Tag Archives: Maui

Amastra flemingi Cooke

Fleming’s Amastra Snail (Amastra flemingi)

Fleming’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on three (sub)fossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of eastern Maui, which may date to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

The shell of the holotype reaches a height of about 1,3 cm, “The shell is indistinctly rimate, sinitral, oblong-turrite, in its fossil state whitish. The spire is elongate, faintly contracted above, with slightly convex outlines.” [1]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson

Scissor-billed Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex)

The Scissor-billed Koa Finch is known only by subfossil remains, found on the islands of Kaua’i and Maui, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers on the Hawaiian Islands.

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Blackburnia agonoides (Sharp)

Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia agonoides)

The Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded from cavities in trunks or branches of the endemic Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray). [1]

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References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

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edited: 03.09.2019

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 02.06.2021

Blackburnia koebelei (Sharp)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia koebelei)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the western part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and might very well be extinct.

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 02.09.2019

Amastra nana Baldwin

Small Amastra Snail (Amastra nana)

The Small Amastra Snail was described in 1895; it inhabited the floors of the forests of Makawao in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it was once considered common, but very local in its distribution.

The animal was described when it was alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle light brown. Foot above and below brown with spots of deeper shade on the sides. Tentacles and front above almost black.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,1 to 1,2 cm in height; their coloration was quite variable.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Apetasimus atratus (Scott)

Blackish Sap Beetle (Apetasimus atratus)

The Blackish Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was found on the Haleakala region on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, but is also known to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i too.

The species reached a length of about 0,45 to 0,56 cm; it was dark, nearly black in color with some brick red areas on the elytra that were limited to the elytra’s bases, the antennae and legs were red to dark brown in color. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 0.2.06.2021

Blackburnia haleakala Liebherr & Zimmerman

Haleakala Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia haleakala)

The Haleakala Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2000, it was endemic to the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded on the ground under dead wood. [1]

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References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

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edited: 03.09.2019

Hylaeus melanothrix (Perkins)

Smoky-winged Masked Bee (Hylaeus melanothrix)  

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee was described in 1899, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the wet montane forests on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is nearly completely black, except for some very small markings on its head, its wings are dark smoky brown.

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee has not been found during recent searches and is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020

Eupithecia prasinombra (Meyrick)

Ukulele Pug Moth (Eupithecia prasinombra)

The Ukulele Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the female type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,9 cm, it was originally described as being green, but the sole surviving specimen has faded so much that there is no green color any more, instead it shows some plae cream colored areas, some scales are orange – or rosy-tipped.

The Ukulele Pug Moth inhabited native rain forest areas at a place named Ukulele somewhere in the Haleakala region of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, the habitat is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores and the species, which was never found since its description, may already be extinct.

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

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edited: 06.01.2019

Orthiospiza howarthi James & Olson

Maui Upland Finch (Orthiospiza howarthi)

The Maui Highland Finch aka. Maui Upland Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that had been collected from cave deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

When alive, the species appears to have been restricted to higher elevations, its remains were never found in lowland deposits. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 29.04.2022

Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson

Primitive Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes)

The Primitive Koa Finch was described in 2005 based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

At least on Maui the species occurred in sympatry with another closely related species, the Scissor-billed Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson), a constellation which is known also from the island of Hawai’i, where two other congeneric species, the Lesser- (Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild) and the greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) formed mixed flocks feeding together.

The primitive Koa-Finch aka. Oahu Koa-Finch disappeared before the first Europeans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. 

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Amastra malleata Smith

Hammered Amastra Snail (Amastra malleata)

The Hammered Amastra Snail was described 1873; it was found in the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Phyllostegia hillebrandii H. Mann ex Hillebr.

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia hillebrandii)

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia was described in 1888, it is known from two collections from eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands; one from Kula in the center -, and the other one from ‘Ulupalakua near the southern shore of the island.

The species is now extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

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edited: 24.09.2019

cf. Chloridops sp.

Unassigned Maui Finch (cf. Chloridops sp.)

This form is known by a fragment of a cranium including the frontal and parts of the interoribital septum and maxilla, which where excavated from deposits of the Pu’u Naio Cave on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

This species was about the size of the Wahi Crosbeak (Chloridops wahi James & Olson), that is 13 to 14,5 cm, but probably was not a close relative of it.

***

There appear to exist remains of at least two additional finch forms in the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., USA, that were collected on Maui and still await their description as soon as more material is found.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 08.10.2020

Myadestes lanaiensis ssp. ‘Maui’

Maui Thrush (Myadestes lanaiensis ssp.)

This form is known only from reports from the 1850s as well as from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Taken into account the fact that all known island forms of the species are considered distinct subspecies, the form that formerly inhabited the island of Maui, must also have been a distinct form.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 17.11.2021

Chaetoptila sp. ‘narrow-billed’

Narrow-billed Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Narrow-billed Kioea is known from subfossil bones that were found on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species had a much narrower bill than the Hawaiian Kioe, with which it occurred sympatrically (at least if the form known as Chaetoptila sp. ‘Maui Nui’ indeed turns out to be identical with this species) [1]. 

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 13.09.2020 

Auriculella crassula Smith

Thick Auriculella Snail (Auriculella crassula)

The Thick Auriculella Snail was described in 1873, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands where it apparently was quite common.

Several varieties are known, of which some were originally described as distinct species.:

This species runs through a number of color varieties, the most common of which is an olive yellow; others have the spire dark, and the suture broadly white-bordered. The white-belted pattern, though it occurs in nearly all the species of this genus, and is fairly common in A. uniplicata, does not seem to be found in this species; at least no specimen of this color variety was found among over 1500 specimens seen, but there is sometimes a brown belt at the periphery. The spire is nearly always darker than the last whorl, and there is usually a broad white band just below the suture.” [1]

The species is now extinct like so many of the terrestrial snail species from the Hawaiian Islands.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916′

(public domain)

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edited: 17.11.2021

Hemignathus sp. ‘Maui’

Maui Hoopoe-billed Akialoa (Hemignathus sp.)  

This species, so far undescribed, is known exclusively from subfossil bones, which were excavated on the island of Maui.  

The beak morphology of the Maui Hoopoe-billed Akialoa is similar to that of the Hoopoe-billed Akialoa (Hemignathus upupirostris James & Olson), but it was smaller. [1][2]  

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[2] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005  

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edited: 08.04.2018

Perdicella thwingi Pislbry & Cooke

Thwing’s Perdicella Snail (Perdicella thwingi)  

Thwing’s Perdicella Snail was endemic to the dry Auwahi forest in eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

This was one of the largets species in its genus, the shells are up to 1,6 to 1,7 cm heigh. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

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edited: 16.06.2020

Amastra morticina Hyatt & Pilsbry

Dead Amastra Snail (Amastra morticina 

This species was described in 1911, apparently based on subfossil specimens that had been collected from sandy deposits at the Kahului Bay at the northern coast of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species was already extinct at that date, it very likely disappeared shortly after the occupation of the island by the first Hawaiian settlers.  

***

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,5 cm, those of the type specimens are dull reddish colored while others are whitish colored (see picture)  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)  

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edited: 22.03.2018

Laminella kuhnsi (Cooke)

Kuhns’ Laminella Snail (Laminella kuhnsi)

Kuhns’ Laminella Snail was described in 1908, it was originally identified as another species, Amastra erecta (Pease), but was subsequently recognized as being a distinct species (and genus).

The species was found in the vicinity of the Kahakuloa Bay at the northern north-east of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,34 cm in length, they were completely brown and had some zigzag markings in their epidermis, there appears to have also been a straw-colored variety. [1]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Amastra (Laminella) kuhnsi. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 217-218. 1908

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Amastra (Laminella) kuhnsi. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 217-218. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 12.06.2020

Vangulifer mirandus Olson & James

Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch (Vangulifer mirandus)

The Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch is one of the many bird species that were extirpated by the first humans arriving on the Hawaiian Islands and which are known only by subfossil remains.

***

The Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch had a very strange beak, it appeared to have been to long and to weak for seed cracking, to deep and to broad for probing, and too short for nectar feeding; it had a very bluntly rounded tip; the ventral surface and the lateral edges of the upper beak were richly supplied with blood vessels and apparently also with nerve endings, a characteristic which is otherwise only known in the Apterygiformes (Kiwis).

The bird obviously used its beak to detect its food, likely living creatures like insects and other invertebrates, in some kind of substrate.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 04.10.2020

Peperomia subpetiolata Yunck.

Waikamoi Peperomia (Peperomia subpetiolata)

The Waikamoi Peperomia, named ‘ala ‘ala wai nui in the Hawaiian language, is known from a single population near the Kula Pipeline between the Puohokamoa- and the Waikamoi Streams in eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species itself is apparently extinct, however, there apparently still exists a hybrid of this species and the Forest Peperomia (Peperomia hirtipetiola C. DC.) that is kept in cultivation.

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edited: 20.09.2020

Clermontia multiflora Hillebr.

Many-flowered Clermontia (Clermontia multiflora)  

The Many-flowered Clermontia occurred in the Waihe’e Valley in western Maui and in the Ko’olau Mauntains on O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was a multi-branched shrub and reached sizes of 2 to 4 m.  

The Many-flowered Clermontia is apparently known exclusively from specimens that had been collected in 1870 and, as it was never found since, is considered extinct.  

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Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)

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edited: 20.03.2018

Phyllostegia rockii Sherff

Rock’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia rockii)

Rock’s Phyllostegia was described in 1934, it was restricted to the slopes of the Haleakala volcano on eastern Maui, Hawai’i Islands.

The species is known from only three collections, the most recent of which was made in 1912, it is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

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edited: 24.09.2019

Omiodes musicola Swezey

Maui Banana Moth (Omiodes musicola)

The Maui Banana Moth was described in 1909, the species was originally found somewhere in the forests of the ‘Iao Valley on western Maui, but was later also recorded from the neigboring island of Moloka’i.

The moth reached a wingspan of about 2,4.

The caterpillars are known to have fed on banana leaves, their native larval food plant appears to be unknown but may have been some grass species. [1]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

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edited: 23.09.2019

Blackburnia terebrata (Blackburn)

Terebra-bearing Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia terebrata)

The Terebra-bearing Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1881, it was endemic to the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to have been one of the species associated with the formerly abundant but now mostly absent endemic koa forest, it was recorded under stones or logs outside the koa forest. [1][2][3]

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References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003
[2] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006
[3] James K. Liebherr: The mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation. Zookeys 544: 1-407. 2015 

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edited: 03.09.2019

Leptachatina mcgregori Pilsbry & Cooke

Mcgregor’s Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina mcgregori)  

This species was described in 1914, it inhabited an area around the town of Lahaina at the west coast of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached lengths of about 0,63 cm. [1]  

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References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII 1915-1916  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII 1915-1916‘ 

(public domain)  

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edited: 31.03.2018

Zapornia sp. ‘Maui’

Medium Maui Rail (Zapornia sp.)  

The Medium Maui Rail is so far known from the subfossil remains of probably only two individuals, one was found in the Pu’u Naio Cave, the other one in the Lower Waihoi Valley Cave, together with the remains of the larger Severn’s Rail (Zapornia severnsi (Olson & James)).  

The species was about the size of the Hawaiian Rail (Zapornia sandwicensis (Gmelin)). [1]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

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edited: 20.03.2018

Apteribis sp. ‘Maui’

Maui Lowland Ibis (Apteribis sp.)  

The Maui Lowland Ibis is known exclusively from subfossil bones, all recovered from lowland areas on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

This form has not yet been described, it differed from the Maui Ibis (Apteribis brevis Olson & James) by its larger size and is thus thought to represent a somewhat distinct taxon. [1]  

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

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edited: 23.03.2018

Melamprosops phaeosoma Casey & Jacoby

Poouli (Melamprosops phaeosoma)  

This species was described in 1974, it was restricted to higher elevations on the island of Maui, but subfossil remains show that it formerly was common all over the island.  

The Poouli reached a size of about 14 cm, it had a black face, a grey crown, the upperparts were brown, the under site was light brown to dusky white.  

The species fed on snails, spiders and insects.  

The Hawaiian name po’o-uli, which was given to the bird by its authors, literally means dark-headed. [1]  

***

This species is now extinct, what in fact could easily have been avoided if the efforts to save this species would have been started earlier.  

There were only three birds leftover in 1997, a male and two females; one of them, the male, was captured and taken to the Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda in an attempt to breed the bird in captivity, but it died shortly after (November 26th, 2004) on bird malaria.  

The enormous ignorance and incompetence of the persons in authority involved in this case is simply an unbelievable shame!  

The official red list of the IUCN still lists the Poouli as Critically Endangered, but the Poouli has gone forever.  

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References:  

[1] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005  

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Photo: Paul E. Baker (?); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service  

(public domain)

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edited: 23.09.2017

Waltheria pyrolifolia A. Gray

Maui Sleepy Morning (Waltheria pyrolifolia)

This species was described in 1854, it is apparently only known from the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found growing in sympatry with the very widespread Sleepy Morning (Waltheria indica L.) (see depiction below).

The Maui Sleepy Morning was later synonymized with that species but was subsequently resurrected in 2011; it may, however, indeed be nothing but an aberrant form of the common Sleepy Morning. [1]

If it, however, indeed was a distinct species, it is now definetly extinct.

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References:

[1] Janice Saunders: Resurrection of the Maui endemic Waltheria pyrolifolia (Sterculiaceae, Hermannieae). Darwinia 49(1): 76-85. 2011

*********************

Sleepy Morning (Waltheria indica)

Depiction from: ‘Francis Sinclair: Indigenous flowers of the Hawaiian Islands. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington 1885’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 26.04.2021

Leptachatina nitida (Newcomb)

Shining Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina nitida)  

The Shining Leptachatina Snail was described in 1853, it was endemic to the island of Maui, where it apparently was restricted to at least two populations at Kula and Ulapalakua on the western slopes of the Haleakala volcano in the eastern part of the island.  

The shells reached lengths of about 0,8 to 1 cm. [1]  

***

There are several specimens, apparently originating from the islands of Moloka’i and O’ahu, that are sometimes assigned to this species, very probably erroneously. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 31.03.2018

Agrotis crinigera (Butler)

Poko Cutworm (Agrotis crinigera)  

The Poko Cutworm, so named for its native name Poko, was one of the moth species, that in the time after the arrival of European settlers on the Hawai’i Islands were able to adapt quite well to the new set of circumstances.  

The species reached a wingspan of about 4,9 cm.  

The natural host plants of the caterpillars were several native species of Ihi (Portulaca spp.) as well as ‘Ilima (Sida fallax Walp.), but in the meantime they also adapted themselves to introduced plant species and fed on the leaves of thorn-apple plants (Datura spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Furthermore they fed on several garden plants, especially of the legume family, e.g. beans, and therefore may not have been very welcome to gardens.  

In 1899, Hugo H. Schauinsland wrote the following notes about his observations of this species on the island of Laysan.:

Of the insects I found on Laysan, only the following … Spaelotis crinigera Butl.; the latter occurred in astonishingly hugh numbers. Its “grublike caterpillar” lives under ground on the roots of Eragrostis.” [2]

***

Even though the Poko Cutworm was distributed all over the Hawaiian main islands, it belongs to the extirpated species now, whereas the reasons for this seem still to be unknown up to date.  

The species was last seen in 1926.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  
[2] Hugo H. Schauinsland: Three months on a coral island (Laysan); translated by Miklos D. F. Udvardy. Atoll Research Bulletin 432. 1996

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’ 

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 24.09.2019

Schiedea implexa (Hillebr.) Sherff

Auwahi Schiedea (Schiedea implexa)

The Auwahi Schiedea is endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known from only two populations and was last recorded in 1910, however, it appears to have been entirely restricted to vertical cliffs, and might thus in fact still exist somewhere. 

*********************

Photo: David Eickhoff 
http://nativeplants.hawaii.edu

(under creative commons license (2.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0

*********************

edited: 09.02.2020

Amastra subsoror Hyatt & Pilsbry

Lahaina Amastra Snail (Amastra subsoror)  

The last life specimens were recorded sometimes before 1945 in the Wahikuli Gulch near the city of Lahaina on the western coast of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species was last seen in 1946.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain)

********************* 

edited: 30.09.2017

Xestospiza fastigialis James & Olson

Ridge-billed Finch (Xestospiza fastigialis)

The species was described in 1991, together with numerous other endemic Hawaiian birds now extinct.

The Ridge-billed Finch was apparently very widespread, remains of the species were recovered from the islands of Maui, Moloka’i, as well as O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, it very probably also inhabited the islands of Kaho’olawe and Lana’i, which, however, don’t have rich (sub)fossil deposits.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers on the Hawaiian Islands. [1]

***

The two species assigned to the genus Xestospiza most likely do not belong into the same genus. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

*********************

edited: 19.06.2020

Partulina kaaeana Baldwin

Mt. Helu Partulina Snail (Partulina kaaeana)  

This species was described in 1906, it was endemic to a single area at an elevation of 1220 on the slopes of the Mt. Helu on western Maui, Hawaii Islands.  

The shell has a size of about 2,1 cm.  

***

The author of the species also described the life animal.:  

Animal extended in motion longer than the shell. Mantle brownish-black with outer edge bordered with narrow white line. Foot below and sides light slate color. Head above and tentacles dark slate and granulated.”  

***

The Mt. Helu Partulina Snail was last seen in 1981 and is now clearly extinct.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 08.10.2017

Eragrostis mauiensis Hitchc.

Maui Lovegrass (Eragrostis mauiensis 

The Maui Lovegrass was described in 1922, the species is apparently known only from the type that was collected on sandhills at Wailuku on the eastern part of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species may also have occurred on the island of Lana’i. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] A. S. Hitchcock: The grasses of Hawaii. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 8(3): 1-132. 1922  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘A. S. Hitchcock: The grasses of Hawaii. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 8(3): 1-132. 1922’

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 05.04.2018

Amastra montana Baldwin

Montane Amastra Snail (Amastra montana)

The Montane Amastra Snail was described in 1906; it inhabited the forest floors at elevations above 1800 m on the slopes of Pu’u Kukui, a mountain on western Maui, Hawaiian Islands, it shared its habitat with another now extinct amastrid snail, Alexanders Laminella Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)).

There is also a little description of the animal itself.:

Animal in motion as long as the shell. Mantle dark-brown with a light-brown border. Foot and tentacles almost black. Head above coarsely granulated.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Drepanis funerea Newton

Black Mamo (Drepanis funerea)  

The Black Mamo was discovered in 1893 by Robert C. L. Perkins, a British ornithologist.  

The species is known historically only from the island of Moloka’i, but did occur in former times on the neighboring island of Maui as well, as is known from subfossil remains. [2]  

The species reached a size of 20 cm, it was completely black except for its outer wing feathers, which were silvery grey.  

The species certainly fed solely on nectar, especially that of the many endemic shrubby and tree-like lobelioid species.  

***

Some information about the habits of this species were made by William A. Bryan in 1907, when he collected the last specimen of this species.:  

Hopping from tree to tree, it worked its way around the head of the little side valley, up which it had come in answer to my call, to where a large purple-flowered lobelia was in profuse blossom, and began to feed. The ease and grace with which the feat was accomplished was indeed interesting, and left no doubt in my mind as to one of the probable causes of the remarkable development of the tongue and bill. The tongue was inserted with great precision, up to the nostrils, in the flower, while the bird balanced itself on the branches, assuming almost every imaginable attitude in its operations. In all three of the birds, secured, the crown was smeared with the sticky purplish white pollen of this lobelia.” [1]

***

The Hawaiians knew the bird as hoa. Another name that is sometimes assigned to this species is ‘o’o nuku’umu [‘o’o [with] beak sucking], a name of unknown origin that apparently was only ever used by Robert C. L. Perkins for unknown reasons. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] W. A. Bryan: Some Birds of Molokai. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 4(2): 43-86. 1908 
[2] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[3] H. Douglass Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’    

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 24.09.2017

Blackburnia octoocellata (Karsch)

Eight-eyed Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia octoocellata)

The Eight-eyed Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1881, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

This beetle is one of several within its genus that are associated with the endemic Koa Acacia (Acacia koa A. Gray) in one way or another, this species for example was recorded under exfoliating bark of the koa.

The nearly complete destruction of large parts of the formerly abundant koa forests lead to a collapse of many populations of endemic invertebrates, some are now completely extinct – like this beetle. [1][2][3]

********************* 

References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003
[2] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006
[3] James K. Liebherr: The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation. Zookeys 544: 1-407. 2015

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Amastra elongata (Newcomb)

Elongated Amastra Snail (Amastra elongata)

This appears to be a somewhat questionable species, its description in the ‘ Manual of Conchology’ reads as follows.:

Three specimens are no. 29960 of the Newcomb collection, Cornell University. One of these may be the type which was said to be unique, but none agrees exactly with Newcomb’s measurements. It is a shell having the color and texture of A. subsoror, with which it agrees in the long, convex embryonic whorl. the surface may be a little rougher. It differs from subsoros in the decidedly more elongate shape and consequently smaller aperture. It differs from A. perversa by the longer, more convex embryonic whorls. Seems to be a valid species, close to those of Maui and Molokai.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra goniops Pilsbry & Cooke

Olowalu Amastra Snail (Amastra goniops)

This species inhabited the Olowalu Gulch near the southern coast of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1 cm in heigth.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Melicope obovata (H. St. John) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Obovate Melicope (Melicope obovata)  

The Obovate Melicope was described in 1944, it is known only from the type specimen that was collected at the end of the 19th century either on the island of Lana’i or Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species is considered extinct.  

*********************  

edited: 07.04.2018

Aidemedia lutetiae James & Olson

Maui Nui Gaper (Aidemedia lutetiae 

This species was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains recovered from the Pu’u Makua- and Pu’u Naio Caves on the island of Maui, as well as from the Mo’omomi Dunes on Moloka’i.  

The species reached an estimated size of about 19 cm, it differed from its closest relative/relatives Aidemedia chascax/zanclops James & Olson by its shorter, very straight bill. [1]  

***

The Maui Nui Gaper was very probably somewhat like a larger version of the so called Greater Amakihi (Viridonia sagittirostris Rotschild) from the island of Hawai’i.  

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 24.09.2017

Zapornia severnsi (Olson & James)

Large Maui Crake (Zapornia severnsi)  

This species from the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, was among the larger members of its genus, it may have reached a length of nearly 22 cm. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 20.03.2018

Perdicella fulgurans Sykes

Glistening Perdicella Snail (Perdicella fulgurans)  

The Glistened Perdicella Snail, described in 1900, was restricted to the Makawao District in eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands. It shared its habitat with a close relative, the Maui Perdicella Snail (Perdicella maniensis (Pfeiffer)).  

The shells in average reached heights of about 1,5 cm.  

Like all of its congeners, also the Glistening Perdicella Snail was arboreal, it inhabited leaves, stems and trunks of the trees in the native rainforests, and probably fed on fungi.  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Amastra mirabilis Cooke

Glorious Amastra Snail (Amastra mirabilis)

The Glorious Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of the holotype has a size of 1,45 cm in height; “In its dead state the last two whorls are white, becoming darker above, the apical whorls being of a dark reddish-brown. In two specimens there are traces of a thin dark greenish-brown epidermis.” [1]

The species was apparently already extinct when it was described, as only empty shells were found.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Perdicella maniensis (Pfeiffer)

Maui Perdicella Snail (Perdicella maniensis)  

This species, described in 1856, was restricted to the Makawao District on eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells in average reached heights of about 1,2 cm.  

***

The scientific name of this species is possible a typographical error (originally mauiensis), yet due to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the international rules of the zoological nomenclature) it must be accepted as valid name.  

*********************


Depiction from: George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(not in copyright)


*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Tetramolopium arenarium ssp. laxum Lowrey

Loose Sand Pamakani (Tetramolopium arenarium ssp. laxum)

The Sand Pamakani occurs on the islands of Hawai’i and Maui, Hawaiian Islands, with the nominate race occuring on both islands and the subspecies, discussed here having been restricted to Maui only.

The Loose Sand Pamakani is considered extinct, the same was thought of the nominate race, which, however, was rediscovered in 1989. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986
[2] Patricia P. Douglas; Robert B. Shaw: Rediscovery of Tetramolopium arenarium Subsp. arenarium var. arenarium (Asteraceae: Astereae) on the Pohakuloa Training Area, Hawaii. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 76(4): 1182-1185. 1989

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edited: 15.01.2019

Hylaeus satelles (Blackburn)

Attendanting Masked Bee (Hylaeus satelles 

This species was known to inhabit the islands of Lana’i, Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it apparently was restricted to remote wet forests.

The species was last collected in the 1890s, it may already be extinct.

*********************  

edited: 11.04.2019

Perdicella carinella (Baldwin)

Nahiku Perdicella Snail (Perdicella carinella 

This species is known from a locality named Nahiku which is located at the northeastern coast of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of 1,4 to 1,5 cm in heigth. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Perdicella zebra (Newcomb)

Zebra Perdicella Snail (Perdicella zebra 

The Zebra Perdicella Snail, which was endemic to eastern Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, was described in 1855 based on a single specimen.:  

It seems to resemble P. ornata in color-pattern, differing from zebrina Pfr. by the basal band.” [1]

The shell of this smaller species reached a height of about 1 cm.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Genophantis leahi Swezeyi

Leahi Pyralid Moth (Genophantis leahi)

The Leahi Pyralid Moth was described in 1910; it is known from the islands of Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae fed on the leaves of several native spurge species (Euphorbia spp.).

*********************

Photo: CBG Photography Group, Centre for Biodiversity Genomics

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

edited: 23.04.2022

Perdicella ornata (Newcomb)

Ornated Perdicella Snail (Perdicella ornata)  

The Ornated Perdicella Snail was described in 1853, it was inhabiting the rainforests on Mt. Helu in western Maui, Hawaiian Islands, another population assigned to the same species apparently occurred at a certain locality on eastern Maui.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,48 cm in heigth.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************    

Depiction from: George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

Depiction from: George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.06.2020

Amastra assimilis (Newcomb)

West Maui Amastra Snail (Amastra assimilis)

This species was described in 1853, it is endemic to the western part of the island of Maui in the Hawai’i Islands, where it occurred at several localities.

The shells appear to be quite variable. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)


*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Cyanea quercifolia (Hillebr.) E. Wimm.

Oak-leaved Cyanea (Cyanea quercifolia)  

The Oak-leaved Cyanea was described in 1888 as a variety of another species, the Solanum-like Cyanea (Cyanea solanacea Hillebr.).  

The species is apparently known only from the type collection that was obtained in 1870 [?] somewhere between 915 m and 1220 m on the western slopes of Haleakala volcano in the eastern part of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

*********************  

edited: 04.04.2018

Cyperus neokunthianus Kük.

Kunth’s Sedge (Cyperus neokunthianus)

Kunth’s Sedge was described in 1888, it was appareantly restricted to a single area in the Waihe’e Valley on western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was never recorded since and is now considered extinct.

*********************

edited: 27.05.2019

Cyanea pohaku Lammers

Haleakala Cyanea (Cyanea pohaku 

This species occurred at the Pu’unianiau peak at the northwestern slopes of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The discoverer and author of the species wrote about it.:  

Today certain species have survived in a particular locality, from which they cannot spread, as they are surrounded by grazing animals which devour eagerly any germinating plant, thus precluding the establishment of a progeny, and they are thus doomed to extinction. Clermontia Haleakalensis [Cyanea pohaku], for example, has already disappeared. A few years ago three healthy trees existed of this species. It is true they were surrounded by their enemies, the cattle, which browsed on their lowest branches and trampled under foot or devoured any seedling which might have dared show its cotyledons above ground even in what must now considered unnatural surroundings and among foreign plant associates. Today the species has become extinct; not even a vestige of the trunks of these giants of Lobelioids remains to bear testimony to their previous existence. Fortunately, the writer photographed these trees when he discovered them, the only record besides herbarium specimens. 
Numerous may have been the species which lived in remote places and became extinct before they were discovered.
”  

*********************  

References:  

[1] Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918  

*********************    

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’ 

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 04.04.2018

Partulina ustulata (Gulick)

Scorched Partulina Snail (Partulina ustulata)  

This species was described in 1856, it was restricted to western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The shells reached sizes of up to 2,5 cm.  

The Scorched Partulina Snail was an arboreal species, it was recorded living on shrubs including the Hawaiian endemic mamaki (Pipturus albidus (Hook. & Arn.) A. Gray ex H. Mann).  

*********************

Foto: Hank L. Oppenheimer 
http://hear.smugmug.com  

(under creative commons license (3.0) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

********************* 

edited: 08.10.2017

Leptachatina sp. ‘West Maui’

West Maui Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina sp.)  

This is an undescribed species that is known from about six populations, both on eastern and western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species was recorded in the 1940s and 1960s from the Hanaula-iki- and Iao Valleys, from the Wahikuli Gulch and from other places; the last record dates to 1971, when only a single population was left.  

The West Maui Leptachatina Snail was a ground-dwelling species that was found in leaf litter, it is certainly extinct like most other members of this genus.  

*********************  

edited: 08.10.2017

Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. arbusculum (A. Gray) Lowrey

Maui Scaled Pamakani (Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. arbusculum)

The Scaled Pamakani (Tetramolopium lepidotum (Less.) Sherff) occurs on the islands of Lana’i, Maui and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, with the nominate occuring on Lana’i, where it is extinct, and O’ahu.

The Maui subspecies is known only o the basis of herbarium sheets that had been collected in 1844 at the crater of the Haleakala volcano, it was never recorded since and is now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Timothy K. Lowrey: A biosystematic revision of Hawaiian Tetramolopium (Compositae: Astereae). Allertonia 4: 325-339. 1986

*********************

edited: 15.01.2019

Agrotis tephrias Meyrick

Kauai Cutworm (Agrotis tephrias)  

This species inhabited the islands of Kaua’i and Maui, but very probably occurred on the other main islands as well. The form from Maui was originally described as a distinct species (Agrotis spoderopa Meyrick).  

The Kauai Cutworm reached a wingspan of about 4 cm. [1]  

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George F. Hampson: Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum. London: Printed by Order of the Trustees 1898-1919’  

(public domain)  

*********************

edited: 07.04.2018

Hemignathus affinis Rothschild

Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis)  

The drepanidine genus Hemignathus contains up to 16 species, depending on which author, which sometimes are named as ‚little green birds‘ colloquially, relating to the mainly olive green color of most of these species.  

The genus is divided into four subgenera; Akialoa (large species with unusual long, downwardly bent beaks), Chlorodrepanis (small species with short, slightly bent beaks), Hemignathus (species with strongly downwardly bent beaks and the maxillary about twice the length of the mandibular beak), and Viridonia (a single species with a straight beak, actually not closely related to the other species).  

***

The Hawaiian name Nukupu’u literally means ‚nose [formed like a] hill‘ and relates to the form of the beak; the three species named as Nukupu’u (Hemignathus affinisHemignathus hanapepe Wilson, Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein) all shared downwardly bent beaks with a maxillary about twice as long as the mandibular beak. The birds used these strange beaks to probe the crevices of tree bark for insects and insect larvae.  

***

The Maui Nukupuu was last seen in 1967 in the Kipahulu Valley in the southeastern part of Maui – since then the species is considered extinct.  

***

The Maui Nukupuu, respectively perhaps a subspecies of it, is known also from subfossil remains found on the island of Moloka’i, Maui’s neighbor. [5][6]  

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References:  

[1] W. E. Banko: Rediscovery of Maui Nukupuu, Hemignathus lucidus affinis, and Sighting of Maui Parrotbill, Pseudonestor xanthophrys, Kipahulu Valley, Maui, Hawaii. Condor 70: 265-266. 1968 
[2] D. Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986 
[3] H. D. Pratt; P. L. Bruner; D. G. Berrett: A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press 1987 
[4] E. Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987 
[5] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[6] Storrs L. Olson; Helen F. James: A specimen of Nuku pu’u (Aves: Drepanidini: Hemignathus lucidus) from the island of Hawai’i. Pacific Science 48(4): 331-338. 1994 
[7] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005 
[8] J. P. Hume; M. Walters: Extinct Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2012  

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’  

(public domain)

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edited: 05.04.2018

Cyanea longissima (Rock) H. St. John

Streambank Cyanea (Cyanea longissima 

This species was described in 1911, originally as a variety of another species, the Rough Cyanea (Cyanea scabra Hillebr.)  

The Streambank Cyanea was restricted to the wet forests at the windward slopes of the Haleakala Volkano on Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  The species was last seen in 1927.  

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Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study o the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)  

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edited: 18.04.2019

Chloridops wahi James & Olson

Wahi Grosbeak (Chloridops wahi)  

This species was described in 1991 from subfossil bones that were recovered from the Pu’u Naio Cave on Maui, as well as from Barber’s Point at the southwestern tip of O’ahu, and from the crater deposits at Ulupau Head, Mokapu Peninsula on the southeastern coast of O’ahu.  

The species certainly inhabited the islands of Kaho’olawe, Lana’i, and Moloka’i as well.  

The Wahi Grosbeak was closely related to the Kona Grosbeak (Chloridops kona Wilson), but was smaller, reaching a size of about 13 to 14,5 cm. [1]  

***  

The birds may have fed on the very hard seeds of the Hawaiian endemic a’e trees (Zanthoxylon spp.), whose subfossil seeds were found in the same deposits. [2]  

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991 
[2] Storrs L. Olson:  A hard nut to crack: rapid evolution in the Kona Grosbeak of Hawaii for a locally abundant food source (Drepanidini: Chloridops kona). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 126(1): 1-8. 2014  

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edited: 30.10.2017

Argyroxiphium virescens Hillebr.

Greensword (Argyroxiphium virescens)  

The Greensword was restricted to the eastern slopes of the Haleakala crater on eastern Maui.  

The plant, just like all the other species of the genus, grew as a rosette of numerous long, narrow leaves for several years, until, when finally full-grown, it produced its spectacular inflorescence, just to end up dead.  

The species, when flowering, reached a heigth of about 1,5 m.  

The Greensword disappeared because of the destruction of the vegetation caused by free-running cattle and sheep – the last individual was found in the year 1945.  

***

There seem to be some plants which may be hybrids of this species and of the Maui Silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum (A. Gray) Meyrat), however, their true identity seems to be debatable.  

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alleged Hybrid Silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum x virescens)  

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr  

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 06.03.2017

Apteribis brevis Olson & James

Maui Ibis (Apteribis brevis)  

This species was described in 1991, it is known from numerous subfossil remains, that were recovered from various sites at higher elevations on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The Maui Ibis was flightless, and sometimes birds fell into lava tubes, from where they could not escape, making it possible for the whole skeleton to outlast until recently. [1]  

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References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

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edited: 23.03.2018

Vangulifer neophasis James & Olson

Pololei Shovel-billed Finch (Vangulifer neophasis)

The Pololei Shovel-billed Finch, also known as Thin-billed Finch, is one of the countless Hawaiian endemic birds that were extirpated already by the first Polynesian settlers shortly after they set foot on the Hawaiian Islands.

The species was described in 1991 based on subfossil bones recovered from the Pu’u Naio Cave on the island of Maui.

The Pololei Shovel-billed Finch was a highly specialized, somewhat flycatcher-like bird that probably was adapted for catching insects on wing. [1]

***

The species is not that closely related to its congener, the Kiwi Shovel-billed Finch (Vangulifer mirandus Olson & James) and both species should better be placed in distinct genera.

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

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edited: 03.10.2020

Agrotis cremata (Butler)

Maui Cutworm (Agrotis cremata)  

The genus Agrotis contains about 90 species which are distributed almost all over the world. The Hawaiian Islands are (or were) home to about 26 species, some are found on all main islands while others are restricted to single islands, yet 11 of these species are considered extinct now.  

***

The Maui Cutworm is one of these extinct forms. This species is known from the islands of Maui and O’ahu, but very probably inhabited other islands as well.  

The reasons for its extinction are unknown, the same applies to the exact extinction date.  

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958 
[2] F. G. Howarth; W. P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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edited: 07.02.2012

Chaetoptila sp. ‘Maui Nui’

Maui Nui Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

This form, which either was closely related to – or maybe more probably identical with the Hawaiian Kioea (Chaetoptila angustipluma (Peale)), is only known from subfossil remains which were found on the island of Maui. [2]

***

Habitat Hawaii and Molokai.”  

(source: Sanford B. Dole: List of Birds of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Almanac and Annual. 41-58. 1879) [1]

This tiny footnote attached to a description of the Hawaiian Kioea, might have based on the confusion with another species called Kioea by the Hawaiians, the Bristle Curlew (Numenius tahitensis Gmelin), but I personally think this is rather unlikely.  

So there is a slight possibility that the Kioea, or Narrow-feathered Honeyeater (or a very similar species) survived on Moloka’i Island into the 19th century. 

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References:  

[1] Sanford B. Dole: List of Birds of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Almanac and Annual. 41-58. 1879 
[2] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 13.09.2020

Cookeconcha stellula (Gould)

Star-shaped Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha stellula)  

The Star-shaped Cookeconcha Snail was described in 1844, it is apparently known from only two specimens, both having been collected on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(public domain)

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edited: 13.06.2020

Auriculella expansa Pease

Expanded Auriculella Snail (Auriculella expansa)

The Expanded Auriculella Snail was described in 1868; it apparently inhabited the forests above the Honolua Bay at the north-western coast of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands.

The species was obviously named for its enlarged aperture.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916′

(public domain)

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edited: 17.11.2021

Telespiza aff. ypsilon ‘Maui’

Lua Lepo Finch (Telespiza sp.)

The Lua Lepo Finch is most likely an undescribed species closely related to the Maui Nui Finch (Telespiza ypsilon James & Olson), it also is known from the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, yet apparently inhabited the higher elevations while the other species was mainly a lowland species. 

The Lua Lepo Finch differed from its congener by being about 22% smaller. [1]

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Referenzen:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

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edited: 17.06.2020

Hylaeus mauiensis (Perkins)

Maui Masked Bee (Hylaeus mauiensis)  

The Maui Masked Bee is known from only two specimens which had been collected in 1899 in the wet mountain rainforests of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, one of these two specimens, a female, is no apparently lost.

The species might well be extinct, however, the locality were the specimens were collected lie within a natural reserve, the mountainous areas of Maui are difficult to access and there have not been any true search efforts, thus this species may sometimes be rediscovered. [1] 

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References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003 
[2] K. N. Magnacca: Species Profile: Hylaeus mauiensis. In Shepherd, M. D. M. Vaughan, and S. H. Black (Eds.) Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland, Oregon 2005

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edited: 12.06.2020

Helicoverpa confusa Hardwick

Hawaiian Bollworm (Helicoverpa confusa)

This species was described in 1965.  

The Hawaiian capsule owl was found on the islands of Hawai’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i and O’ahu and is considered extinct, the reasons for this are not known (to me).

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References:

[1] D. F Hardwick: The corn earworm complex. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 40: 1-247. 1965

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edited: 02.05.2021

Melicope haleakalae (B. C. Stone) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Haleakala Melicope (Melicope haleakalae)  

The Haleakala Melicope was restricted to the slopes of the Haleakala volcano in the eastern part of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species disappeared due to habitat destruction by cattle farming.  

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edited: 07.04.2018

Haliaeetus sp. ‘Hawai’i Islands’

Hawaiian Eagle (Haliaeetus sp.)  

This form is known only based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.  

The Hawaiian Eagle was the largest predator on the Hawaiian Islands and was capable of killing even the largest Hawaiian birds, the so-called Moa-nalo (Ptaiochen, and Tambetochen). [1]  

The eagle appears to have become extinct before humans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. [2]  

***

The Hawaiian form was originally thought to be identical with the Eurasian White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla L.), but is now thought to represent a morphologically similar but genetically distinct form. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Storrs L. Olson & Helen F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. In: Ornithological Monographs 45. 1991 
[2] Frank Hailer; Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson; Robert C. Fleischer: Distinct and extinct: Genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 83: 40-43. 2015  

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edited: 23.10.2016

Pseudisidora rubella (Lea)

Reddish Lymnaea Snail (Pseudisidora rubella)

The Reddish Lymnaea Snail was described in 1841; the species was originally found on all of the Hawaiian main islands where it mainly inhabited streams but was also found in pools or on the wet rocky surfaces below waterfalls. Its biology is not well-known, but it probably fed on algae.

The shells of this species are dextral, they reach heights of up to 1,3 cm.

The Reddish Lymnaea Snail is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Carl C. Christensen: Type species designation for Pelagolimnaea Germain, 1928, and a correction regarding the type species of Pseudisidora Thile, 1931 (Gastropoda: Basommatophora: Lymnaeidae). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 53–56. 2015

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edited: 01.08.2022

Psittirostra psittacea (Gmelin)

Ou (Psittirostra psittacea)

 

The Ou was described in 1789; it was already mentioned in an enumeration of birds found on the island of Hawai’i during Cook’s last voyage.

Originally, the species inhabited all of the Hawaiian main islands where it originally was very common and widespread, the birds undertook wide wanderings, likely even between islands, to exploit seasonally available food resources. They generally fed on fruits, mainly of the native ‘ie’ie (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.) but they also fed upon insects

The species reached a size of about 17 cm; it showed a marked sexual dimorphism; both sexes were generally olive-green, had pink legs and feet and beaks, but the males had a bright yellow head.

The Hawaiian name of the bird was ‘ō’ū. [1]

***

The last populations of the Ou survived on the islands of Hawai’i, where they were last seen in 1987 in the Ōla’a area and on Kaua’i, where they finally were last seen in 1989 on the Alaka’i plateau; no real efforts had been undertaken to save the last populations. [1]

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 01.08.2022

Cookeconcha decussatula (Pease)

Decussate Cookeconcha Snail (Cookeconcha decussatula)  

The Decussate Cookeconcha Snail was described in 1866, it inhabited the islands of Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands (the localities are sometimes erroneously given as Kaua’i and Moloka’i).

Like all of its congeners, this species was terrestrial.

The shells reached sizes of about 0,35 to 0,43 cm in diameter. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

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edited: 13.06.2020

Hypena plagiota (Meyrick)

Lovegrass Owlet Moth (Hypena plagiota 

The Lovegrass Owlet Moth, which was described in 1899, occurred on the islands of Kaua’i and O’ahu, where it inhabited areas at higher elevations, the species probably also occurred on Hawai’i and Maui.  

The quite variable colored species reached a wingspan of about 3 cm.  

The caterpillars fed on several grass species from the genera Eragrostis, among them Eragrostis fosbergii Whitney, Eragrostis grandis Hillebr., and Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich.) Steud.. [1]  

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References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958  

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 31.03.2018

Silene degeneri Sherff

Degener’s Catchfly (Silene degeneri 

This species is known from only a few specimens that were collected in the early 1900s near the so called Ko’olau Gap at the Haleakala crater on eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.  

The species was apparently last seen in 1927 and is now considered extinct.  

***  

Another species of the genus, the Haleakala Catchfly (Silene struthioloides A. Gray) (see photo), ist still found in the same place.  

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Haleakala Catchfly (Silene struthioloides A. gRAY)  

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr 
http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 16.04.2019

Haplostachys linearifolia (Drake) Sherff

Linear-leaved Honohono (Haplostachys linearifolia)

This species from the Mint-family, which was found on the islands of Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, was described in 1943, apparently based on herbarium specimens, since it was last seen in 1928.

The species was obviously quite similar to the closely related and likewise nearly extinct Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya (A. Gray) H. St. John) from the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i and Maui.

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Photo: David Eickhoff
http://nativeplants.hawaii.edu

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0

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edited: 22.11.2018