Large Sloth Lemur (Palaeopropithecus ingens)
This species was described in 1899 based on subfossil remains that had been found in Madagascar.
The Large Sloth Lemur was apparently restricted to the southern part of Magadascar
The species is known to have survived into the 17th century, bones from a remote cave in the interiror of southern Madagascar could be dated to an age of about 1285 to 1625 AD. The species is mentioned in Malagasy folklore accounts as the tratratratra or tretretretre and was also mentioned by Étienne de Flacourt, who was the french governor of Madagascar from 1648 to 1655.:
“The Tretretretre, or Tratratratra, is an animal as large as a two-year- old calf, and which has a round head and a man’s face; the fore-feet like those of a Monkey, and the hind ones also. It has curled hair, a short tail, and ears like those of a man. … It has been seen near Lake Lipomani, in the vicinity of which is ils lair. It is a very solitary animal, which the people of the country hold in great fear and run away from, as it also does from them.” 
I have not yet read the original, which is in French, and there are several translations, which sometimes mention a Lake Lipomani or a Lipomani Lagoon, which I could not detect yet.
 Étienne de Flacourt: Histoire de la grande Isle Madagascar composée par le Sieur de Flacourt, Directeur Général de la Compagnie Françoise de l’Orient, & Commandant pour sa Majesté dans ladite Isle & és Isles adjacentes. Avec une Relation de ce qui s’est passé és année 1655. 1656. & 1657. non encore veuë par la premiere Impression, Paris: Gervais Clovzier 1661
 David A. Burney; Ramilisonina: The Kilopilopitsofy, Kidoky, and Bokyboky: Accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal “extinction window”. American Anthropologist 100(4): 957-966. 1999