Tag Archives: USA

Philodoria spilota (Walsingham)

Haleakala Philodora Moth (Philodoria spilota)

This species was described 1907; it is known only from the forested slopes at elevations of about 1530 m above sea level of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 cm; the head and the thorax are brownish fuscous, the abdomen is fuscous; the forewings are bronze fuscous with silvery white spots, the hindwings are brownish fuscous.

The biology and the host plant of this species remain completely unknown.

The unique holotype is a faded, damaged female and not a male as Walsingham stated in his original description. Walsingham said that the type was “injured when being described”. It is badly broken – the hindwings and abdomen are glued to the fore part of the body; the head is badly abraded and glued to the thorax; the left antenna is missing.” [1]

***

syn. Elachista spilota Walsingham

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Pararrhaptica chlorippa (Meyrick)

Green Kolea Leafroller (Pararrhaptica chlorippa)

This species was described in 1928; it is only known from the slopes of the Pu’u Ohia (Mt. Olympus) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae are known to feed on the Hawaiian endemic kōlea lau nui (Myrsine lessertiana A. DC.).

The species was last recorded in 1911 and is now believed to be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscoveries and presumed extinctions of Hawaiian leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 55: 11-27. 2023

*********************

edited: 03.12.2023

Aptostichus lucerne Bond

Deadman’s Trapdoor Spider (Aptostichus lucerne)

The Deadman’s Trapdoor Spider was described in 2012 during a genus revision; it is known only from two male specimens that were collected in 1957 at a place named as Deadman’s Point in the Lucerne Valley in San Bernardino County, California, USA.

The species has never been found since the collection of the type material and is considered probably extinct. [1]

*********************

Photo from: ‘Jason E. Bond: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252: 1-209. 2012’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Jason E. Bond: Phylogenetic treatment and taxonomic revision of the trapdoor spider genus Aptostichus Simon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Euctenizidae). ZooKeys 252: 1-209. 2012

*********************

edited: 08.08.2022

Thyrocopa sapindiella Swezey

Aulu Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa sapindiella)

This species was described in 1913; it is known exclusively from specimens that were found in the Niu Valley near the southeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1.8 cm; the head is whitish brown; the thorax and the abdomen are very light whitish brown; the forewings are mainly very light whitish brown with a few brown scales scattered throughout and a very small, faint brownish spot in the cell; the hindwings are very light whitish brown.

The caterpillars are thought to feed on the leaves of the Hawaiian endemic ko’oloa (Abutilon spp.) and āulu (Sapindus spp.).:

The caterpillars were quite numerous on some trees. The small ones feed on the under surface of the leavs [sic], each producing a web covered with frass under which it feeds, eating off the surface of the leaf. The larger ones hide in rolled-together leaves, often several leaves in a bunch fastened together and there may be two or more caterpillars, each in a silken tunnel.

Pupa 9 mm. … The pupa is formed within the spun-together leaves where the caterpillar fed.
” [1]

***

This species is now possibly extinct.

******************** 

References: 

[1] O. H. Swezey: One new genus and eighteen new species of Hawaiian moths. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 269-280. 1908-1913
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009 

********************

edited: 18.02.2024

Branta hylobadistes Olson & James 

Great Nene (Branta hylobadistes)

The Great Nene was described in 1991 based on subfossil bones found on the island of Maui (it may also have lived at least on the neighboring islands of Lana’i and Moloka’i). 

The extinct species was slightly larger than the Hawaiian Nene (Branta sandvicensis (Vigors)) (see photo below) but was otherwise quite identical to that species.

*** 

Some of the bones, that are assigned to this species, come from individuals that were still volant while others appear to have been flightless. [1]

*********************

Hawaii Geese (Branta sandvicensis)  

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr  
http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************  

References:  

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991  

*********************  

edited: 05.05.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 3’

Oahu Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

This species is basically known only from an account made in 1913 by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey.:

The larvae mine the leaves of Rollandia racemosa [Cyanea humboldtiana (Gaudich.) Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma]. They feed largely in the midrib, following it outwardly, but eat lateral tunnels out into the mesophyll on both sides as they proceed. Usually there is but one larva in a leaf. I have found this in but one locality so far, on Mt. Olympus, Oahu. The leaves of the shrub were very commonly attacked by it. The leaves are quite large and are not entirely killed by the injury, but many may be seen with the injured portion decayed away leaving an irregular hole or space in mid-portion of leaf. The full-grown larva emerges and passes below to pupate in a slight cocoon amongst dead leaves or trash.” [1]

There appears to have also existed at least one specimen, but it seems to have been lost; because no leaf-mining species of that genus is found today in the type locality or on O’ahu, to be precise, this species is considered extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

*********************

edited: 21.01.2022

Xyleborus exsectus Perkins

Cut-off Bark Beetle (Xyleborus exsectus)

The Cut-off Bark beetle was described in 1900; it is known only from some male specimens that were collected on the slopes of the Haleakalā volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is only known from the type series that was collected in 1894 and 1896 respectively, it is possibly extinct.
***

However, it is possible that this taxon is not valid at all and in fact is identical with the Molokai Bark Beetle (Xyleborus molokaiensis Perkins) which is more widespread and of which only female specimens ae known. [1]

Otherwise, there is also the possibility that it might be rediscovered as it has happened with at least two other congeneric species. [2][3]

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981
[2] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of an Enigmatic Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Coleopterists Bulletin 72(4): 811-815. 2018
[3] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; David Honsberger; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of the Hawaiian endemic bark beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuleson, 1981 on Moloka‘i, with records of three new exotic bark beetles for the island (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Journal of Natural History 53(23-24): 1481-1490. 2020

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Xyleborus littoralis Perkins

Littoral Bark Beetle (Xyleborus littoralis)

The Littoral Bark Beetle was described in 1900; it is only known from areas at sea level on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last seen in 189, when the type material was collected, it is possibly extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Leuctra laura Hitchcock

Hampshire Needlefly (Leuctra laura)

The Hampshire Needlefly was described in 1969; it is known only from two specimens, a male and a female, that were collected on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, USA.

The species might be extinct; however, its taxonomic validity is questioned.

*********************

edited: 17.02.2024

Orobophana berniceia ssp. ‘Wailua’

Wailua Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia ssp.)

This supposed geographical race, or subspecies of the Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceira(Pilsbry & Cooke)) is known from several shells that were found south of the Wailua River at the western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These shells were nearly all of equal size and in average reached sizes of about 0,27 cm in height and 0,3 cm in diameter. [1]

***

The Wailua Orobophana Snail, whatever its taxonomic status might be, is clearly extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Lupinus cusickii ssp. abortivus (Greene) B. J. Cox

Sewage Lupine (Lupinus cusickii ssp. abortivus)

Cusick’s Lupine (Lupinus cusickii S. Watson) (see photo below), an Oregon endemic, is a small, blue-purple flowering species that prefers to grow on eroding mountain slopes. The species can be divided into at least three varieties, all of which are critically endangered. 

***

This variety, named for the type location (near stinking water), was endemic to northern Harney County, where the last plants were found in 1896; it is now very likely extinct.

***

syn. Lupinus aridus var. abortivus (Greene) C. P. Sm.

*********************

Cusick’s Lupine (Lupinus cusickii); nominate form

Photo: Carmel Cameron
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/carmel34
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

********************* 

References: 

[1] Robert J. Meinke: Threatened and endangered vascular plants of Oregon: An illustrated guide. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Endangered Species, Region 1. 1982 

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula Cooke

Maunaloa Amastra Snail (Amastra uniplicata ssp. vetuscula)

The Maunaloa Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that were recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near the northern shore of Molokai’, Hawaiian Islands.

A very few imperfect specimens were found by Pilsbry and Cooke in 1913 at Moomomi where this variety is extremely rare. Further west, especially in the shifting sands, it occurs more abundantly but is not a common species in any locality. it has been found sparingly in all the known fossil deposits from Puukapele west to the shifting sands. This variety is readily separated from the typical form by its less tumid last whorl, more cylindrical form and malleate surface.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,8 to 2 cm in height.

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra montivaga Cooke

Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail (Amastra montivaga)

The Mountain-wandering Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found on the Kalihi Ridge, which is a mountainous region on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

“A. montivaga is undoubtedly a dirivative [sic] of A. textilis. It differs from the latter species by its smaller size, thinner shell, more convex whorls (which are shouldered below), deeper sutures, etc.” [1]

The shells of this species reach sizes of 1,2 to 1,6 cm in height.

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 6’

Maui Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

We know of the former existence of this taxon only by an account made by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey in 1954, mentioned later by Elwood C. Zimmerman.:

Carposina new species 6.
“Heterocrossa sp., near bicincta” Swezey, 1954: 116

Endemic. Maui (Haelaau)
Hostplant: Clermontia kakeana and arborescens. The larvae mine the leaves.
” [1]

The specimen or specimens that were reared from the caterpillars collected from its host plants are now apparently lost; the species was never recorded again and is thus considered extinct. 

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

*********************

edited: 21.01.2022

Orobophana juddii (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana juddii)

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found in sand dunes on the beaches in the Koloa District in southern Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were semiglobose with a flattened base and a rounded periphery, they reached sizes of about 0,42 cm in height and 0,46 cm in diameter, the original colors are not preserved. [1]

Judd’s Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

***

syn. Helicina juddii Pilsbry & Cooke

*********************

Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Hemignathus sp. ‘Hawaii Nukupuu’

Hawaii Nukupuu (Hemignathus sp.)

The island of Hawai’i today is the home of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni (Rothschild)) (see depiction below), the last of the so-called hetero-billed finches, a group of Hawaiian drepenidine finches with extremely strange bills in which the lower beak is short and, depending on the species, curved up- or downwards, and the upper beak significantly longer and down curved.

This species is depicted below.

The island of Hawai’i, however, once also harbored at least two other hetero-billed finch species, namely the so-called Giant Nukupuu (Hemignathus vorpalis Olson & James), known only by subfossil remains, and the ‘actual’ Nukupuu (Hemignathus aff. lucidus), which is known by a single historical specimen, and which most certainly represented a full and endemic species.

More about this enigmatic form follows below.:

***

Hemignathus lucidus subspp. indet.

A historic specimen of this species, of indeterminate race, was collected on the island of Hawaii by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1840 or 1841, but the species was never again taken on that island. A fossil almost certainly of this species was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.
” [2]

The authors treat all Nukupuu forms as a single species, thus this somewhat misleading statement –  the fossil from Moloka’i, of course, is more closely related to the Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) from Maui.

This sole Hawaii Nukupuu specimen very likely constitutes a sub-adult individual, its plumage appearing to had been in the stage of molting into a yellower garb; the dorsum, the crown and the wings are dull olive with a grayish cast; the underparts are creamy whitish; yellow feathers appear on the lower cheeks and on the midline of the throat and the sides of the upper breast, forming a sort of inverted Y; it also had a faint yellow superciliary line. [1]

This is perhaps one of the most enigmatic of the many Hawaiian drepanidine finches and is shows that these islands have lost an unimaginable precious treasure trove of diversity!

*********************

Akiapolaau (Hemignathus wilsoni)

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’      

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: A specimen of Nuku pu’u (Aves: Drepanidini: Hemignathus lucidus) from the island of Hawai’i. Pacific Science 48(4): 331-338. 1994
[2] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

*********************

edited: 09.10.2020

Amastra seminigra Hyatt & Pilsbry

Coal-black Amastra Snail (Amastra seminigra)

The Coal-black Amastra Snail, described in 1911, was restricted to the vicinity of Wahiawa and Waimano near Honolulu on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

It was a quite large species whose shells reached heights of up to 2,12 cm.

The species is very similar to the Sorrowful Amastra Snail (Amastra tristis (Férussac)) and differs from that species only by its narrower shape at all stages of growth.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′    

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 05.10.2020

Orobophana cookei Neal

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail (Orobophana cookei)

Cooke’s Orobophana Snail was described in 1934, it was apparently restricted to a cliff on the west side of the beautiful and often photographed Kalalau Valley on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this quite large species reach sizes of about 0,56 cm in height and 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

***

Since all Kauaian helicinid snails are now thought to be extinct altogether, this species must be considered extinct too. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Chloridops regiskongi Olson & James

King Kong Finch (Chloridops regiskongi)

The King Kong Finch was described in 1991 based on subfossil remains found on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

This species had the biggest and heaviest beak of all seed-eating Hawaiian finches.

***

This species very likely constitutes a distinct genus.

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[2] Helen F. James: The osteology and phylogeny of the Hawaiian finch radiation (Fringillidae: Drepanidini), including extinct taxa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 207-255. 2004

*********************

edited: 04.01.2024

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. baldwiniana Cooke

Lanai Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. lanaiensis)

This form, described in 1920, was restricted to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

Specimens from West Maui agree very closely with the type form in shape, color, etc., but are slightly smaller. They differ mainly in that the embryonic whorls are much more finely striate spirally, and in the presence of a minute basal fold and the more axially seated columellar fold. There are usually about two more ribs on the last whorl, which is furnished with from 15 to 17. Length 2.5, diam. 1.5, apert. 1.0 mm.; 51/4 whorls.

From L. r. lanaiensis it is separated by its more convex and swollen whorls, lighter color and much more finely spirally striate embryonic whorls.
” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Amastra ricei ssp. armillata Cooke

Milolii Amastra Snail (Amastra ricei ssp. armillata)

The Milolii Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on two (sub)fossil specimens that had been collected from the Miloli’i beach at the north-western coast of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, from deposits that might be of late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

This form may in fact not be different from the typical species.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Cora timuca Lücking, Kaminsky, Perlmutter, Lawrey & Dal-Forno

Timuca Heart Lichen (Cora timuca)

This conspicuous macrolichen species was described in 2020 on the basis of herbarium material that had mainly been collected at the end of the 19th century; some, however, were collected in the second half of the 20th century, the last one apparently in 1985.

The species was apparently usually found in sand pine scrub in Florida; however, no recent localities are known and all recent surveys didn’t manage to find any trace of this species.

The Timuca Heart Lichen is now most likely extinct. [1]

***

The photo below shows another congeneric species that was photographed in Mexico.

*********************

unspecified heart lichen species (Cora sp.)

Photo: Gustavo Herrera
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/lucianito
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Lücking; Laurel Kaminsky; Gary B. Perlmutter; James D. Lawrey; Manuela Dal Forno: Cora timucua (Hygrophoraceae), a new and potentially extinct, previously misidentified basidiolichen of Florida inland scrub documented from historical collections. The Bryologist 123(4): 657-673. 2020

*********************

edited: 05.02.2024

Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula Cooke

Kaupulehu Amastra Snail (Amastra umbilicata ssp. pluscula)

The Kaupulehu Amastra Snail, described in 1917, is known from subfossil material that was found at Ka’ūpūlehu at elevations of about 5500 m above sea level in northern Kona on the island of Hawai’i.

This species is very common in its fossil state along the government road between Waimea and North Kona. A number of the specimens have such a fresh appearence [sic] that it does not seem possible that they have been very long dead. Most of the specimens were found in earth under lava blocks. It differs principally from A. ultima by its larger size and less convex whorls. This varietly differs from typical A. umbilicata morticina not only by its larger umbilicus but also by its proportionally wider and larger aperture which is not distinctly angled below, and is much less developed columellar fold.” [1]

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra johnsoni Hyatt & Pilsbry

Johnson’s Amastra Snail (Amastra johnsoni)

Johnson’s Amastra Snail was described in 1911; it was found in Wailuku in the northeastern part of western Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells of this species reach heights of about 1,1 cm; they are nearly imperforate, oblong-conic, rather thin and somewhat glossy, the outlines of the spire are straight above, a little convex below and the whorls nearly flat, they are brown with the last whorl being partially covered with a thin, darker cuticle that has some darker and lighter streaks but no oblique or angular markings. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Endodonta sp. ‘Barbers Point’

Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail (Endodonta sp.)

The Kalaeloa Endodonta Snail is an undescribed species that is known exclusively from subfossil specimens that had been recovered from coastal deposits at Kalaeloa (Barber’s Point) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick V. Kirch; Carl C. Christensen: Nonemarine molluscs and paleoecology at Barber’s Point, O’ahu. Prepared for Archaeological Research Center Hawaii, Inc.. Department of Anthropology; Bernice P. Bishop Museum 1-40. 1980

*********************

edited: 22.04.2019

Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii Rock

Copeland’s Cyanea (Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii)

Copeland’s Cyanea is an epiphytic species that once inhabited the rainforests of at least two of the Hawai’i Islands, namely Hawai’i and Maui, with its own endemic subspecies on each of the islands. 

The nominate form once occurred on the southeastern slopes of Mauna Loa in Hawai’i, where it was last found in 1957. It is now considered extinct. 

The Maui Island subspecies, Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis (H. St. John) Lammers, is itself threatened with extinction.

***

syn. Cyanea crispihirta E. Wimm., Delissea crispihirta (E. Wimm.) H. St. John


*********************

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’ 

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.04.2012

Chloridops sp. ‘Maui’

Maui Grosbeak (Chloridops sp.)

This form is known from a complete subfossil mandible that was found in the Pu’u Naio Cave on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands and which differs from the Wahi Grosbeak (Chloridops wahi James & Olson) in being about 18% smaller.

More material is needed before it is clear whether this form represents some kind of extreme intraspecific variation in the Wahi Grosbeak or a distinct species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 08.10.2020

Melanoplus ligneolus Scudder

Firewood Spur-throated Grasshopper (Melanoplus ligneolus)

The Firewood Spur-throated Grasshopper was described in 1899 based on specimens that had been collected near the cities of Benicia and Berkely in Solano – and Alameda County of California / USA respectively.

The males reached sizes of about 1,7 cm long, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were yellowish light-brown colored.

The species is considered possibly extinct without any reasons for this assumption being mentioned.

********************

Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

********************

References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899′

********************

edited: 31.08.2019

Hemignathus lanaiensis Rothschild

Maui-nui Akialoa (Hemignathus lanaiensis)

The Maui-nui Akialoa aka. Lanai Akialoa was historically only known from the island of Lana’i, Hawaiian Islands, but did formerly also occur on the neighboring islands of Maui and Moloka’i as its known based on subfossils (found at least on Maui). [2]

The species is known by exactly three specimens, two of which appear to be sub-adult males and the third one a female. [3]

***

There is an interesting account made in 1903 (?) by Robert Cyril Layton Perkins, a British entomologist, naturalist and ornithologist about this species in life.:

Almost equally unfortunate was my experience of H. lanaiensis, of which I saw but a single example. This was evidently an adult male, its plumage appearing quite brightly yellow, and unlike any of the figures in Mr Rothschild’s work. There is no doubt hat his figure of the adult bird, if really taken from an adult, represents the bird in its non-breeding stage, for in January, when I saw the one above mentioned, all the adult birds on Lanai were in the fullest and most perfect plumage. It was extremely tame, at times not five yards distant, hunting for insects along the trunk and large limbs of a partly fallen Ohia, which overhung the edge of a precipitous cliff. As, if killed, it would necessarily have fallen in the brush far below, or have lodged in the shrubbery on the side of the cliff, being without a dog I forbore to shoot, and when after some minutes it flew off, it was seen no more. It is probable that this was realy a survivor of the brood obtained by Mr Rothschild’s collectors, since Wolstenholme, who discovered the bird, informed me that all of their specimens were obtained in the same spot and practically at the same time. Certainly the bird seen by me was quite alone, and this at a time when mature birds were all paired, and it may even be feared that it was the sole living representative of its species.” [1]

The Maui-nui Akialoa was extinct shortly after.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Vertebrata. in: Fauna Hawaiiensis 1(4): 365-466. 1899-1913
[2] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991
[3] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

*********************

edited: 09.10.2020

Philodoria pipturicola Swezey

Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria pipturicola)

The Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth was described in 1915; it is known only from the region around Punalu’u near the northeast shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has a wingspan of about 0,6 to 0,7 cm; the head is grayish fuscous, the thorax is slate gray fuscous colored, the abdomen is dark fuscous; the forewings are fuscous suffused with orange patches and some white bands, the hindwings are dark fuscous.

This is one of the species that was reared from mines, thus its host plant is established as the endemic māmaki (Pipturus sp.); the mine is a serpentine at the beginning and later becomes a blotch, the larva emerges from the mine to spin a light brown cocoon on some matching surface.

***

The species was also recorded from Maui, these records however, were misidentifications with another species, the Haelaau Philodoria Moth (Philodoria haelaauensis Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara). [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Trechus satanicus Barr

Satanic Ground Beetle (Trechus satanicus)

The Satanic Ground Beetle was described in 1962, it was apparently restricted to a place named Graveyard Fields in Haywood County, North Carolina, USA.

The beetle reached a size of about 0,36 cm in length.

The species is considered likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Glyphyalinia floridana (Morrison)

Ocala Glossy Snail (Glyphyalinia floridana)

The Ocala Glossy Snail, described in 1937, is only known from subfossil shells that had been found in crevices of limestone rock near the town of Ocala in Marion County, Florida.

The many specimens in the original lot … are all dead shells, weathered to a chalky appearance. It appears unlikely that this species is Pleistocene as doubtfully noted by the collector. It may, however, be extinct at the present time.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.45 cm in diameter; they were described as follows: 

Shell of five whorls, possessing the characteristic sculpture of the subgenus, with regularly and closely spaced major growth wrinkles, of about the size of R. roemeri, but with the base of the body whorl more deeply rounded near the umbilicus, which has consequently steeper walls. The spire is regularly depressed-conic, but constantly higher, as is the body whorl, than in the specimens of roemeri seen. The aperture is roundly lunate, widest below the middle; peristome more sharply rounded at the periphery and in the columellar region. Umbilicus deep, steep-walled; contained about four times in the major diameter of the shell.” [1]

***

syn. Retinella floridana Morrison

*********************

Photo from: ‘J. P. E. Morrison: Five new North American Zonitids. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 50: 55-60. 1937’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

*********************

References:

[1] J. P. E. Morrison: Five new North American Zonitids. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 50: 55-60. 1937

*********************

edited: 11.02.2024

Trechus mitchellensis Barr

Mitchell’s Ground Beetle (Trechus mitchellensis)

Mitchell’s Ground Beetle was described in 1962, this species is known from at least three localities in the Black Mountains in Yancey County in North Carolina, USA.

The species reached a size of 0,36 to 0,42 cm in length. [1]

The species is considered likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Erythrura sp. ‘Rota’

Mariana Parrot Finch (Erythrura sp.)

The Mariana Parrot Finch is known only from a subfossil humerus that was recovered from deposits on the island of Rota in the Mariana Islands; this single bone can be referred to that genus based on several characters but is larger than that of any congeneric species.

The species may have reached a length of about 15 cm, making it one of the largest members of its whole family; it was very likely most closely related to the Blue-faced Parrotfinch (Erythrura trichroa (Kittlitz)) (see depiction), a species that still occurs in parts of Micronesia today. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinct and extirpated birds from Rota, Mariana Islands. Micronesia 25(1): 71-84. 1992

*********************

Blue-faced Parrotfinch (Erythrura trichroa)

Depiction from: ‘F. H. von Kittlitz: Über einige noch unbeschriebene Vögel von der Insel Luzon, den Carolinen und den Marianen. Mémoires présentés à l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg par divers Savants et lus dans ses Assemblées 2: 1-10. 1835’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Philodoria opuhe Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Opuhe-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria opuhe)

This species was described in 2021; it is apparently known from the Pu’u ‘Ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus) in the Ko’olau Mountains as well as from the Wai’anae Mountains both on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to mine the leaves of the endemic ōpuhe spp. (Urera glabra (Hook. & Arn.) Wedd. and Urera kaalae Wawra).

***

The species was originally included in the description of the Urera-mining Philidoria Moth (Philodoria ureraella(Swezey)), from which it, however, differs in several characters.

*********************

[1] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Cyprinella lutrensis ssp. blairi (Hubbs)

Maravillas Red Shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis ssp. blairi)

The Maravillas Red Shiner was restricted to the Garden Springs and the Pena Colorado Creek, which are a part of the Maravillas Creek drainage, a tributary of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA.

This subspecies reached a length of about 4,4 cm

The Maravillas Red Shiner disappeared in the late 1950s due to competition with introduced, invasive Plains Killifish (Fundulus zebrinus Jordan & Gilbert).

***

Some biologists consider the Maravillas Red Shiner synonymous with the nominate form.

*********************

Red Shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis (Baird & Girard)); nominate form

Photo: Marine discovery

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

*********************

edited: 18.05.2022

Amastra fragosa Cooke

Uneven Amastra Snail (Amastra fragosa)

The Uneven Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it is known from (sub)fossil remains that had been recovered from Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene deposits near Ka’ūpūlehu, in Kona, Hawai’i.

The shells reached average sizes of 1,1 to 1,3 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Tryonia circumstriata (Leonard & Ho)

Striped Tryonia (Tryonia circumstriata)

The Striped Tryonia was described in 1960, apparently originally from fossil speciemens collected from Pleistocene deposits on the right bank of the Pecos River in Chandler County, Texas, USA.

The species was later found in the Diamond Y Draw in Pecos County (originally described as a distinct species, Stockton’s Tryonia (Tryonia stocktonensis Taylor) in 1987, but then synonymized with this species). [1]

It appears to be extinct now, however.

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Hershler: Systematics of the North and Central American aquatic snail genus Tryonia (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae) Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 612: 1-53. 2001

*********************

edited: 02.05.2019

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris Cooke & Pilsbry

Many-striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. pluris)

This taxon was described in 1920; it is known from Kaunakakai at the central southern coast of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands; they were found quite abundantly among dead leaves in humid, shady places.

The shells reach sizes of about 0.22 to 0.24 cm in height; they differ from the nominate race in being shorter and having rather weaker, less regular spiral striae. [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Amastra flemingi Cooke

Fleming’s Amastra Snail (Amastra flemingi)

Fleming’s Amastra Snail was described in 1917 based on three (sub)fossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of eastern Maui, which may date to a Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene age.

The shell of the holotype reaches a height of about 1,3 cm, “The shell is indistinctly rimate, sinitral, oblong-turrite, in its fossil state whitish. The spire is elongate, faintly contracted above, with slightly convex outlines.” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Rhodacanthis forfex James & Olson

Scissor-billed Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis forfex)

The Scissor-billed Koa Finch is known only by subfossil remains, found on the islands of Kaua’i and Maui, the species clearly also occurred on the islands in between.

The species disappeared shortly after the arrival of the first human settlers on the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************

References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidini: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Bactrurus cellulanus Koenemann & Holsinger

Indiana Groundwater Amphipod (Bactrurus cellulanus)

The Indiana Groundwater Amphipod was described in 2001; it is known only from four specimens that were found in 1962 and 1963 in a groundwater seep stream in the subbasement of Jordan Hall on the campus of the University of Indiana in Bloomington in Indiana, USA.

The species has not been collected since and is likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Steven J. Taylor; Matthew L. Niemiller: Biogeography and conservation assessment of Bactrurus groundwater amphipods (Crangonyctidae) in the central and eastern United States. Subterranean Biology 17: 1-29.2016

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Colletes turgiventris Timberlake

Antioch Plasterer Bee (Colletes turgiventris)

The Antioch Plasterer Bee, described in 1951, is an endemic species of the Antioch Dunes near the city of Antioch in Contra-Costa County, California, USA.

The bee reaches a size of approx. 1.1 cm.

The species is probably extinct today.

*********************

edited: 29.11.2011

Cyanea comata Hillebr. 

Maui Cyanea (Cyanea comata)  

This species is only known from the type collection, which dates back to 1870. 

The Maui Cyanea grew in the semi-arid forests of the western slopes of Haleakalā Crater on the eastern part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. 

The species reached a height of around 2.5 m, it had a tuftof 15 to 20.5 cm long leaves and had a hanging inflorescence with around 5 cm long, light purple-colored flowers.

***

syn. Delissea comata (Hillebr.) H. St. John

*********************

Photo from: ‘Joseph F. Rock: A monographic study of the Hawaiian species of the tribe Lobelioideae, Family Campanulaceae. Memoirs of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 7: 1-394. 1918’  

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 28.06.2012

Carelia olivacea ssp. olivacea Pease

Olive Carelia Snail (Carelia olivacea ssp. olivacea)

The Olive Carelia Snail was described in 1866; it was found in the eastern part of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands and seems to have once be quite widespread.

The shells reach heights of about 7 cm.

Fire and cattle have played havoc with most of the native forests along the northern side of this range and probably the original localities from which Pease obtained his material have been destroyed.” [2]

***

syn. Carelia olivacea ssp. variabilis Pease

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911
[2] C. Montague Cooke Jr.: The land snail genus Carelia. Bishop Museum Bulletin 85: 1-97. 1931

*********************

edited: 25.01.2024

Leptachatina obtusa (Pfeiffer)

Obtuse Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina obtusa)

This species was described in 1855; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 1 cm; they are “imperforate, oblong, nearly smooth, glossy, pellucid, chestnut-corneous ….” [1]

The species is now extinct.

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Antilissus makauwahi Porch

Makauwahi Bark Beetle (Antilissus makauwahi)

The Makauwahi Bark Beetle was described in 2020 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from the deposits in the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 800 years before present. [1]

***

The only other known member of that genus, the Cylindrical Bark Beetle (Antilissus asper Sharp), is found on all of the larger Hawaiian Islands where it lives under the bark of dead or dying trees. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch: A new and likely extinct species of Antilissus Sharp, 1879 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Colydiinae) from Makauwahi Cave, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 4868(1): 135-141. 2020

*********************

edited: 24.10.2020

Pyrgulopsis torrida Hershler, Liu, Babbitt, Kellog & Howard

Little Sycamore Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis torrida)

The Little Sycamore Pyrg was described in 2016, it had formerly been misidentified as another species, the Yaqui Pyrg (Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Pilsbry)).

The species was restricted to a single small, shallow stream that runs for about 1,6 km in the Little Sykcamore Canyon in Ventura Canyon, California, USA.

The shells reach sizes of about 0,28 cm in heigth. [1]

***

The Little Sycamore Pyrg was already rare in 2000, however, when the type locality was revisited in 2015, the stream was completely dry, indicating that the species had lost its only habitat and may thus be now extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Caitlin Babbit; Michael G. Kellog; Jeanette K. Howard: Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae). ZooKeys 601: 1-19. 2016

*********************

Photo from: ‘Robert Hershler; Hsiu-Ping Liu; Caitlin Babbit; Michael G. Kellog; Jeanette K. Howard: Three new species of western California springsnails previously confused with Pyrgulopsis stearnsiana (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae). ZooKeys 601: 1-19. 2016’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 18.05.2022

Philodoria costalis Swezey

Makaha Philodoria Moth (Philodoria costalis)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the forests of the Makaha Ridge at elevations of about 915 m above sea level on the western side of Mt. Ka’ala on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 to 0,8 cm; the head, the thorax and the abdomen are tawny brown; the forewings are tawny brown and bear orange-colored patches.

The species is known to have mined the leaves of endemic māmaki species (Pipturus sp.); the sole description of its biology is the following sentence.:

The larvae form “oval brown cocoons on the surface of the leaves ….” (Swezey, 1934: 525.)” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during recent field work and might be extinct. [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Phacelia amabilis Constances

Saline Valley Phacelia (Phacelia amabilis)

The Saline Valley Phacelia was discovered in 1942 in the Saline Valley in the Inyo County of California, USA and was never found again since, it is thus declared possibly extinct.

It may, however, just have been a color variant of another species, the Notch-leaved Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata Torr. ex S.Watson).

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Le Roy Abrams: An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press 1923-60’

(no known copyright restrictions)

*********************

edited: 09.11.2021

Leptachatina terebralis (Gulick)

Kawailoa Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

The Kawailoa Leptachatina Snail was described in 1856; it was restricted t a small region within the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 1.1 cm heigh; they are shiny dark brown and very finely striated, the apex is white. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild

Greater Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis palmeri)

The Greater Koa Finch, named hopue by the native Hawaiians, was already nearly extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists.

The species originally inhabited dry lowland forests that were dominated by the endemic koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray) whose seed pods and seeds apparently were its main food source, it furthermore fed on the seeds of the native ‘a’ali’i (Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.) and caterpillars. Most of the lowland forests had already been destroyed by the Hawaiian natives long before the first European settlers arrived, and the finches were restricted to the small remains in the northern Kona District in the western part of Hawai’i.

***

When alive, Greater Koa Finch was by far the largest of the Hawaiian endemic drepanidine finches; it reached a size of 23 cm; the males had bright scarlet-orange heads and breasts, while the females were more or less completely plain green colored.

***

syn. Loxioides kona Greenway, Psittiacirostra palmeri (Rothschild), Psittirostra palmeri (Rothschild), Telespiza palmeri (Rothschild)

*********************

References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’      

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Conotyla vista Shear

Natural Tunnel Miliped (Conotyla vista)

This species was described in 1971; it is only known from a single specimen that was found in one of the so-called Natural Tunnels, a sandstone formation in the Grandview State Park in Raleigh County, West Virginia, USA.

The male holotype is the only known specimen. The type locality … is a ridge of heavily faulted, coarse sandstone overlooking the 1200 foot [365,76 m] deep gorge of the new River. The Natural Tunnels are roofed crevices formed by downslope creeping of sandstone blocks and are long enough to have totally dark areas and at least some troglophilic species (…), but C. vista shows no cave modifications. ….” [1]

The species has not been found since and is considered possibly extinct, however, this certainly is not a true cave species and might sooner or later be found in the vicinity of its original type locality. 

*********************

References:

[1] William A. Shear: The miliped family Conotylidae in North America, with a description of the new family Adritylidae (Diplopoda: Chordeumida). Bulletin of the Museum of comparative Zoology 141(2): 55-98. 1971

*********************

edited: 19.08.2022

Hesperia meskei ssp. pinocayo Gatrelle & Minno in Gatrelle, Minno & Grkovich

Rockland Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei ssp. pinocayo)

The Rockland Meske’s Skipper is a subspecies of Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei W. H. Edwards) (see photo below) that was described in 2003 and that apparently was restricted to the Florida Keys, a coral cay archipelago off the southern coast of Florida, USA.

It was already nearly extinct when it was described.:

The taxon is within the Key Deer Refuge on Big Pine Key and is therefore already afforded habitat and disturbance protection. However, the number of individuals have now declined so greatly that some type of breeding program seems called for soon if not immediately.” [1]

The butterfly was officially declared extinct in 2013.

*********************

References:

[1] Ronald R. Gatrelle: A subspecific assessment of the genus Hesperia (Hesperiinae) in eastern North America (part I: the south) New subspecies of Hesperia meteea, Hesperia sassacus and Hesperia meskei. The Taxonomic Report 4(3). 2003

*********************

Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei), nominate form

Photo: Will Stuart
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/willstuart2001

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 28.04.2022

Anatidae gen. & sp. ‘Mariana Islands’

Rota Duck (Anatidae gen. & sp.)

The Rota Duck is known so far only from subfossil bones that were recovered from deposits on the island of Rota in the Mariana Islands.

The species was small and probably flightless, not much else is known about it so far. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] David W. Steadman: Extinct and extirpated birds from Rota, Mariana Islands. Micronesia 25(1): 71-84. 1992

*********************

edited: 10.11.2021

Epioblasma metastriata (Conrad)

Upland Combshell (Epioblasma metastriata)

The upland scallop lived in shallow areas including the Black Warrior and Cahaba rivers in Alabama and the Coosa River basin in Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee, USA. 

The shell of the species reached a width of up to 6 cm. 

The last living specimen of this species was collected from the Conasauga River in Georgia in 1988.

***

syn. Dysnomia metastriata Conrad


*********************

Depiction from: ‘T. A. Conrad: Monography of the family Unionidae; or Naiades of Lamarck (freshwater bivalve shells) of North America. Philadelphia, J. Dobson 1836’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 29.07.2012

Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes Cooke

Small Thurston’s Amastra Snail (Amastra thurstoni ssp. bembicodes)

This form differs from the nominate form by its smaller size, its compact and closely coiled spire, but especially in its smoother surface marked with finer and more distantly spaced growth-wrinkles. [1]

This is an exceedingly rare form of Amastra. the results of five findings are six whole and three broken specimens. Among the large number of Amastras that have been taken in the Manoa fossil deposits, from the beginning of Oahu Avenue to Awapuhi Street, this form was only taken from four “pockets”.” [1]

These deposits appear to be actually Late Pleistocene to early Holocene in age.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: New species of Amastridae. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 10(6): 1-29. 1933

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Leptachatina laevis Pease

Brown Kauaian Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina laevis)

This species was described in 1869; it was restricted to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reached heights of 0.9 to 0.95 cm; they were ovately oblong, imperforate, dextral, somewhat thin, smooth, glossy and dark brown colored.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Rhyncogonus bryani Perkins

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus bryani)

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1919, it is known from only a single specimen.

The species was endemic to the island of Laysan in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian Islands chain; its biology is completely unknown.

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil disappeared as an aftermath of the complete denudation of Laysan Island’s vegetation following the introduction of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) in 1909.

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

*********************

edited: 27.01.2019

Pteropus tokudae Tate

Lesser Guam Flying Fox (Pteropus tokudae)  

The Lesser Guam Flying Fox was found exclusively on the island of Guam, Marianna Islands; it shared its habitat with another flying fox species, the Larger Marianas Flying Fox (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest), which survives to this day. 

The locals of the island considered both species, which they both called fanihi, as a delicacy and therefore hunted them in large numbers, which ultimately became fatal to the smaller of the two species. 

The last two specimens were seen in 1967 or 1968, a female and a juvenile, the female was shot, the juvenile escaped. 

All that remains of this species are two specimens (see photo).

***

The Lesser Guam Flying Fox was most closely related to the Chuuk Flying Fox (Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz), which is common on some atolls and islands of the Chuuk Archipelago in Micronesia.

*********************

Photo from: ‘Donald W. Buden; Kristofer M. Helgen; Gary J. Wiles: Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands. ZooKeys 345: 97–135. 2013. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.345.5840’ 

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

*********************

edited: 26.02.2024

Newcombia pfeifferi (Newcomb)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail (Newcombia pfeifferi)

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail was described in 1853, it inhabited the rainforests at the higher elevations in the center of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 1,5 to 1,7 cm in height. [1]

***

Pfeiffer’s Newcombia Snail is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 22: Achatinellidae. 1912-1914′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.06.2021

Leptachatina fulgida Cooke

Flashing Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

The Flashing Leptachatina Snail was described in 1911; it was found on the slopes of Pu’u Kukui and P’u Lihau in the western part of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell reaches heights of about 0.7 cm; they are imperforate, elongately ovately conic and beautifully glossy greenish yellow colored, except for the embryonic whorls which are whitish, the outer lip is dark brownish.

The species is considered extinct now.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Leptachatina emerita Sykes

Kalamaula Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina emerita)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.8 cm; according to the species’ author they are “variable in color, shading from brown to a hyaline tint; adult specimens lose their gloss and become of a straw-yellow. The columellar plait is small and inconspicuous.” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain)  

*********************  

References:  

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

edited: 22.01.2024

Leptachatina sandwicensis (Pfeiffer)

Sandwich Islands Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina sandwicensis)

This species was described in 1846; it was endemic to the Wai’anae Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells are about 0.78 cm heigh; they are “ovately conic, obliquely striate, subopaque, dirty corneous; spire conic, somewhat obtuse; suture marginated with an impressed line ….” [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 14.01.2024

Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola Baldwin

Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens ssp. saxicola)

The Southern Yellowish Amastra Snail is a form of the Yellowish Amastra Snail (Amastra flavescens(Newcomb)), from the far south of the island of Hawai’i, it was found on an ancient aa (lava) flow at the foothills of the Mauna Lao volcano in the Ka’u District.

This form differs from the nominate race by its more convex whorls of which the last one is rounded peripherally. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol. 23: Appendix to Amastridae. Tornatellinidae. Index, vols. XXI-XXIII. 1915-1916

*********************

edited: 15.06.2020

Amastra conifera Smith

Kula Amastra Snail (Amastra conifera)

The Kula Amastra Snail was described 1873; it inhabited the forests around Kula in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it usually was found under dead leaves on the ground.

The shells reached sizes of up to 1,7 cm in height; they are ovate-conic, dextral, lightly striated with lines of growth, they are very pale reddish and partly covered with a brownish-olivaceous epidermis. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Melanoplus nanus Scudder

Small Spur-throat Grasshopper (Melanoplus nanus)

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper was described in 1898, it was apparently only found in few places in the Alameda – , the Marin – , and the San Mateo Counties in California, USA.

The species inhabited dry grassy hillsides.

The males reached sizes of about 1,4 cm, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were fuscous light-brown colored.

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper is now considered possibly extinct, however, reasons for this assumption are not given.

********************

References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899

********************

Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

********************

edited: 31.08.2019

Plagiochila columbiana Evans

Columbian Livermoss (Plagiochila columbiana)

The Columbian Livermoss was described in 1896 based on material that had been collected from partly inundated rocks in- and along the Eno River in North Carolina; it was furthermore recorded from Virginia and Washington D.C.. 

The taxon is superficially similar to Fern-like Livermoss (Plagiochila asplenioides (L.) Dumort.) but can be distinguished from that species by the ragged outlines of its leaves and by the irregularity in the number and position of their teeth; however, it is very likely that both forms are conspecific after all and that the Columbian Livermoss’s description was just based on weakly-developed specimens of the other species.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Alexander W. Evans: Notes on the North American species of Plagiochila. Botanical Gazette 21(4): 185-194. 1896’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Alexander W. Evans: Notes on the North American species of Plagiochila. Botanical Gazette 21(4): 185-194. 1896

*********************

edited: 27.02.2024

Megapodius pritchardii ssp. ‘Samoa’

Samoan Megapode (Megapodius pritchardii ssp.)

This taxon is known exclusively on the basis of subfossil bones, found on the small island of Ofu, part of ‘American’ Samoa.

The remains were tentatively identified as possibly belonging to the Tongan Megapode (Megapodius cf. pritchardii), if so, they may have been a local subspecies. [2]

***

This form may be the bird that was described (as Megapodius stairi Gray) based on a single egg found on the island of Savai’i.:

Nach Bennett (Proc. 1862. p. 247) erhielt Dawson auch die lebenden Vögel auf Sava- oder Russel-Island, die indess leider auf der Ueberfahrt nach Sydney starben. Die Eingeborenen kennen diese Hühner sehr gut und sammeln die Eier fleissig, mit welchen sie Handel treiben. Ein Weibchen legt täglich 2-4 Eier.” 

translation:

According to Bennett (Proc. 1862. p. 247) Dawson obtained also the life birds on Sava- or Russel Island [Savai’i], which, however, unfortunately died during the crossing to Sydney. The natives know these chickens very well and diligently collect the eggs, with which they trade. A female lays 2-4 eggs on the daily [I personally doubt that number!].” [1]

*********************

References:

[1] O. Finsch; G. Hartlaub: Beitrag zur Fauna Centralpolynesiens. Ornthologie der Viti-, Samoa- und Tonga-Inseln. Halle, H. W. Schmidt 1867
[2] David W. Steadman: Extinction and biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. University of Chicago Press 2006

*********************

Georissa cookei Pilsbry

Cooke’s Georissa Snail (Georissa cookei)

Cooke’s Georissa Snail was described in 1928, it is known only from the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shell of this microscopic species reached sizes of only about 0,085 to 0,1 cm, they were composed of three and a half strongly convex whorls and were orange-cinnamon in color. [1]

***

According to a study from 2018 all (two or three) endemic Hawaiian members of the family Hydrocenidae are now extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montangue Cooke Jr.; Marie C. Neal: Land Snails from Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Samoa. Bishop Museum Bulletin 47: 1-49. 1928
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 08.05.2019

Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. calidae Miller

Tecopa Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. calidae)

The Tecopa Pupfish was described in 1948, it was restricted to some outlets of the North- and South Tecopa Hot Springs in Inyo County, California, USA.

The two hot springs that this fish inhabited were very popular in the 1950s and 60s and were used for recreationally purposes; bathhouses were built, the spring pools were enlarged and their outflows were diverted which resulted in swifter currents which again caused the water temperatures downstream to rise above the level to which this pupfish was adapted.

All these modifications also allowed a subspecies closely related to this form, the Amargosa River Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis ssp. armagosae Miller), to invade the Tecopa Pupfish’s habitat and to hybridize with it. 

The last presumed Tecopa Pupfishs were recorded in 1966, but these, having ‘too small’ scales, may already have been hybrids.

*********************

edited: 27.05.2019

Orobophana berniceia (Pilsbry & Cooke)

Limahuli Orobophana Snail (Orobophana berniceia)

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was described in 1908, it is known only from subfossil remains that had been found near what today is the Limahuli Garden & Preserve, National Tropical Botanical Garden at the northern shore of the osland of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells were globosly depressed, with a rounded periphery, quite thin, smooth and minutely marked with growth-striae, they reach sizes of about 0,31 cm in heigth and 0,35 cm in diameter. [2]

***

The Limahuli Orobophana Snail was amongst the first snail species that disappeared following the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers and especially the Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) they brought with them.

*********************

References:

[1] Marie C. Neal: Hawaiian Helicinidae. Bishop Museum Bulletin 125: 1-102. 1934
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

Photo from: ‘Henry A. Pilsbry; C. Montague Cooke Jr.: Hawaiian species of Helicina. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(2): 199-210. 1908’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 18.05.2019

Laminella picta (Mighels)

Decorated Laminella Snail (Laminella picta)  

The Decorated Laminella Snail was described in 1845; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1,43 to 1,6 cm in height; they mostly are opaque white and are decorated with small dark dots.

***
This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know at least a little something about the animal itself.:

“… densely black, surface checkered by fine lines of a light color; tentacles slate, much produced; mantle and bottom of foot brownish-black; when extended same length as the shell.” [1]

***

The species is now considered extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’ 

(public domain)

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Lyropupa lyrata ssp. lyrata (Gould)

Fiddle-shaped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa lyrata ssp. lyrata)

This species was described in 1843; it was originally found to be very abundant in the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 0.25 cm; they are described as being small, most generally sinistral, chestnut colored, widely umbilicate and having five convex whorls with about 20 neatly clathrate flexuous riblets; the aperture is somewhat orbicular, bell-shaped, posteriorly armed with two lamella-like teeth and two additional ones in the throat. [1]

***

The variations and races of lyrata will not be understood until specimens from a large number of places are opened for study of the palatal folds. It will probably be found necessary to recognize a number of local races.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Tachornis uranoceles Olson

Puerto Rico Palm Swift (Tachornis uranoceles)

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift was described in 1982, it is known only from fossil remains that were recovered from Blackbone Cave on the island of Puerto Rico and that were dated to a Late Pleistocene age.

The species very likely had similar habits as the three still existing congeneric species, it inhabited palm grooves in open savannas, a habitat that mostly disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, leading to the extinction of this and several other species. [1]

The Puerto Rico Palm Swift may, however, have survived into the early Holocene.

***

Today, another congeneric species is occurring in the Caribbean including Puert Rico, the Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse) (see photo below).

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs L. Olson: A new species of palm swift (Tachornis: Apodidae) from the Pleistocene of Puerto Rico. The Auk 99(2): 230-235. 1982

*********************

Antillean Palm Swift (Tachornis phoenicobia Gosse)

Photo: ZankaM
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0

*********************

edited: 05.11.2020

Blackburnia koebelei (Sharp)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia koebelei)

Koebele’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the western part of the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was not recorded during recent field surveys and might very well be extinct.

********************* 

References: 

[1] James K. Liebherr: Hawaiian Blackburnia beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini): Patterns of specialization with implications for conservation. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewendete Entomologie 15: 57-62. 2006

*********************

edited: 02.09.2019

Amastra nucleola (Gould)

Nut-shaped Amastra Snail (Amastra nucleola)

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail was described in 1893, it was restricted to lowland areas around the Hanalei Bay at the northern coast of the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach sizes of about 1 to 1,1 cm in height and 0,69 cm in diameter.

… from the original description.:

A small solid species, of a livid hue, whitish at the tip and the neighborhood of the suture, and milk-white just before the termination of the whorl at the aperture (Gld.).” [1]

***

The Nut-shaped Amastra Snail may have gone extinct already in the middle of the 19th century, since all specimens known to exist appear to have been collected dead. [1]  

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 12.03.2021

Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii Lundell

Cheatum’s Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus var. cheatumii)

Cheatum’s Wahoo, a variety of the American Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.), is known only from a single population that was restricted again to a single place in Dallas County, Texas, USA.

This single population is believed to have been destroyed by insects (which insects?) in 1944, the variety is now regarded as being extinct.

*********************

edited: 27.01.2020

Fletcherana giffardi (Swezey)

Giffard’s Geometer Moth (Fletcherana giffardi)

Giffard’s Geometer Moth was described in 1913; it seems to have been restricted to the slopes of the Kīlauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has a wingspan of about 2.4 cm; the head and the thorax are white, slightly mixed with fuscous, the palpi and the antennae are pale ochreous; the abdomen is fusco-cinereous, the segmental margins are white; the forewings are white with a few scattered fuscous scales and are much strigulated with fuscous, the median band has nearly straight anterior and posterior edges and is marked with blackish lines, the anterior line is discontinued between the cell and the costa, the discal dot is round and black; the hind wings are similar to the forewings but with less distinct strigulations.

This species was not found during recent searches and is thought to be extinct.

***

syn. Hydriomena giffardi Swezey

*********************

References:

[1] Jon G. Griffin: A comparison of moth diversity at Kilauea (1911-1912) and upper Waiakea Forest Reserve (1998-2000), island of Hawaii. Proc. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc. 39: 15-26. 2007

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Apetasimus kauaiensis (Scott)

Kauai Sap Beetle (Apetasimus kauaiensis)

The Kauai Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was endemic to the Waimea region on the island of Kaua’i in the Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a length of about 0,53 cm; it was brick red colored, with the lateral margins of the elytra being dark brown. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

*********************

edited: 02.06.2021

Wollastonia populifolia (Sherff) Orchard

Poplar-leaved Melanthera (Wollastonia populifolia)

This species was described in 1933, originally as a variety of the Subcordate Melanthera (Wollastonia subcordata (A. Gray) Orchard) from the island of Hawai’i.

The Poplar-leaved Melanthera is known only from the type material that was collected in 1918 somewhere in the Maunalei Valley on the island of Lana’i in the Hawaiian Islands, it is now considered extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L Wagner; Harold Robinson: Lipocaheta and Melanthera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae subtribe Ecliptinae): establishing their natural limits and a synopsis. Brittonia 53(4): 539-561. 2001

*********************

edited: 04.06.2021

Laminella citrina (Mighels)

Citrine Laminella Snail (Laminella citrina)

The Citrine Laminella Snail was described in 1848, it was restricted to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, where it did inhabit a narrow area on the ridge of the island south of the northern peninsula.

The shells reached sizes of 1,6 to 1,75 cm in height; the usually have a uniformly light yellowish color, sometimes becoming darker on the last whorl, some shells bear various dots on their neanic whorls. [1]

***

This is one of the few Hawaiian snail species of which we know a little bit about the animals themselves.:

Animal of a uniform light yellow color, superior tentacles and tentacular sheath light slate.” [1]

***

Like most terrestrial Hawaiian snail species, also this one is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911  

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’  

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Hemignathus affinis ssp. ‘Moloka’i’

Molokai Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis ssp.)

The Maui Nukupuu (Hemignathus affinis Rothschild) was historically known only from the island of Maui, yet, this species or at least a very closely related one also once inhabited the neighboring island of Moloka’i – and very likely also Lana’i.:

A fossil almost certainly of this species [Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein] was also recovered from sand dune deposits on Molokai.” [1]

***

Given the fact that the Amakihi (Hemignathus virens (Gmelin)) is known to have inhabited the island of Hawai’i (with the nominate form) as well as the islands of Lana’i, Maui, and Moloka’i (with another subspecies), it is quite certain that the Molokai Nukupuu was identical with the Maui species, perhaps even on subspecific level.

***

All species formerly known as Nukupuu are now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Storrs Olson & Helen F. James: Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 108(3): 373-387. 1995

*********************

edited: 09.10.2020

Rhodacanthis flaviceps Rothschild

Lesser Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis flaviceps)

The Lesser Koa Finch was already almost extinct when it was discovered by European ornithologists in 1892; it was only found only once, in its type locality, a place called Pu’u Lehua in the lowlands of the northern Kona District almost in the middle of the western coast of Hawai’i.

It was found in mixed flocks with Greater Koa-Finches (Rhodacanthis palmeri Rothschild) feeding on the seeds of koa acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray), eight specimens were taken back than by bird collectors, which did not recognize that they were dealing with two distinct species at that time. [1]

***

The species reached a size of about 19 cm; males had bright yellow heads and bellies, while females were nearly completely green colored. [1]

***

The Lesser Koa-Finch was never found again since, so was probably extinct already shortly after. [1]

***

syn. Loxioides flaviceps (Rothschild), Psittiacirostra flaviceps (Rothschild), Psittirostra flaviceps (Rothschild), Telespiza flaviceps (Rothschild)

*********************

Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’ 

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] H. Douglas Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

*********************

edited: 07.10.2020

Leptachatina subula (Gulick)

Awl-shaped Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina fulgida)

This species was described in 1856; it inhabited the Pālolo- and Wai’alae Valleys near the coast of south-eastern O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The shells reach heights of about 1.1 cm; they are translucent, shiny dark corneous and very finely striated. [1]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota Cooke & Pilsbry

Striped Lyropupa Snail (Lyropupa rhabdota ssp. rhabdota)

The Striped Lyropupa Snail was described in 1920; it was endemic to the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands where it probably was very widespread but apparently not common.:

There can be no doubt that this species is distributed over the whole of the wooded portion of Molokai. Unfortunately it has never been found in any number in any one locality and in none of the lots are there more than half a dozen specimens – in most of them only 1 to 3.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0.27 cm in length. “This species is, at first glance, very similar to some of the forms of lyrata from Oahu. It is easily separated by the different sculpture of the embryonic whorls and the longer lower palatal fold.” [1]

***

According to a study from the year 2018, all Hawaiian species of this genus are now sadly extinct. [2]

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920’

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Vol.25, Pupillidae (Gastrocoptinae, Vertigininae) 1918-1920
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Biodiversity and extinction of Hawaiian land snails: how many are left now and what must we do to conserve them – a reply to. Integrative and Comparative Biology 58(6): 1157-1169. 2018

*********************

edited: 25.02.2024

Laminella straminea (Reeve)

Straw-colored Laminella Snail (Laminella straminea)

The Straw-colored Laminella Snail was described in 1850; it was endemic to the island of O’ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, where it is known from several valleys, including the Makiki-, Nu’uanu-, Palolo-, Pauoa, and Waiala’e nui Valleys. The species was almost entirely found on the leaves of the endemic olonā (Touchardia latifolia Gaudich.). [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 2,2 to 2,4 cm in height; they are “acuminately oblong, sinistral, whorls convex, obliquely striated, columella strongly twist-plaited; straw-colored, unspotted.” [1]

We have a little information about the animal itself.:

Animal of a uniform light flesh color, oral aperture margined with a line of orange.” [1]

***

This species is now considered most likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain) 

*********************  

edited: 02.06.2021

Fringillidae gen. & sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Additional Kauai Finch (Fringillidae gen. & sp.)

This is a form of drepanidine finch that is still only insufficiently known, its very fragmenary remains were recovered from the deposits of the the Makawehi Dunes on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains consist only of the caudal part of a mandibular ramus, differing from all other Hawaiian finch species, alive or extinct.

The form is currently known only as ‘Additional Kauai Finch’, it might have been a Psittirostra sp.. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] S. L. Olson; H. F. James: Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-91. 1991

*********************

edited: 06.11.2020

Melicope macropus (Hillebr.) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Kaholuamanu Melicope (Melicope macropus 

The Kaholuamanu Melicope was restricted to the Kaholuamanu region of Waimea on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last recorded in 1987, 1919 and finally in 1997 and was never found since, it may be extinct. However, the region, where this species is known to have occurred, is privately owned, thus no surveys have been conducted to relacate the species, which in fact might well be still surviving. [1]

*********************  

References:

[1] Kenneth R. Wood: Survey results for eight possibly extinct plant species from Kaua’i, Hawai’i. Prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS Agreement No. F12AC00737. 293 pp.. 2015

*********************  

edited: 03.09.2020

Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John

Kahili Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia kahiliensis)

The island of Kaua’i harbors seven Phyllostegia species, of which five are endangered to critically endangered, some of these species have populations of less then 10 individuals making them very vulnerable to the slightest disturbances like grazing by cattle etc.. [2]

***

The Kahili Phyllostegia was described in 1987, the species is known from three collections (1974, 1983, and 1987) that originally were thought to be identical with Heller’s Phyllostegia (Phyllostegia helleri Sherff), but differ from that species by their retrorsely appressed pubescence.

The species had an extremely narrow geographic range, it was restricted to steep jagged ridges and precipitous side slopes just below the summit of Mt. Kahili on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The Kahili Phyllostegia was declared extinct in 2014, yet there is a slight chance that it might be rediscovered someday in one of the steep ravines of Mt. Kahili. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner: Nomenclator and review of Phyllostegia (Lamiaceae). Novon 9(2): 265-279. 1999
[2] Kenneth R. Wood: Delissea rhytidosperma H. Mann (Campanulaceae) and Phyllostegia kahiliensis H. St. John (Lamiaceae) possibly extinct on Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2014. Part I: Articles. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Scott E. Miller. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 116: 31-33. 2015

*********************

edited: 24.09.2019

Marstonia castor F. G. Thompson

Beaverpond Marstonia (Marstonia castor)

The Beaverpond Marstonia was described in 1977, it is known exclusively from its type locality, Cedar Creek in the Flint River Drainage, Crisp County, Georgia, USA.

The species was not found during recetn surveys and was finally declared extinct in December 2017. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Georgia Snail Is First Species Declared Extinct Under Trump Administration. www.biologicaldiversity.org. Retrieved 2018-01-07

*********************

edited: 01.05.2019

Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta Cooke

Carved Amastra Snail (Amastra sericea ssp. anaglypta)

The Carved Amastra Snail was described in 1917; it was found in the forests of Punalu’u near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands

The shells reach sizes of 1,4 to 1,7 cm in height.

*********************

References:

[1] C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917

*********************

Photo from: ‘C. Montague Cooke: Some new species of Amastra. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 3(3): 1-34. 1917’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 04.05.2022

Amastra nana Baldwin

Small Amastra Snail (Amastra nana)

The Small Amastra Snail was described in 1895; it inhabited the floors of the forests of Makawao in the northern part of eastern Maui, Hawaiian Islands, where it was once considered common, but very local in its distribution.

The animal was described when it was alive.:

Animal when extended in motion as long as the shell. Mantle light brown. Foot above and below brown with spots of deeper shade on the sides. Tentacles and front above almost black.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 1,1 to 1,2 cm in height; their coloration was quite variable.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 16.05.2022

Eremogone franklinii var. thompsonii (M. Peck) R. L. Hartman & Rabeler

Thompson’s Sandwort (Eremogone franklinii var. thompsonii)

Franklin’s Sandwort (Eremogone franklinii (Douglas ex Hooker) R. L. Hartman & Rabeler) (see photo) is a quite widespread cushion-forming plant species that occurs in the western USA.

The variety discussed here, however, is known only from the type that was collected in the 1930s somewhere in Gilliam County in Oregon, USA. It may be extinct, however, it was found once in the 1980s in Benson County, Washington so may in fact be still existing.

*********************

Franklin’s Sandwort (Eremogone franklinii), nominate race

Photo: Matt Lavin

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

*********************

edited: 14.04.2019

Cryptantha hooveri I. M. Johnson

Hoover’s Cryptantha (Cryptantha hooveri)

Hoover’s Cryptantha was an annual, 5 to 20 cm tall plantlet with simple or branched stems and linear leaves that inhabited grassland communities on sandy soil.

***

Hoover’s Cryptantha was last recorded in 1939 and may be extinct, however, the species is said to be hard to identify, so there’s some hope that it may still exist but may just have been overlooked so far.

*********************

edited: 05.12.2018

Gallirallus temptatus Kirchman & Steadman

Rota Rail (Gallirallus temptatus)

The Rota Rail was described in 2006; it is known only from subfossil remains that were found on the island of Rota in the Mariana Islands.

***

Today, the island of Rota harbors a translocated population of Guam Rails (Gallirallus owstoni (Rothschild)), a closely related species that was extirpated from its home island, Guam, the island next to Rota.

*********************

Guam Rail

Photo: Trenton Voytko
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/trentonamora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 04.01.2023

Rhodacanthis litotes ‘O’ahu’

Oahu Koa-Finch (Rhodacanthis sp.)

The Oahu Koa Finch was apparently very closely related to the so-called Primitive Koa Finch (Rhodacanthis litotes James & Olson), described in 2005 based on subfossil remains.

The difference in aperture of the nasal cavity in the Oahu vs. Maui fossils of R. litotes suggests that those two populations might be recognized as distinct species if more fossils or genetic data were available for them.” [1]

This species has not yet been described.

*********************

References:

[1] Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson: The diversity and biogeography of koa-finches (Drepanidino: Rhodacanthis), with descriptions of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 527-541. 2005

*********************

edited: 04.01.2024

Leptachatina exilis (Gulick)

Exiled Leptachatina Snail (Leptachatina exilis)

This species was described in 1856; it was apparently restricted to the Ka’a’awa Valley near the north-eastern shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Island, where it was found “under stones in places not shaded by trees.” [1]

The shells reached heights of only about 0.6 cm; they were very thin, glassy transparent, shining, and scarcely striated.

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911’   

(public domain)

*********************   

References:   

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

edited: 15.01.2024

Apetasimus atratus (Scott)

Blackish Sap Beetle (Apetasimus atratus)

The Blackish Sap Beetle was described in 1908; it was found on the Haleakala region on the island of Maui in the Hawaiian Islands, but is also known to have occurred on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i too.

The species reached a length of about 0,45 to 0,56 cm; it was dark, nearly black in color with some brick red areas on the elytra that were limited to the elytra’s bases, the antennae and legs were red to dark brown in color. [1]

***

Like all members of its group, this species lived under the bark of decaying koa trees (Acacia koa A. Gray), a habitat that now has been overtaken by introduced terrestrial isopods, leading to the extinction of this, and many other endemic invertebrate species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Curtis Ewing: Revision of the endemic Hawaiian sap beetle genus Apetasimus Sharp 1908 (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Zootaxa 1385: 1-30. 2006

*********************

edited: 0.2.06.2021

Amastra rubida Gulick

Glowing Red Amastra Snail (Amastra rubida)

The Glowing Red Amastra Snail was found at a place named Kahuku, probably in the northeastern part of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands, where it was found on the ground in the forest. [1]

… from the original description.: 

It is allied to Am. elliptica Gk., but differs in being more elongate in form, thicker iin structure, and for the most part destitute of epidermis. It is always dextral.

*********************

References:

[1] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911

*********************

Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 21: Achatinellidae (Amastrinae). 1911′

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 06.10.2020