Tag Archives: USA

Erythrura sp. ‘Rota’

Mariana Parrot Finch (Erythrura sp.)

The Mariana Parrot Finch is known only from a subfossil humerus that was recovered from deposits on the island of Rota in the Mariana Islands; this single bone can be referred to that genus based on several characters but is larger than that of any congeneric species.

The species may have reached a length of about 15 cm, making it one of the largest members of its whole family; it was very likely most closely related to the Blue-faced Parrotfinch (Erythrura trichroa (Kittlitz)) (see depiction), a species that still occurs in parts of Micronesia today. [1]

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References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinct and extirpated birds from Rota, Mariana Islands. Micronesia 25(1): 71-84. 1992

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Blue-faced Parrotfinch (Erythrura trichroa)

Depiction from: ‘F. H. von Kittlitz: Über einige noch unbeschriebene Vögel von der Insel Luzon, den Carolinen und den Marianen. Mémoires présentés à l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg par divers Savants et lus dans ses Assemblées 2: 1-10. 1835’

(public domain)

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edited: 09.11.2021

Philodoria opuhe Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Opuhe-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria opuhe)

This species was described in 2021; it is apparently known from the Pu’u ‘Ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus) in the Ko’olau Mountains as well as from the Wai’anae Mountains both on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to mine the leaves of the endemic ōpuhe spp. (Urera glabra (Hook. & Arn.) Wedd. and Urera kaalae Wawra).

***

The species was originally included in the description of the Urera-mining Philidoria Moth (Philodoria ureraella(Swezey)), from which it, however, differs in several characters.

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[1] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Cyprinella lutrensis ssp. blairi (Hubbs)

Maravillas Red Shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis ssp. blairi)

The Maravillas Red Shiner was restricted to the Garden Springs and the Pena Colorado Creek, which are a part of the Maravillas Creek drainage, a tributary of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA.

This subspecies reached a length of about 4,4 cm

The Maravillas Red Shiner disappeared in the late 1950s due to competition with introduced, invasive Plains Killifish (Fundulus zebrinus Jordan & Gilbert).

***

Some biologists consider the Maravillas Red Shiner synonymous with the nominate form.

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Red Shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird & Girard)); nominate form

Photo: Marine discovery

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

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edited: 18.05.2022

Amastra fragosa Cooke

Uneven Amastra Snail (Amastra fragosa)

The Uneven Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that had been recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near Ka’ūpūlehu, in Kona, Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 1,1 to 1,3 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Tryonia circumstriata (Leonard & Ho)

Striped Tryonia (Tryonia circumstriata)

The Striped Tryonia was described in 1960, apparently originally from fossil speciemens collected from Pleistocene deposits on the right bank of the Pecos River in Chandler County, Texas, USA.

The species was later found in the Diamond Y Draw in Pecos County (originally described as a distinct species, Stockton’s Tryonia (Tryonia stocktonensis Taylor) in 1987, but then synonymized with this species). [1]

It appears to be extinct now, however.

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References:

[1] Robert Hershler: Systematics of the North and Central American aquatic snail genus Tryonia (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae) Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 612: 1-53. 2001

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edited: 02.05.2019

Amastra flemingi Cooke

Fleming’s Amastra Snail (Amastra flemingi)

Fleming’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on three (sub)fossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of eastern Maui, which may date to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

The shell of the holotype reaches a height of about 1,3 cm, “The shell is indistinctly rimate, sinitral, oblong-turrite, in its fossil state whitish. The spire is elongate, faintly contracted above, with slightly convex outlines.” [1]

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson

Scissor-billed Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex)

The Scissor-billed Koa Finch is known only by subfossil remains, found on the islands of Kaua’i and Maui, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers on the Hawaiian Islands.

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References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

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edited: 07.10.2020

Bactrurus cellulanus Koenemann & Holsinger

Indiana Groundwater Amphipod (Bactrurus cellulanus)

The Indiana Groundwater Amphipod was described in 2001; it is known only from four specimens that were found in 1962 and 1963 in a groundwater seep stream in the subbasement of Jordan Hall on the campus of the University of Indiana in Bloomington in Indiana, USA.

The species has not been collected since and is likely extinct.

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References:

[1] Steven J. Taylor; Matthew L. Niemiller: Biogeography and conservation assessment of Bactrurus groundwater amphipods (Crangonyctidae) in the central and eastern United States. Subterranean Biology 17: 1-29.2016

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edited: 16.05.2022

Antilissus makauwahi Porch

Makauwahi Bark Beetle (Antilissus makauwahi)

The Makauwahi Bark Beetle was described in 2020 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from the deposits in the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 800 years before present. [1]

***

The only other known member of that genus, the Cylindrical Bark Beetle (Antilissus asper Sharp), is found on all of the larger Hawaiian Islands where it lives under the bark of dead or dying trees. [1]

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References:

[1] Nick Porch: A new and likely extinct species of Antilissus Sharp, 1879 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Colydiinae) from Makauwahi Cave, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 4868(1): 135-141. 2020

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edited: 24.10.2020

Pyrgulopsis torrida Hershler, Liu, Babbitt, Kellog & Howard

Little Sycamore Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis torrida)

The Little Sycamore Pyrg was described in 2016, it had formerly been misidentified as another species, the Yaqui Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Pilsbry)).

The species was restricted to a single small, shallow stream that runs for about 1,6 km in the Little Sykcamore Canyon in Ventura Canyon, California, USA.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,28 cm in heigth. [1]

***

The Little Sycamore Pyrg was already rare in 2000, however, when the type locality was revisited in 2015, the stream was completely dry, indicating that the species had lost its only habitat and may thus be now extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Caitlin Babbit; Michael G. Kellog; Jeanette K. Howard: Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae). ZooKeys 601: 1-19. 2016

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Photo from: ‘Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Caitlin Babbit; Michael G. Kellog; Jeanette K. Howard: Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae). ZooKeys 601: 1-19. 2016’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

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edited: 18.05.2022

Philodoria costalis Swezey

Makaha Philodoria Moth (Philodoria costalis)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the forests of the Makaha Ridge at elevations of about 915 m above sea level on the western side of Mt. Ka’ala on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 to 0,8 cm; the head, the thorax and the abdomen are tawny brown; the forewings are tawny brown and bear orange-colored patches.

The species is known to have mined the leaves of endemic māmaki species (Pipturus sp.); the sole description of its biology is the following sentence.:

The larvae form “oval brown cocoons on the surface of the leaves ….” (Swezey, 1934: 525.)” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during recent field work and might be extinct. [2]

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[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Phacelia amabilis Constances

Saline Valley Phacelia (Phacelia amabilis)

The Saline Valley Phacelia was discovered in 1942 in the Saline Valley in the Inyo County of California, USA and was never found again since, it is thus declared possibly extinct.

It may, however, just have been a color variant of another species, the Notch-leaved Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata Torr. ex S.Watson).

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Depiction from: ‘Le Roy Abrams: An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press 1923-60’

(no known copyright restrictions)

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edited: 09.11.2021

Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild

Greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri)

The Greater Koa Finch, named hopue by the native Hawaiians, was already nearly extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists.

The species originally inhabited dry lowland forests that were dominated by the endemic koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray) whose seed pods and seeds apparently were its main food source, it furthermore fed on the seeds of the native ‘a’ali’i (Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.) and caterpillars. Most of the lowland forests had already been destroyed by the Hawaiian natives long before the first European settlers arrived, and the finches were restricted to the small remains in the northern Kona District in the western part of Hawai’i.

***

When alive, Greater Koa Finch was by far the largest of the Hawaiian endemic drepanidine finches; it reached a size of 23 cm; the males had bright scarlet-orange heads and breasts, while the females were more or less completely plain green colored.

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Hesperia meskei ssp. pinocayo Gatrelle & Minno in Gatrelle, Minno & Grkovich

Rockland Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei ssp. pinocayo)

The Rockland Meske’s Skipper is a subspecies of Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei W. H. Edwards) (see photo below) that was described in 2003 and that apparently was restricted to the Florida Keys, a coral cay archipelago off the southern coast of Florida, USA.

It was already nearly extinct when it was described.:

The taxon is within the Key Deer Refuge on Big Pine Key and is therefore already afforded habitat and disturbance protection. However, the number of individuals have now declined so greatly that some type of breeding program seems called for soon if not immediately.” [1]

The butterfly was officially declared extinct in 2013.

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References:

[1] Ronald R. Gatrelle: A subspecific assessment of the genus Hesperia (Hesperiinae) in eastern North America (part I: the south) New subspecies of Hesperia meteea, Hesperia sassacus and Hesperia meskei. The Taxonomic Report 4(3). 2003

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Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei), nominate form

Photo: Will Stuart
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/willstuart2001

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 28.04.2022

Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Mariana Islands’

Rota Duck (Anatidae gen. & sp.)

The Rota Duck is known so far only from subfossil bones that were recovered from deposits on the island of Rota in the Mariana Islands.

The species was small and probably flightless, not much else is known about it so far. [1]

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References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinct and extirpated birds from Rota, Mariana Islands. Micronesia 25(1): 71-84. 1992

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edited: 10.11.2021

Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes Cooke

Small Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes)

This form differs from the nominate form by its smaller size, its compact and closely coiled spire, but especially in its smoother surface marked with finer and more distantly spaced growth-wrinkles. [1]

This is an exceedingly rare form of Amastra. the results of five findings are six whole and three broken specimens. Among the large number of Amastras that have been taken in the Manoa fossil deposits, from the beginning of Oahu Avenue to Awapuhi Street, this form was only taken from four “pockets”.” [1]

These deposits appear to be actually Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

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edited: 04.05.2022

Rhyncogonus bryani Perkins

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus bryani)

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1919, it is known from only a single specimen.

The species was endemic to the island of Laysan in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian Islands chain; its biology is completely unknown.

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil disappeared as an aftermath of the complete denudation of Laysan Island’s vegetation following the introduction of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) in 1909.

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

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edited: 27.01.2019

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

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edited: 04.06.2021

Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola Baldwin

Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola)

The Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail is a form of the Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens(Newcomb)), from the far south of the island of Hawai’i, it was found on an ancient aa (lava) flow at the foothills of the Mauna Lao volcano in the Ka’u District.

This form differs from the nominate race by its more convex whorls of which the last one is rounded peripherally. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

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edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Melanoplus nanus Scudder

Small Spur-throat Grasshopper (Melanoplus nanus)

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper was described in 1898, it was apparently only found in few places in the Alameda – , the Marin – , and the San Mateo Counties in California, USA.

The species inhabited dry grassy hillsides.

The males reached sizes of about 1,4 cm, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were fuscous light-brown colored.

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper is now considered possibly extinct, however, reasons for this assumption are not given.

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References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899

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Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

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edited: 31.08.2019

Megapodius pritchardii ssp. ‘Samoa’

Samoan Megapode (Megapodius pritchardii ssp.)

This taxon is known exclusively on the basis of subfossil bones, found on the small island of Ofu, part of ‘American’ Samoa.

The remains were tentatively identified as possibly belonging to the Tongan Megapode (Megapodius cf. pritchardii), if so, they may have been a local subspecies. [2]

***

This form may be the bird that was described (as Megapodius stairi Gray) based on a single egg found on the island of Savai’i.:

Nach Bennett (Proc. 1862. p. 247) erhielt Dawson auch die lebenden Vögel auf Sava- oder Russel-Island, die indess leider auf der Ueberfahrt nach Sydney starben. Die Eingeborenen kennen diese Hühner sehr gut und sammeln die Eier fleissig, mit welchen sie Handel treiben. Ein Weibchen legt täglich 2-4 Eier.” 

translation:

According to Bennett (Proc. 1862. p. 247) Dawson obtained also the life birds on Sava- or Russel Island [Savai’i], which, however, unfortunately died during the crossing to Sydney. The natives know these chickens very well and diligently collect the eggs, with which they trade. A female lays 2-4 eggs on the daily [I personally doubt that number!].” [1]

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References:

[1] O. Finsch; G. Hartlaub: Beitrag zur Fauna Centralpolynesiens. Ornthologie der Viti-, Samoa- und Tonga-Inseln. Halle, H. W. Schmidt 1867
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

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Georissa cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Georissa Snail (Georissa cookei)

Cooke’s Georissa Snail was described in 1928, it is known only from the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of this microscopic species reached sizes of only about 0,085 to 0,1 cm, they were composed of three and a half strongly convex whorls and were orange-cinnamon in color. [1]

***

According to a study from 2018 all (two or three) endemic Hawaiian members of the family Hydrocenidae are now extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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edited: 08.05.2019

Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. calidae Miller

Tecopa Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. calidae)

The Tecopa Pupfish was described in 1948, it was restricted to some outlets of the North- and South Tecopa Hot Springs in Inyo County, California, USA.

The two hot springs that this fish inhabited were very popular in the 1950s and 60s and were used for recreationally purposes; bathhouses were built, the spring pools were enlarged and their outflows were diverted which resulted in swifter currents which again caused the water temperatures downstream to rise above the level to which this pupfish was adapted.

All these modifications also allowed a subspecies closely related to this form, the Amargosa River Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. armagosae Miller), to invade the Tecopa Pupfish’s habitat and to hybridize with it. 

The last presumed Tecopa Pupfishs were recorded in 1966, but these, having ‘too small’ scales, may already have been hybrids.

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edited: 27.05.2019

Orobophana berniceia (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia)

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found near what today is the Limahuli Garden & Preserve, National Tropical Botanical Garden at the northern shore of the osland of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were globosly depressed, with a rounded periphery, quite thin, smooth and minutely marked with growth-striae, they reach sizes of about 0,31 cm in heigth and 0,35 cm in diameter. [2]

***

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

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References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

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Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

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edited: 18.05.2019

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 02.06.2021

Tachornis uranoceles Olson

Puerto Rico Palm Swift (Tachornis uranoceles)

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift was described in 1982, it is known only from fossil remains that were recovered from Blackbone Cave on the island of Puerto Rico and that were dated to a Late Pleistocene age.

The species very likely had similar habits as the three still existing congeneric species, it inhabited palm grooves in open savannas, a habitat that mostly disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, leading to the extinction of this and several other species. [1]

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift may, however, have survived into the early Holocene.

***

Today, another congeneric species is occurring in the Caribbean including Puert Rico, the Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse) (see photo below).

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References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of palm swift (Tachornis: Apodidae) from the Pleistocene of Puerto Rico. The Auk 99(2): 230-235. 1982

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Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse)

Photo: ZankaM

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

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edited: 05.11.2020

Blackburnia koebelei (Sharp)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia koebelei)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the western part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and might very well be extinct.

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 02.09.2019

Amastra nucleola (Gould)

Nut-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra nucleola)

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1893, it was restricted to lowland areas around the Hanalei Bay at the northern coast of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,1 cm in height and 0,69 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just before the termination of the whorl at the aperture (Gld.).” [1]

***

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail may have gone extinct already in the middle of the 19th century, since all specimens known to exist appear to have been collected dead. [1]  

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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edited: 12.03.2021

Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii Lundell

Cheatum’s Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii)

Cheatum’s Wahoo, a variety of the American Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.), is known only from a single population that was restricted again to a single place in Dallas County, Texas, USA.

This single population is believed to have been destroyed by insects (which insects?) in 1944, the variety is now regarded as being extinct.

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edited: 27.01.2020

Apetasimus kauaiensis (Scott)

Kauai Sap Beetle (Apetasimus kauaiensis)

The Kauai Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was endemic to the Waimea region on the island of Kaua’i in the Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a length of about 0,53 cm; it was brick red colored, with the lateral margins of the elytra being dark brown. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Wollastonia populifolia (Sherff) Orchard

Poplar-leaved Melanthera (Wollastonia populifolia)

This species was described in 1933, originally as a variety of the Subcordate Melanthera (Wollastonia subcordata (A. Gray) Orchard) from the island of Hawai’i.

The Poplar-leaved Melanthera is known only from the type material that was collected in 1918 somewhere in the Maunalei Valley on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, it is now considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

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edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Hemignathus affinis ssp. ‘Moloka’i’

Molokai Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis ssp.)

The Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) was historically known only from the island of Maui, yet, this species or at least a very closely related one also once inhabited the neighboring island of Moloka’i – and very likely also Lana’i.:

A fossil almost certainly of this species [Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein] was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.” [1]

***

Given the fact that the Amakihi (Hemignathus virens (Gmelin)) is known to have inhabited the island of Hawai’i (with the nominate form) as well as the islands of Lana’i, Maui, and Moloka’i (with another subspecies), it is quite certain that the Molokai Nukupuu was identical with the Maui species, perhaps even on subspecific level.

***

All species formerly known as Nukupuu are now extinct.

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References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

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edited: 09.10.2020

Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild

Lesser Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis flaviceps)

The Lesser Koa Finch was already almost extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists in 1892; it was only found only once, in its type locality, a place called Pu’u Lehua in the lowlands of the northern Kona District almost in the middle of the western coast of Hawai’i.

It was found in mixed flocks with Greater Koa-Finches (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) feeding on the seeds of koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray), eight specimens were taken back than by bird collectors, which did not recognize that they were dealing with two distinct species at that time. [1]

***

The species reached a size of about 19 cm; males had bright yellow heads and bellies, while females were nearly completely green colored. [1]

***

The Lesser Koa-Finch was never found again since so was probably extinct already shortly after. [1]

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References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’ 

(public domain)

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edited: 07.10.2020

Laminella straminea (Reeve)

Straw-colored Laminella Snail (Laminella straminea)

The Straw-colored Laminella Snail was described in 1850; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from several valleys, including the Makiki-, Nu’uanu-, Palolo-, Pauoa, and Waiala’e nui Valleys. The species was almost entirely found on the leaves of the endemic olonā (Touchardia latifolia Gaudich.). [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 to 2,4 cm in height; they are “acuminately oblong, sinistral, whorls convex, obliquely striated, columella strongly twist-plaited; straw-colored, unspotted.” [1]

We have a little information about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform light flesh color, oral aperture margined with a line of orange.” [1]

***

This species is now considered most likely extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Fringillidae gen. & sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Additional Kauai Finch (Fringillidae gen. & sp.)

This is a form of drepanidine finch that is still only insufficiently known, its very fragmenary remains were recovered from the deposits of the the Makawehi Dunes on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains consist only of the caudal part of a mandibular ramus, differing from all other Hawaiian finch species, alive or extinct.

The form is currently known only as ‘Additional Kauai Finch’, it might have been a Psittirostra sp.. [1]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

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edited: 06.11.2020

Melicope macropus (Hillebr.) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Kaholuamanu Melicope (Melicope macropus 

The Kaholuamanu Melicope was restricted to the Kaholuamanu region of Waimea on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last recorded in 1987, 1919 and finally in 1997 and was never found since, it may be extinct. However, the region, where this species is known to have occurred, is privately owned, thus no surveys have been conducted to relacate the species, which in fact might well be still surviving. [1]

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References:

[1] Kenneth R. Wood: Survey results for eight possibly extinct plant species from Kaua’i, Hawai’i. Prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS Agreement No. F12AC00737. 293 pp.. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2020

Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John

Kahili Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia kahiliensis)

The island of Kaua’i harbors seven Phyllostegia species, of which five are endangered to critically endangered, some of these species have populations of less then 10 individuals making them very vulnerable to the slightest disturbances like grazing by cattle etc.. [2]

***

The Kahili Phyllostegia was described in 1987, the species is known from three collections (1974, 1983, and 1987) that originally were thought to be identical with Heller’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia helleri Sherff), but differ from that species by their retrorsely appressed pubescence.

The species had an extremely narrow geographic range, it was restricted to steep jagged ridges and precipitous side slopes just below the summit of Mt. Kahili on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Kahili Phyllostegia was declared extinct in 2014, yet there is a slight chance that it might be rediscovered someday in one of the steep ravines of Mt. Kahili. [1][2]

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999
[2] Kenneth R. Wood: Delissea rhytidosperma H. Mann (Campanulaceae) and Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John (Lamiaceae) possibly extinct on Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: Articles. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 31-33. 2015

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edited: 24.09.2019

Marstonia castor F. G. Thompson

Beaverpond Marstonia (Marstonia castor)

The Beaverpond Marstonia was described in 1977, it is known exclusively from its type locality, Cedar Creek in the Flint River Drainage, Crisp County, Georgia, USA.

The species was not found during recetn surveys and was finally declared extinct in December 2017. [1]

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References:

[1] Georgia Snail Is First Species Declared Extinct Under Trump Administration. www.biologicaldiversity.org. Retrieved 2018-01-07

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edited: 01.05.2019

Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta Cooke

Carved Amastra Snail (Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta)

The Carved Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in the forests of Punalu’u near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

The shells reach sizes of 1,4 to 1,7 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra nana Baldwin

Small Amastra Snail (Amastra nana)

The Small Amastra Snail was described in 1895; it inhabited the floors of the forests of Makawao in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it was once considered common, but very local in its distribution.

The animal was described when it was alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle light brown. Foot above and below brown with spots of deeper shade on the sides. Tentacles and front above almost black.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,1 to 1,2 cm in height; their coloration was quite variable.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

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edited: 16.05.2022

Eremogone franklinii var. thompsonii (M. Peck) R. L. Hartman & Rabeler

Thompson’s Sandwort (Eremogone franklinii var. thompsonii)

Franklin’s Sandwort (Eremogone franklinii (Douglas ex Hooker) R. L. Hartman & Rabeler) (see photo) is a quite widespread cushion-forming plant species that occurs in the western USA.

The variety discussed here, however, is known only from the type that was collected in the 1930s somewhere in Gilliam County in Oregon, USA. It may be extinct, however, it was found once in the 1980s in Benson County, Washington so may in fact be still existing.

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Franklin’s Sandwort (Eremogone franklinii), nominate race

Photo: Matt Lavin

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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edited: 14.04.2019

Cryptantha hooveri I. M. Johnson

Hoover’s Cryptantha (Cryptantha hooveri)

Hoover’s Cryptantha was an annual, 5 to 20 cm tall plantlet with simple or branched stems and linear leaves that inhabited grassland communities on sandy soil.

***

Hoover’s Cryptantha was last recorded in 1939 and may be extinct, however, the species is said to be hard to identify, so there’s some hope that it may still exist but may just have been overlooked so far.

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edited: 05.12.2018

Apetasimus atratus (Scott)

Blackish Sap Beetle (Apetasimus atratus)

The Blackish Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was found on the Haleakala region on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, but is also known to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i too.

The species reached a length of about 0,45 to 0,56 cm; it was dark, nearly black in color with some brick red areas on the elytra that were limited to the elytra’s bases, the antennae and legs were red to dark brown in color. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

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References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 0.2.06.2021

Amastra rubida Gulick

Glowing Red Amastra Snail (Amastra rubida)

The Glowing Red Amastra Snail was found at a place named Kahuku, probably in the northeastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found on the ground in the forest. [1]

… from the original description.: 

It is allied to Am. elliptica Gk., but differs in being more elongate in form, thicker iin structure, and for the most part destitute of epidermis. It is always dextral.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

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edited: 06.10.2020

Geomys pinetis ssp. goffi Sherman

Goff’s Southeastern Pocket Gopher (Geomys pinetis ssp. goffi)

Goff’s Southeastern Pocket Gopher, described in 1944, was a subspecies of the Southeastern Pocket Gopher (Geomys pinetis Rafinesque) that was endemic to Brevard County in Florida, USA.

This form inhabited temperate deserts and sandy coastlines, it lost its habitat due to human population growth and development; it was last recorded in 1955 and is now considered extinct.

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edited: 04.11.2020

Trechus roanicus Barr

Roan Mountain Ground Beetle (Trechus roanicus)

The Roan Mountain Ground Beetle was described in 1962, it was originally only known from its type locality, Roan High Bluff, the highest point on Roan Mountain in Tennessee, USA.

The species apparently is thought to occur in North Carolina as well, but I have no further information about that. [1]

The Roan Mountain Ground Beetle is considered possibly extinct.

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References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

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edited: 07.09.2020

Ciconia maltha Miller

La Brea Stork (Ciconia maltha)

The La Brea Stork was described in 1910, originally based on fossil bones that were recovered from the rich La Brea Tar Pits in California, USA; however, the species was for more widespread and is now known to also have occurred in other parts of what today is the USA.

The species already appears in Late Pliocene deposits and disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, but the population that inhabited the island of Cuba apparently survived well into the Holocene era and may even have been eradicated by the first human settlers.

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edited: 19.8.2022

Achatinella pupukanioe Pilsbry & Cooke

Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella pupukanioe)

This species was described in 1914.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,6 cm in height; they are glossy white or ivory yellow with a white sutural line, or either of these tints with a burnt sienna band immediately above a wider and darker band. [1] 

***

The species was last found in 1980 in the forest along the Aiea Ridge Trail in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most likely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 08.06.2021

Athearnia crassa (Haldeman)

Boulder Snail (Athearnia crassa)

The Boulder Snail was described in 1842; it inhabited the Clinch- and the Powell rivers which are a part of a river system that spans over parts of Georgia, Iowa and Tennessee, USA.

The species is now extinct, the last remaining population of this species disappeared when the Tellico River was dammed in 1979 to create Lake Tellico.

***

The Boulder Snail is sometimes considered rediscovered, however, these accounts must be assigned to a closely related species, Anthony’s Boulder Snail (Athearnia anthonyi (Redfield)).

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edited: 14.11.2021

Amastra forbesi Cooke

Forbes’ Amastra Snail (Amastra forbesi)

Forbe’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known only from (sub)fossil remains found in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the Makua beach at the foot of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The material on which this species is based consists of two whole adult specimens and the lower portion of two additional specimens. all the specimens were taken by Mr. Forbes in a single pocket in sand deposits along the railroad track north of Makua. On a later visit by Mr. Forbes and the author, no additional specimens were found though all the exposed surfaces of the sand pockets along the track were carefully gone over. These pockets consist of beach sand covered by talus.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1,3 to 1,4 cm in height.

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References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

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Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

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edited: 04.05.2022

Neorhytidelasma conuropsis Mironov, Dabert & Ehrnsberger

Carolina Parakeet Feather Mite (Neorhytidelasma conuropsis)

This feather mite was described in 2005; it is known from an immature skin of a Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis (L.)) without further data that had been collected sometimes before 1869 and was subsequently found on other Carolina Parakeet skins as well.

The species was adapted to its single host, the Carolina Parakeet, and died out together with its host. [1]

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References:

[1] Serge V. Mironov; Jacek Dabert; Rainer Ehrnsberger: Six new feather mite species (Acari: Astigmata) from the carolina parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae), an extinct parrot of North America. Journal of Natural History 39: 2257-2278. 2005

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edited: 24.08.2022

Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis Pilsbry & Cooke

Moomomi Amastra Snail (Amastra humilis ssp. moomomiensis)

The Mo’omomi beach at the northwestern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, is one of the last remaining dune sides found on these islands; thousands of shells poke out of the sandstone cliffs near the beach, some bleached completely, some still bearing hints of their former coloration; these are the shells of land snails that formerly inhabited this now quite desert-like place.

In the Pleistocene, the climate of the Hawaiian Islands was much wetter than it is today and the area that is now covered by sand dunes was forested back then. When the climate became dryer at the beginning of the Holocene about 10000 BP., these forests disappeared, leading to the extinction of the local snail populations.

In fact, the shells can be dated to ages from 42000 to about 3000 years, which means that this form died out during the Holocene, and, that this is a case of a natural extinction.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

(public domain)

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edited: 31.10.2020

Hylaeus melanothrix (Perkins)

Smoky-winged Masked Bee (Hylaeus melanothrix)  

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee was described in 1899, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the wet montane forests on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is nearly completely black, except for some very small markings on its head, its wings are dark smoky brown.

The Smoky-winged Masked Bee has not been found during recent searches and is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

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edited: 12.06.2020

Laminella remyi (Newcomb)

Remy’s Laminella Snail (Laminella remyi)

Remy’s Laminella Snail was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The shells reach sizes of about 1,4 cm in height; they are “… very pale buff, with some pink suffusion on the last whorl and the embryonic whorls. The first half-whorl is smooth, convex and uniform pinkish-brown; next whorl streaked, flattened ad unevenly, rather weakly costate; on part of the third whorl the costation or corrugation is stronger, more or less irregular, after that weakening. The last whorl is very finely striatulate. There are reddish streaks between the ribs on the embryonic whorls; near the end of the third whorl these give place to a few widely-spaced oblique blackish stripes; after which the angular, zigzag or netted pattern begins. This pattern is essentially like that of L. tetrao. The interior of the aperture and the columella are pink; columellar lamella simple, steeply ascending.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.06.2021

Cyprinodon arcuatus Minckley & Miller

Santa Cruz Pupfish (Cyprinodon arcuatus)

The Santa Cruz Pupfish, also known as Monkey Spring Pupfish, was endemic to the Santa Cruz River system in Santa Cruz County in Arizona, USA, where it apparently was restricted to the margins of an artifical pond fed by an irrigation canal from Monkey Spring.

The species reached a size of about 3,8 cm.

The Santa Cruz Pupfish disappeared around 1970, due to the introduction of Largemouth Basses (Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède)) for ‘sport’ fishing. The species was kept in captivity for some times but breeding efforts were unsuccessful so that the Santa Cruz Pupfish is now extinct.

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edited: 27.05.2019

Conasprella sauros (Garcia)

Sauros Cone Snail (Conasprella sauros)

This somewhat enigmatic species was described in 2006, apparently based on fossil shells that were collected from deposits that date back well into the Late Pleistocene era while some might well be younger in age.

The species has not yet been discovered alive and it might well be extinct, the question remains if this is a recent or an prehistoric extinction.

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References:

[1] Emilio Fabián Garcia: Conus sauros, a new Conus species (Gastropoda: Conidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Novapex 7(2-3): 71-76. 2006

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edited: 19.08.2022

Amastra cornea (Newcomb)

Horn-like Amastra Snail (Amastra cornea)

This species inhabited the forests of the Mt. Ka’ala and parts of the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

… from the species’ description.:

Shell irregularely, acutely conical, the apex ponted; last whorl inflated; thin, corneous, with minute longitudinal striae; whorls 7, rounded; aperture subovate; lip thin, translucent; columella straight, white, and armed with a transverse plaited tooth. Color uniform dark horn, columella and tooth white.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of 1,1 to 1,75 in heigth and up to 0,85 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′  

(public domain) 

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edited: 02.11.2020

Achatinella taeniolata Pfeiffer

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1846; like all members of its genus, it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height; they are dextral, ovate-oblong, spiro-conic, solid, striatulate, more obsolete toward the apex and with slightly convex whorls; glossy white, ornamented with varying brown bands; the white columella is strongly toothed above and the margin is dilated, reflexed and appressed; the white aperture is irregularly semioval; the peristome is narrowly thickened outside and strongly lipped within. [1] 

***

The Small-ribboned Oahu Tree Snail was last seen in 1966 at the Hawai’iloa- and the Kuliouou Ridges in the Ko’olau Mountains; it is now most like exinct. [1]

***

According to some authors, this species is actually a subspecies of the Green Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella viridans Mighels), as there seems to be a complete integration between them. [1] 

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References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

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Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914’ 

(public domain) 

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edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus sordidus (Sharp)

Dirty Sap Beetle (Apetasimus sordidus)

The Dirty Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was restricted to the slopes of the Mauna Loa on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a length of about 0,46 to 0,55 cm; it was dark brown to black, with the elytra having brick red markings. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

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edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra praeopima Cooke

Waiahole Amastra Snail (Amastra praeopima)

This species was described in 1917; it was found at a place named Waiahole at the crest of the Ko’olau Mountains along the eastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach sizes of about 1 to 1,2 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Chiasmalges carolinensis Mironov, Dabert & Ehrnsberger

Carolina Parakeet Chiasmalges Feather Mite (Chiasmalges carolinensis)

This feather mite was described in 2005; it is known from an immature skin of a Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis (L.)) without further data that had been collected sometimes before 1869 and was subsequently found on other Carolina Parakeet skins as well.

The species was adapted to its single host, the Carolina Parakeet, and died out together with its host. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Serge V. Mironov; Jacek Dabert; Rainer Ehrnsberger: Six new feather mite species (Acari: Astigmata) from the carolina parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae), an extinct parrot of North America. Journal of Natural History 39: 2257-2278. 2005

*********************

edited: 24.08.2022

Hylaeus gliddenae Magnacca & Daly

Glidden’s Masked Bee (Hylaeus gliddenae 

This species was described in 2003 based on a single (?) specimen, a male that had been collected sometimes in the early 20th century at an not further specified locality on the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i.

The species is known to have nested in the burrows left behind by the larvae of beetles from the genus Halcobius in the stems of kolea (Myrsine spp.).

The species differs from nearly all others by its red metasoma (the posterior part of the body), which it shares only with the Paradox Masked Bee (Hylaeus paradoxus (Schrottky)), and by its somewhat u-shaped facial markings. [1]

*********************  

References:

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Amastra rugulosa ssp. annosa Cooke

Aged Amastra Snail (Amastra rugulosa ssp. annosa)

The Aged Amastra Snail is one of many forms of its genus that are actually known only based on (sub)fossil material; this one was found in deposits of the Hanama’ulu plains near the eastern coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This extremely variable form is abundant in road cuttings on the coastal plain south of the Wailua river. There are several distinct forms found associated in the different deposits. The typical form described above might be considered a distinct species if it did not occur with numerous intergrades of other forms which closely approach A. rugulosa normalis. A constant differentiating character between all these specimens of annosa and normalis is the very weak, oblique, deeply situated columellar fold of the former. Some of the specimens of annosa at first glance seem to belong to the subgenus Cyclamastra but the embryonic whorls are less convex than those of any species of this subgenus.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Rhipidura rufifrons ssp. uraniae Oustalet

Guam Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons ssp. uraniae)

The Guam Rufous Fantail is one of the victims of the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis (Merrem in Bechstein)), a snake species that was introduced to Guam probably sometimes during the 1940s resulting in the devastating loss of nearly all native bird species.

Like so many other bird species from guam, this one was last seen during the 1985s, it is now extinct.

***

The Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons (Latham)), if treated as a single species, occurs from eastern Australia to New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and parts of Micronesia; however, this species is a candidate for splitting, which would lead to the Guam Rufous Fantail being treated as a distinct, monotypic species, while the other two remaining subspecies found in the Mariana Islands today (the one from Saipan Island is depicted below) would be regarded to as another, closely related one.

***

The name that the Chamorro, the native inhabitans of the Mariana Islands, gave this bird is Chichirika, this name is now apparently used for the Eurasian Tree Sparow (Passer montanus (L.)), a species that was imported to the Mariana Islands.

*********************

Saipan Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons ssp. saipanensis Hartert)

Photo: Peter

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en

*********************

edited: 30.10.2020

Lopharalichus beckeri Mironov, Dabert & Ehrnsberger

Becker’s Lopharalichus Feather Mite (Lopharalichus beckeri)

This feather mite was described in 2005; it is known from an immature skin of a Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis (L.)) without further data that had been collected sometimes before 1869 and was subsequently found on other Carolina Parakeet skins as well.

The species was adapted to its single host, the Carolina Parakeet, and died out together with its host. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Serge V. Mironov; Jacek Dabert; Rainer Ehrnsberger: Six new feather mite species (Acari: Astigmata) from the carolina parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae), an extinct parrot of North America. Journal of Natural History 39: 2257-2278. 2005

*********************

edited: 24.08.2022

Orthiospiza howarthi James & Olson

Maui Upland Finch (Orthiospiza howarthi)

The Maui Highland Finch aka. Maui Upland Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains that had been collected from cave deposits on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

When alive, the species appears to have been restricted to higher elevations, its remains were never found in lowland deposits. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 29.04.2022

Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson

Primitive Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes)

The Primitive Koa Finch was described in 2005 based on subfossil remains that were found on the islands of Maui and O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

At least on Maui the species occurred in sympatry with another closely related species, the Scissor-billed Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson), a constellation which is known also from the island of Hawai’i, where two other congeneric species, the Lesser- (Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild) and the greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) formed mixed flocks feeding together.

The primitive Koa-Finch aka. Oahu Koa-Finch disappeared before the first Europeans arrived on the Hawaiian Islands. 

*********************

References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Astragalus endopterus (Barneby) Barneby

Sandbar Milkvetch (Astragalus endopterus)  

The Sandbar Milkvetch is known exclusively from the type material that had been collected in 1947 near Cameron in Coconino County, Arizona, USA, where the plant grew a gravelly washes and sandbars of summer-dry streams at elevations of 1110-1200 m. 

This species was never found again and is believed to be extinct.

*********************

edited: 19.09.2019

Achatinella vulpina (Férussac)

Foxy Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella vulpina)

The Foxy Oahu Tree Snail was described in 1824.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are glossy yellow, green, olive or chestnut, often banded with green or chestnut; the extremely color patterns were already mentioned by the species’ author.:

The colouring of this species is extremely variable; there is, however, but one prevailing idea in its manner of distribution. The columella is of a livid purple-rose in all the varieties.” [1]

This is one of the most common shells met with on Oahu, and passes through numerous slight variations, which have led to their description as distinct species.” [1]

***

The species was last found in 1965 along the slopes of the Pu’u ‘ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus); it is now considered extinct. [2]

************************

References:

[1] E. W. Thwing: Reprint of the original descriptions of the genus Achatinella. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(1): 1-196. 1907
[2] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Tryon; H. A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata, Vol. 22, Achatinellidae 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 06.06.2021

Achatinella apexfulva (Dixon)

Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail (Achatinella apexfulva)

The tree snails of the genus Achatinella are only found on the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian archipelago; 41 species are currently accepted, of which about 20 may still survive.

All species inhabit trees and shrubs where they feed on fungi by scraping them from the surfaces of leaves or trunks; the snails are hermaphroditic and give birth to live young, however, only to a few each year. The snails can live to about ten years or even more, the growth rate is very low, and they reach maturity only with about six years. 

The tree snails are very vulnerable to loss of individuals through over-collecting, but also to habitat destruction and especially to the introduction of predators like rats, or more recently the snail-eating Rosy Wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea (Férussac)). [1]

***

The Yellow-tipped Oahu Tree Snail was indeed the first member of its genus to reach Europe – as part of a shell lei, given by native Hawaiians to George Dixon, a British ship captain in 1786, and to be scientifically described – in 1789.

The species was restricted to some of the ridges of the Ko’olau Mountains, where it was last found in 1985. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,9 cm in height; they are dextral or sinistral and are quite variably colored; the embryonic whorl might be yellow, the following whorls are blackish brown to chestnut-colored, sometimes with some whitish streaks and spiral lines; the narrow suture is light-edged; the moderately thickened lip is flesh- to salmon-colored while the columellar fold is nearly white; the aperture is bluish white within. [1]

***  

The species was last seen in the wild at the Poamoho Trail and was considered extinct in the wild since then; a little captive population (brought into captivity in 1997) was all that was left of this species. This population, however, did not breed and finally was down to a last surviving individual. 

This individual, named George (see photo below), died today (1. January 2019) at the age of 14 years, an exceptional age for an invertebrate species. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Recovery Plan for the O’ahu Tree Snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service. Region One, Portland, Oregon. April 1993
[2] Jacina Bowler: Lonely George – A Hawaiian Tree Snail – Has Died, Taking His Species With Him. Science Alert January 9, 2019

*********************

Photo: Brenden Holland
http://portugal.inaturalist.org/people/bholland

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************  

edited: 08.06.2021

Apetasimus guttatus (Sharp)

Speckled Sap Beetle (Apetasimus guttatus)

The Speckled Sap Beetle was described in 1881; it was apparently found near the city of Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, but is otherwise also known to have occurred on the island of Hawai’i.

The species reached a length of about 0,52 to 0,61 cm; it was brick red to nearly blackish, with some pale yellow to orange-red markings. [1]

***

The Speckled Sap Beetle was living subcortical in the wood of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray); this microhabitat was severely disrupted on all of the Hawaiian main islands by the introduction of terrestrial isopods, leading to the disappearance of nearly all invertebrates that shared the same modus vivendi. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

*********************

edited: 02.06.2021

Amastra textilis ssp. textilis (Férussac)

Woven Amastra Snail (Amastra textilis ssp. textilis)

The Woven Amastra Snail was described in 1824, it appears to have been quite widespread around the center of southern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and indeed has repeatedly been described independently by several authors under a bunch of different names.

The shells are quite variable and reach sizes of 1,25 to 1,8 cm in heigth and 0,8 to 0,95 cm in diameter. [1]

At least three distinct subspecies have been described.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘ George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.09.2020

Laminella venusta (Mighels)

Graceful Laminella Snail (Laminella venusta 

The Graceful Laminella Snail was described in 1845, it was found in the Mapulehu Valley near the southeastern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

This species differs from the congeneric Alexander’s Laminella Snail (Laminella alexandri (Newcomb)) and the Depicted Laminella Snail (Laminella depicta (Baldwin)) by its more swollen last whorl and the sunken black markings, which are generally coarser than in L. depicta and which do not form the characteristic patterns.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,35 cm in heigth and 0,62 to 0,73 in diameter.

The animal itself is also mentioned in the description.:

The animal … is slender, body flesh-color with black puncta down the sides; tentacles very black. When extended, two-thirds as long as the shell.” [1]

***

The Graceful Laminella Snail has three additional color morphs assigned to it, orginally described as varieties, which in fact may well be distinct subspecies: var. muscaria Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. orientalis Hyatt & Pilsbry, var. semivestita Hyatt & Pilsbry. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 01.10.2020

Amastra ricei Cooke

Rice’s Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei)

Rice’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917, apparently based on only five recently dead specimens, it was restricted to a small part of the Miloli’i Valley near the northwestern coast of Kaua’i.

The shells reached sizes of about 2,4 cm in heigth and 1,2 to 1,3 cm in diameter.

***

The author of the species also described a variety, named as var. armillata, from the same locality, based on two dead specimens (empty shells) which may be of Pleistocene age or may just have been old surface shells.

This variety differs from the normal form in the following way …:

… the fourth and fifth whorls are slightly swollen, and the surface is more coarsely but not as closely sculptured with growth-wrinkles. The periphery is distinctly carinated on the last whorl; the carina is margined along its upper edge by a deep narrow sinus. The lower halff of the last whorl descends rather rapidly, with the carina appearing slightly above the suture. The outer margin of the aperture is distinctly modified by the carina. The upper portion being flattened, the lower evenly arched. The columellar fold is weak, thread-like, very oblique and deeply situated.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************


Depiction from: ‘ C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 03.10.2020

Monardella pringlei A. Gray

Pringle’s Monardella (Monardella pringlei)  

Pringle’s Monardella apparently was restricted to a small area of sandy hills near the city of Colton in San Bernardino County in California, USA.

The locality is now mostly destroyed by urbanization, the species was last seen in 1941 and is now considered most likely extinct.

*********************    

Depiction from: ‘Le Roy Abrams: An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press 1923-60’  

(no known copyright restrictions) 

********************* 

edited: 20.09.2020

Blackburnia blaptoides (Blackburn)

Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia blaptoides)

The Konahuanui Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was apparently restricted to the Pu’u Konahuanui, the tallest peak of the Ko’olau Range on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is thought to be extinct due to predation by introduced ants. [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

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edited: 03.09.2019

Diplacus traskiae (A. L. Grant) G. L. Nesom

Santa Catalina Monkeyflower (Diplacus traskiae)

The Santa Catalina Monkeyflower is apparently known exclusively from the type material that was collected in 1901 or 1904 (depending on the source); the species was restricted to Santa Catalina Island in the Channel Islands group offshore the Pacific coast of California, USA.

The species presumably disappeared due to grazing by introduced ungulates and is now considered extinct.

********************

edited: 25.04.2021

Hylaeus finitimus (Perkins)

Kauai Masked Bee (Hylaeus finitimus)  

This species was described in 1899, it is apparently endemic to the coastal areas of the island of Kaua’i, Hawiian Islands, only female specimens are known. 

The head and mesosoma are black, the metasoma is dark reddish brown, the legs are dark brown with a pale area on the fore tibias, the wings are yellowish colored.

The species was not recorded during recent searches and might well be extinct. [1]

*********************  

References:  

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003

*********************  

edited: 12.06.2020

Amazona vittata ssp. ‘Vieques’

Vieques Amazon (Amazona vittata ssp.)

The Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittata (Boddaert)) is a very rare parrot species that is now restricted to the island of Puerto Rico in the Lesser Antilles, at least one subspecies formerly occurred on the offshore island of Culebra.

The same form, or perhaps another endemic one occurred on the nearby island of Vieques, this form, however, is only known by reliable accounts like the following one.:

Parrots are found during the rainy season in the months of June, July and August in the heavy forest of the southern side of the island. It is believed that they cross at that season from Porto Rico. Señor José Bartôn was well acquainted with them and told me that they were considered a game bird, making a highly desirable dish for the table. There were none here during the period of my visit.” [1]

The Vieques Amazon, if it indeed was a distinct form, disappeared sometimes after this account, the reasons are clearly mentioned in the account.

*********************

References:

[1] Alexander Wetmore: The birds of Vieques Island, Porto Rico. The Auk 33: 403-419. 1916

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edited: 16.02.2020

Amastra malleata Smith

Hammered Amastra Snail (Amastra malleata)

The Hammered Amastra Snail was described 1873; it was found in the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached sizes of about 1,4 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Anisolabis oahuensis Brindle

Oahu Earwig (Anisolabis oahuensis)

The Oahu Earwig was described in 1980; it is endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands and is one of the four species that was split off Perkin’s Earwig (Anisolabis perkinsi Burr) during a genu revision in 1980.

The species is about 1,2 to about 1,9 cm long.

The Oahu Earwig was last recorded in the 1920s and may in fact be extinct now. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] A. Brindle: The cavernicolous fauna of Hawaiian lava tubes: 12. A new species of blind troglobitic earwig (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), with a revision of the related surface-living earwigs of the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Insects 21(4): 261-274. 1980

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edited: 08.12.2021

Newcombia gagei Severns

Gage’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia gagei

This species was described in 2009, it was described based on subfossil shells that were collected from the Waipoli Dune fossil deposit on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. The age of these deposit is not known but is most likely Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene.

The shells of this species reached sizes of 2,49 cm, making it one of the largest species in its genus. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Mike Severns: A new species of newcombia from the Pleistocene of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, USA (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Achatinellidae). Basteria 73: 57-60. 2009

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edited: 16.06.2020

Phyllostegia hillebrandii H. Mann ex Hillebr.

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia hillebrandii)

Hillebrand’s Phyllostegia was described in 1888, it is known from two collections from eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands; one from Kula in the center -, and the other one from ‘Ulupalakua near the southern shore of the island.

The species is now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

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edited: 24.09.2019

Chaetoptila sp. ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Kioea (Chaetoptila sp.)  

The Oahu Kioea is known only from subfossil remains that were found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has not been described yet, but appears to have been distinct from the historically known Hawaiian Kioea. [1] 

*********************  
References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 13.09.2020

Ciridops anna (Dole)

Ula Ai Hawane (Ciridops anna)

The Ula Ai Hawane was described in 1879, the species is historically known for certain only from the island of Hawai’i, however, it is possible that two of the five existing specimens were collected on the island of Moloka’i (these two are of a supposed female and a likewise supposed immature male (see depiction below)). [2]

The species reached a size of about 11 to 12 cm; the males had a light grey head and neck, a black breast and a bright red rump, the wings were black and red as well, with the outer webs of the tertials white; the females were olive green and brown in color. [4]

Since the only two specimens that possibly come from Moloka’i differ from the other three, they might as well be interpreted as a distinct subspecies. 

***

The Hawaiian name ʻula-ʻai-hāwane means “red eating hawane”, hawane are the fruits of the endemic lo’ulu palms (Pritchardia spp.). The birds were only ever found near the lo’ulu palms and are thought to have fed on their flowers and fruits or perhaps on insects hiding in the leaf axilles. [3]

***

Subfossil remains found on Moloka’i were also assigned to this species, however, it is definitely possible that the Moloka’ian birds differed from the Hawaiians at the subspecies level. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Storrs L. Olson: William T. Brigham’s Hawaiian birds and a possible historical record of Ciridops anna (Aves: Drepanidini) from Molokai. Pacific Scenice 46(4): 495-500. 1992
[3] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford University Press 2005
[4] Storrs L. Olson: History, structure, evolution, behaviour, distribution, and ecology of the extinct Hawaiian genus Ciridops (Fringillidae, Carduelini, Drepanidini). The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 124(4): 651-674. 2012

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Scott B. Wilson; A. H. Wilson; Frederick William Frohawk; Hans Gadow: Aves Hawaiienses: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter 1890-1899’

(not in copyright)

*********************

edited: 18.10.2020

Charmosyna sp. ‘Samoa’

Samoan Lorikeet (Charmosyna sp.)  

The Samoan Lorikeet is a hypothetical species that might in fact once have existed, it is, however, not fully understood if it was a native form of the Samoan Islands, or if it may have also occurred on the Tongan Islands as well, or if it might have originted from somewhere else and was just traded among these island groups. [2]

All we know about this very enigmatic form comes from a single account, made by Otto von Kotzebue, a Russian officer and navigator in the Imperial Russian Navy, in the early 19th century; his reports, however, are otherwise incredibly contemptuous, inhumane and racist and speak of the local Polynesian people as cannibals and wild, blood-thirsty almost-animals etc..:

Noch eines Handelsartikels auf unserem Markte muß ich erwähnen. Es waren gezähmte Tauben und Papageyen. Erstere weichen von den europäischen sowohl in der Form, als in der Farbenpracht sehr ab. Auch waren ihre Klauen, mit denen sie sich, wie Spechte, an die Taue haften, anders gestaltet. Die Papagayen waren nur von der Größe eines Sperlings, mit dem lebhaftesten Roth und Grün gezeichnet, und der rothe Schweif übertraf an Länge den Körper wohl um vier Mal.” [1]

translation:

One more item on our market I have to mention. These were tamed pigeons and parrots. The former differ markedly from the European ones in their form and in their colorfulness. Their claws, with which they, like woodpeckers, cling to the ropes, were also designed differently. The parrots were only the size of a sparrow, painted with the most vivid red and green, and the red tail was perhaps four times longer than the body.

***

The specific account apparently was made on or offshore an island named Olajava, according to the description given by Kotzebue I personally think that the island in question is the one today known as Ofu in American Samoa. 

*********************  

Referenzen:  

[1] Otto von Kotzebue: Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1823, 24, 25 und 26. Weimar: W. Hoffman 1830
[2] Julian P. Hume: Extinct Birds: Bloomsbury Natural History; 2nd edition 2017

*********************

edited: 12.02.2020

Trechus luculentus ssp. unicoi Barr

Unicoi Mountains Ground Beetle (Trechus luculentus ssp. unicoi)

The Unicoi Mountains Ground Beetle was described in 1979, this subspecies of the Luminous Ground Beetle (Trechus luculentus Barr) is known only from the type locality, Stratton Meadows a place that extends from Monroe County, Tennessee to Graham County in North Carolina, USA. [1]

This form is considered possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

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edited: 07.09.2020

Blackburnia micantipennis (Sharp)

Waimea Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia micantipennis)  

The Waimea Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it occurred only at elevations of 600 to 1270 m on the leeward reaches of the Waimea Canyon on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. It is thought to have been a riparian species, since all localities, at which this species was found, are along the tributaries of the Waimea River.  

The last specimens of this species were apparently collected in 1935 and it is now thought to be possibly extinct. [1]  

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References: 

[1] J. K. Liebherr; E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii: Hawaiian Carabidae (Coleoptera), Part 1: Introduction and Tribe Platynini. University of Hawaii Press 2000

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edited: 03.09.2019

Cuscuta warneri Yunck.

Warner’s Dodder (Cuscuta warneri)

Warner’s Dodder was described in 1960, it is known only from the type locality near the city of Filmore in Millard County in Utah, USA.

The species was apparently not found recently, despite careful searches at the type locality and is probably extinct.

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edited: 13.11.2021

Blackburnia mothra Liebherr & Porch

Mothra Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia mothra)

This species was described in 2015, it is one of several, mostly very large ground beetle species that are known exclusively from subfossil remains found in the makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Mothra Blackburnia Ground is the second-largest member of its genus, it died out shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesians on the Hawaiian Islands. [1]

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References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

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edited: 03.09.2019

Newcombia philippiana (Pfeiffer)

Philippiana Newcombia Snail (Newcombia philippiana) 

The Philippiana Newcombia Snail was described in 1857, the species is known only from the type series which was collected on one of the Hawaiian Islands (most likely Moloka’i), its taxonomic status, however, is not fully understood.

The species is considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

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edited: 16.06.2020

Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis Sherff

Lanai Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis)

The Lanai Phyllostegia was described in 1934 based on material that had been collected in 1914, it was restricted to the Kaiholena Gulch on Lana’ihale, the highest point on the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The plant is thought to have been seen sometimes in the 1980s, however, it is thought that this might rather have been the nominate form. [1]

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References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999

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edited: 24.09.2019