground on the roots of Eragrostis.” [2]

***

Even though the Poko Cutworm was distributed all over the Hawaiian main islands, it belongs to the extirpated species now, whereas the reasons for this seem still to be unknown up to date.  

The species was last seen in 1926.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  
[2] Hugo H. Schauinsland: Three months on a coral island (Laysan); translated by Miklos D. F. Udvardy. Atoll Research Bulletin 432. 1996

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’ 

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 24.09.2019

Lipochaeta degeneri Sherff

Degener’s Lipochaeta (Lipochaeta degeneri)

Degener’s Lipochaeta was described in 1933 based on material that was collected near the southwestern point of Moloka’i in the Hawaiian Islands; the last of these collections date from 1928.

This species is almost certainly extinct now. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

*********************

edited: 04.06.2021

Endodonta kamehameha Pilsbry & Vanatta

Kamehameha Disc Snail (Endodonta kamehameha)  

The Kamehameha Disc Snail was restricted to the Wailau Pali Valley, Mapulehu at the southern coast of eastern Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached of this very large species a size of up to 0,73 cm in diameter. [1][2]  

***

The Kamehameha Disc Snail is now most certainly extinct. [3]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] H. A. Pilsbry; E. G. Vanatta: Hawaiian species of Endodonta and Opeas.  Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 57: 783-786. 1905 
[2] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976 
[3] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Update on the status of the remaining Hawaiian land snail species Part 4: Punctidae and Endodontidae. 2016  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘H. A. Pilsbry; E. G. Vanatta: Hawaiian species of Endodonta and Opeas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 57: 783-786. 1905’

(not in copyright)

*********************  

edited: 05.04.2018

Apteribis glenos Olson & Wetmore

Molokai Ibis (Apteribis glenos 

This species was described in 1976 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from the deposits of the dunes at Ilio Point and Mo’omomi at the northeastern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.  

The Molokai Ibis was a small, flightless species, that very likely was some kind of equivalent to the New Zealand kiwis.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 23.03.2018

Xestospiza fastigialis James & Olson

Ridge-billed Finch (Xestospiza fastigialis)

The species was described in 1991, together with numerous other endemic Hawaiian birds now extinct.

The Ridge-billed Finch was apparently very widespread, remains of the species were recovered from the islands of Maui, Moloka’i, as well as O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, it very probably also inhabited the islands of Kaho’olawe and Lana’i, which, however, don’t have rich (sub)fossil deposits.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers on the Hawaiian Islands. [1]

***

The two species assigned to the genus Xestospiza most likely do not belong into the same genus. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

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edited: 19.06.2020

Drepanis funerea Newton

Black Mamo (Drepanis funerea)  

The Black Mamo was discovered in 1893 by Robert C. L. Perkins, a British ornithologist.  

The species is known historically only from the island of Moloka’i, but did occur in former times on the neighboring island of Maui as well, as is known from subfossil remains. [2]  

The species reached a size of 20 cm, it was completely black except for its outer wing feathers, which were silvery grey.  

The species certainly fed solely on nectar, especially that of the many endemic shrubby and tree-like lobelioid species.  

***

Some information about the habits of this species were made by William A. Bryan in 1907, when he collected the last specimen of this species.:  

Hopping from tree to tree, it worked its way around the head of the little side valley, up which it had come in answer to my call, to where a large purple-flowered lobelia was in profuse blossom, and began to feed. The ease and grace with which the feat was accomplished was indeed interesting, and left no doubt in my mind as to one of the probable causes of the remarkable development of the tongue and bill. The tongue was inserted with great precision, up to the nostrils, in the flower, while the bird balanced itself on the branches, assuming almost every imaginable attitude in its operations. In all three of the birds, secured, the crown was smeared with the sticky purplish white pollen of this lobelia.” [1]

***

The Hawaiians knew the bird as hoa. Another name that is sometimes assigned to this species is ‘o’o nuku’umu [‘o’o [with] beak sucking], a name of unknown origin that apparently was only ever used by Robert C. L. Perkins for unknown reasons. [1]  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’    

(public domain)

*********************  

References:  

[1] W. A. Bryan: Some Birds of Molokai. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 4(2): 43-86. 1908 
[2] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[3] H. Douglass Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005  

*********************

edited: 24.09.2017

Aidemedia lutetiae James & Olson

Maui Nui Gaper (Aidemedia lutetiae 

This species was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains recovered from the Pu’u Makua- and Pu’u Naio Caves on the island of Maui, as well as from the Mo’omomi Dunes on Moloka’i.  

The species reached an estimated size of about 19 cm, it differed from its closest relative/relatives Aidemedia chascax/zanclops James & Olson by its shorter, very straight bill. [1]  

***

The Maui Nui Gaper was very probably somewhat like a larger version of the so called Greater Amakihi (Viridonia sagittirostris Rotschild) from the island of Hawai’i.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 24.09.2017

Anomis vulpicolor (Meyrick)

Fox-colored Owlet Moth (Anomis vulpicolor 

The Fox-colored Owlet Moth was described in 1928.  

The species, which had a wingspan of 4,4 cm, is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Moloka’i, and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, but certainly inhabited the islands of Kaua’i and Maui too.  

The caterpillars fed on ‘Ulei (Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (Sm.) Lindl.), a plant species that actually is still very common, even today. [1]  

***

The Fox-colored Owlet Moth is considered probably extinct since the last records took place sometimes before 1960 [?].  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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edited: 10.04.2018

Zapornia menehune (Olson & James)

Tiny Molokai Crake (Zapornia menehune)

The Tiny Molokai Crake was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that had been recovered from dune deposits at Ilio Point and Mo’omomi on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a size of only about 11 cm, that means it was the smallest rail species in the world known so far, it was, like all its Hawaiian congeners, completely flightless.

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Amastra hitchcocki Cooke

Hitchcock’s Amastra Snail (Amastra hitchcocki)

Hitchcock’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was apparently restricted to a region near the northern shore of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The original specimen of this species was collected by Mr. D. H. Hitchcock, in May, 1913 and consisted of the aperture and a portion of the last whorl. On four trips to Molokai, the writer tried to relocate the original fossil bed but was unsuccessful. In December, 1914, Mr. G. P. Cooke, found a number of examples at Hinanaulua on the northern coast of Molokai. Unfortunately, the only whole specimen was not quite mature. During March, 1915, the writer spent about three weeks on Molokai, collecting for the most part from the fossil beds of the northern coast from the northwest point of the island to near Puukapele. A number of broken and immature specimens were taken and in addition to these two fine adults. One of these serves as a type of the species and came from the second valley west of Puukapele.” [1]

The shells of this species are unusually large and reach sizes of up to 3 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Hylaeus satelles (Blackburn)

Attendanting Masked Bee (Hylaeus satelles 

This species was known to inhabit the islands of Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it apparently was restricted to remote wet forests.

The species was last collected in the 1890s, it may already be extinct.

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edited: 11.04.2019

Genophantis leahi Swezeyi

Leahi Pyralid Moth (Genophantis leahi)

The Leahi Pyralid Moth was described in 1910; it is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae fed on the leaves of several native spurge species (Euphorbia spp.).

*********************

Photo: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

edited: 23.04.2022

Drosophila toxochaeta Perreira & Kaneshira

Olona Picturewing Fly (Drosophila toxochaeta)

The Olona Picturewing Fly was described in 1990.

The species is known from three (?) specimens that were collected in 1972 and 1973 in the wet forest on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands; two two of them had been reared from the stems of the Hawaiian endemic nettle shrub Olona (Touchardia latifolia Gaudich.). [1]

The Olona Picturewing Fly was not seen alive since the 1970s and is thus considered most likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] William D. Perreira; Kenneth Y. Kaneshiro: Three new species of picture-winged Drosophila from the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 30: 79-84. 1990

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edited: 24.04.2019

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. rutha (Bryan)

Molokai Thrush (Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. rutha)

The Molokai Thrush, described in 1891, was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The thrush was considered very common in the 19th century but its populations began to collapse due to deforestation and the unintentional introduction of avian malaria onto the islands and it is now extinct.

***

syn. Phaeornis rutha Brya

********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Corvus viriosus Olson & James

Robust Crow (Corvus viriosus)

The Robust Crow, described in 1991, is known exclusively from subfossil remains, these were found on the islands of Moloka’i and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This species was apparently an inhabitant of the lowlands and might have fed on fruits, thus might have been somewhat an Hawaiian equivalent to the pigeons and doves on other Polynesian islands – a seed disperser of large-fruited plant species.

The bird disappeared quite shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 10.01.2024

Haliaeetus sp. ‘Hawai’i Islands’

Hawaiian Eagle (Haliaeetus sp.)  

This form is known only based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.  

The Hawaiian Eagle was the largest predator on the Hawaiian Islands and was capable of killing even the largest Hawaiian birds, the so-called Moa-nalo (Ptaiochen, and Tambetochen). [1]  

The eagle appears to have become extinct before humans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. [2]  

***

The Hawaiian form was originally thought to be identical with the Eurasian White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla L.), but is now thought to represent a morphologically similar but genetically distinct form. [2]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991 
[2] Frank Hailer; Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson; Robert C. Fleischer: Distinct and extinct: Genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 83: 40-43. 2015  

*********************  

edited: 23.10.2016

Pseudisidora rubella (Lea)

Reddish Lymnaea Snail (Pseudisidora rubella)

The Reddish Lymnaea Snail was described in 1841; the species was originally found on all of the Hawaiian main islands where it mainly inhabited streams but was also found in pools or on the wet rocky surfaces below waterfalls. Its biology is not well-known, but it probably fed on algae.

The shells of this species are dextral, they reach heights of up to 1,3 cm.

The Reddish Lymnaea Snail is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Carl C. Christensen: Type species designation for Pelagolimnaea Germain, 1928, and a correction regarding the type species of Pseudisidora Thile, 1931 (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 53–56. 2015

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edited: 01.08.2022

Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin)

Ou (Psittirostra psittacea)

 

The Ou was described in 1789; it was already mentioned in an enumeration of birds found on the island of Hawai’i during Cook’s last voyage.

Originally, the species inhabited all of the Hawaiian main islands where it originally was very common and widespread, the birds undertook wide wanderings, likely even between islands, to exploit seasonally available food resources. They generally fed on fruits, mainly of the native ‘ie’ie (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.) but they also fed upon insects

The species reached a size of about 17 cm; it showed a marked sexual dimorphism; both sexes were generally olive-green, had pink legs and feet and beaks, but the males had a bright yellow head.

The Hawaiian name of the bird was ‘ō’ū. [1]

***

The last populations of the Ou survived on the islands of Hawai’i, where they were last seen in 1987 in the Ōla’a area and on Kaua’i, where they finally were last seen in 1989 on the Alaka’i plateau; no real efforts had been undertaken to save the last populations. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 01.08.2022

Cookeconcha decussatula (Pease)

Decussate Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha decussatula)  

The Decussate Cookeconcha Snail was described in 1866, it inhabited the islands of Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands (the localities are sometimes erroneously given as Kaua’i and Moloka’i).

Like all of its congeners, this species was terrestrial.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,35 to 0,43 cm in diameter. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

*********************  

edited: 13.06.2020

Haplostachys linearifolia (Drake) Sherff

Linear-leaved Honohono (Haplostachys linearifolia)

This species from the Mint-family, which was found on the islands of Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, was described in 1943, apparently based on herbarium specimens, since it was last seen in 1928.

The species was obviously quite similar to the closely related and likewise nearly extinct Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya (A. Gray) H. St. John) from the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i and Maui.

*********************

Photo: David Eickhoff
http://nativeplants.hawaii.edu

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0

*********************

edited: 22.11.2018