Tag Archives: Brazil

Bombus rubriventris Lepeletier

Red-bellied Bumblebee (Bombus rubriventris)

The Red-bellied Bumblebee is known so far only from the holotype, which is a queen; it was allegedly collected in Brazil, apparently in the early 19th century, an exact locality, however, is not known but it is suspected that it might have come the Atlantic Forest.

The holotype is generally black with and shows a mainly reddish abdomen.

The bumblebee fauna of Brazil appears to be relatively well-known, but this species has never been recorded and thus is very likely extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Paul H. Williams: Bombus rubriventris: type locality, different histories of bumblebees in the New World, and a likely invertebrate extinction. Journal of Natural History 49(19-20): 1159-1171. 2015

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edited: 25.04.2022

Vegrandinia trindadensis (Breure & Coelho)

Trindade Vegrandinia Snail (Vegrandinia trindadensis)

This species was described in 1976; it is, or rather was, restricted to the Ilha da Trindade, a volcanic island in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1150km offshore the east coast of Brazil.

Apparently, the species is known exclusively from empty shells, which differ greatly in their size depending on their collection date, foreshadowing the reasons for their final extinction.:

Curiously, the shell length of the adult specimens analysed by Breure and Coelho (1976) averaged from 8 to 9 mm (which was an overestimation, our measures of the same specimens average 7 mm), while the ones collected by the MD-55 and later expeditions average 4.8 mm; the shell morphology, though, is the same. It is suspected that this reduction in size reflects inappropriate environmental conditions due to the Island’s much degraded environment.

The native flora of the island is now largely destroyed due to introduced goats, this again led to the extinction of all native (and non-native, except for two spp.) land snail species! [1][2]

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References:

[1] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone: Taxonomic revision of the orthalicid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) from Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of Natural History 47(13-14): 949-961. 2013
[2] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Nílber G. Silva; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone; Ruy J. V. Alves: Rediscovery of living land snails on Trindade Island, Brazil. American Malacological Bulletin 32(1): 140-142. 2014

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Photo: Rodrigo Salvador

(under creative commons license (3.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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edited: 02.05.2022

Neochen pugil (Winge)

Minas Gerais Goose (Neochen pugil)

This species was described in 1888 based on fossil bones that were found in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The remains were dated to Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene; thus, the species is briefly mentioned here. [1]

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References:

[1] O. Winge: Fugle fra Knoglehuler i Brasilien. E Museo Lundii 1(2): 1-54. 1888

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edited: 17.02.2020

Crax sp. ‘Mituporanga’

Mituporanga (Crax sp.)

The Mituporanga is known only from a very old painting (see below), drawn by Eckhout Hoflössnitz sometimes between 1653 and 1659, which in fact might just depict a Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata Spix) or indeed a completely distinct species that is now lost. This painting is included in a book that depicts some birds from the former Dutch colony of Dutch Brazil, an area that today is covered mainly by the federative units of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe. [1]

Ornithologists have not recorded a species of Crax in the Northern Mata Atlântica. Thus, the plate and other paintings from the same time, and oral testimonies from old hunters are unambiguous evidence for either the historic disappearance of a disjunct population of the similar-looking bare- faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) or an undescribed species.” [2]

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References:

[1] Dante Martins Teixeira: Os quadros de aves tropicais do Castelo de Hoflössnitz na Saxônia e Albert Eckhout (ca. 1610–1666), artista do Brasil Holandês. Revista do Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros 49: 67-90. 2009
[2] Alexander C. Lees; Stuart L. Pimm: Species, extinct before we knew them? Current Biology 25(5): 177-180. 2015

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Depiction by Eckhout Hoflössnitz, between 1653 and 1659

(public domain)

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edited: 25.04.2021

Dicolpomys fossor Winge

Digging Spiny Rat (Dicolpomys fossor)

This species was described in 1887 on the basis of fossils that were found in Pleistocene deposits in Brazil; additional material was later also found in deposits that could be dated to the Early Holocene.

The same species, however, was recently recorded based on subfossil remains from the Late Holocene of Argentinia, thus it appears to have survived there and was then extirpated by humans, maybe even after the arrival of the first European settlers in the 15th century. [1]

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References:

[1] Diego H. Verzi; A. Itarí Olivares; Patricia Hadler; Juan C. Castro; Eduardo P. Tonni: Occurrence of Dicolpomys (Echimyidae) in the late Holocene of Argentinia: The most recently extinct South American caviomorph genus. Quaternary International 490: 123-131. 2018

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edited: 19.08.2022

Heteragrion beschkii Hagen in Selys

Beschki’s Heteragrion Damselfly (Heteragrion beschkii)

Beschki’s Heteragrion Damselfly was described in 1862; it was apparently restricted to what today is the city of Nova Friburgo in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The species might have been a specialist of the Atlantic Forest, a habitat that today is nearly completely destroyed.

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edited: 02.05.2022

Hyalella imbya Rodrigues & Bueno

Mbya-Guarani Amphipod (Hyalella imbya)

This species was described in 2012 based on specimens hat had been collected in 2002 on a wetland in the municipality of Roque Gonzales, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

The animals reach sizes of 0,48 to 0,5 cm in length, they have a smooth body surface and lack eyes.

The type locality has severely altered in recent years: the area has drained to a tributary stream, the riparian vegetation has been removed and the area was flooded; during the latest field searches again the same area was completely dried out and of course not a single specimen of the amphipod species could be found.

The Mbya-Guarani Amphipod is now very likely extinct, however, there is a slight chance that the species survives somewhere in the underground. [1]

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References:

[1] Stella Gomes Rodrigues; Alessandra Angélica de Pádua Bueno; Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira: The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella) from South America. ZooKeys 236: 65-80. 2021

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female

male

Photos from: `Stella Gomes Rodrigues; Alessandra Angélica de Pádua Bueno; Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira: The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella) from South America. ZooKeys 236: 65-80. 2021`

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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edited: 14.11.2021

Mecistogaster pronoti Sjöstedt

Atlantic Helicopter Damselfly (Mecistogaster pronoti)

The Atlantic Helicopter Damselfly was described in 1918, it is still known only from the type specimen, a female, that was discovered in the pristine Mata Atlântica, the Atlantic Forest somewhere in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil.

The species reaches a length of about 6 cm, its head is black except for the labium which is yellow, the prothorax is mainly black with some pale yellow markings, the thorax itself is blackish brown in front and yellowish further back, the upperside of the abdomen is blackish brown with a blue gloss, the underside is yellowish. The legs are black and yellow. [1]

***

The type locality is now completely deforested, it is long lost and so is the Atlantic Helicopter Damselfly.

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References:

[1] Yngve Sjörsted: Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen entomologischen Reise des Herrn Dr. A. Roman in Amazonas 1914-1915. Arkiv för Zoologi 2(16): 1-54. 1918

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edited: 12.01.2019

Phrynomedusa fimbriata Miranda-Ribeiro

Spiny-knee Leaf Frog (Phrynomedusa fimbriata)

The Spiny-knee Leaf Frog was described in 1923, it is known exclusively from the type specimen, a female that apparently was collected in 1898 somewhere in the Paranapiacaba District in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

This single specimen reaches a size of 4,6 cm and is now in very bad condition with completely faded colors, it is said to have been pale blue dorsally and reddish yellow on the ventral side. [1]

***

Two additional species within this genus are also known exclusively from their type series, thus, the Spiny-knee Leaf Frog might in fact not be the only extinct species in this genus. [1]

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References:

[1] Délio Baêta; Luís Olímpio Menta Giasson; José P. Pombal; Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad: Review of the rare genus Phrynomedusa Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923 (Anura: Phyllomedusidae) with description of a new species. Herpetological Monographs 30: 49-78. 2016

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edited: 30.10.2020

Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti Mazar Barnett & Buzzetti

Cryptic Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti)

The Cryptic Treehunter is an enigmatic species that is currently included in this genus following thorough morphometric analyses, however, it differs strikingly from the other two species in this genus and superficially resembles the Alagoas Foliage-Gleaner (Phylidor novaesi Teixeira & Gonzaga) with which it occurred sympatrically.

***

The Cryptic Treehunter was restricted to two localities in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco, Brazil, where it inhabited the last surviving remnants of the former rainforest.

The species reached a size of about 21 cm. 

The Cryptic Treehunter was described in 2014, just seven years after it was last seen, the species is now considered most likely extinct.

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edited: 01.09.2019

Biotocus turbinatus (Pfeiffer)

Turban Snail (Biotocus turbinatus)

This species was described in 1870, it is known from the states of Alagoas and Bahia, Brazil; it is considered extinct in the IUCN Red List without further explanation.

***

Despite the species being believed to be extinct, there actually exist specimens in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris, France that apparently were collected alive in 1998 “under humid tree trunks in Pedra Talhada“, long after the assumed extinction date. 

Yet, the species was not found during the most recent searches in 2015. [1]

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References:

[1] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Laurent Charles; Luiz R. L. Simone; Philippe Maestrati: Presumed extinct land snail Megalobulimus cardosoi found again in Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve, north-east Brasil. Tentacle 26: 13-14. 2018

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Photo from: ‘Abraham S. H. Breure; Jonathan D. Ablett: Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London. ZooKeys 182: 1-70. 2012’

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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edited: 30.10.2020

Naesiotus arnaldoi (Lanzieri & Rezende)

Arnaldo’s Naesiotus Snail (Naesiotus arnaldoi)

This species was described in 1971; it was endemic to the Ilha da Trindade offshore Brazil; it is apparently known from over 300 specimens.

The shells reach heights of about 0,95 cm.

The species disappeared sometimes during the 1970s due to the destruction of most of the native vegetation by introduced goats. [1]

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References:

[1] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone: Taxonomic revision of the orthalicid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) from Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of Natural History 47(13-14): 949-961. 2013

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edited: 02.05.2022

Bulimulus brunoi (Ihering)

Bruno’s Bulimulus Snail (Bulimulus brunoi)

Bruno’s Bulimulus Snail was described in 1917; it was endemic to the Ilha da Trindade offshore Brazil.

Only the shell of B. brunoi is known; unfortunately, no complete animal has so far been recovered.” [1]

The species disappeared due to the more or less complete destruction of the island’s native vegetation by introduced feral goats. [1]

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References:

[1] Rodrigo B. Salvador; Carlo M. Cunha; Luiz Ricardo L. Simone: Taxonomic revision of the orthalicid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) from Trindade Island, Brazil. Journal of Natural History 47(13-14): 949-961. 2013

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edited: 02.05.2022

Desmodus draculae Morgan et al.

Giant Vampire Bat (Desmodus draculae)  

The Giant Vampire Bat was described in 1988 based on bones that were recovered from deposits of a cave in the state of Monagas, northern Venezuela. Further remains were found in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Mexico.  

The exact age of these bones cannot be determined, they may be of late Pleistocene or early Holocene age, some scientists even think that this species may still exist. [1]  

***

The Giant Vampire Bat wasn’t a real giant, in fact it was only 30% larger than its next living relative, the Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy) (see photo).  

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References:  

[1] G. S. Morgan; O. J. Linares; C. E. Ray: New species of fossil vampire bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Desmodontidae) from Florida and Venezuela”. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 101(4): 912–928. 1988  

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Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy)  

Photo: Uwe Schmidt 

(under creative commons license (4.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0

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edited: 23.03.2018

Hylocharis pyropygia Salvin & Godman

Flame-rumped Sapphire (Hylocharis pyropygia)  

The enigmatic Flame-rumped Sapphire was described in 1881, it is thought to originate from Brazil, however, according to the original description it doesn’t.:

This is also one of Mr. Whitely’s recent discoveries, he having found it in company with a number of well-known Ecuador species of Humming- and other birds; so that it is reasonable to suppose it came from that country.” [1]

The Flame-rumped Sapphire might well be an now extinct species, however, it is now widely believed to be a hybrid of two other hummingbird species, the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw)) and the White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus Vieillot); I have included it here for the sake of completeness.

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References:  

[1] Osbert Salvin; F. D. Godman: On some new and little-known species of Trochilidae. The Ibis 4(5):  595-597. 1881

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Depiction from: ‘Osbert Salvin; F. D. Godman: On some new and little-known species of Trochilidae. The Ibis 4(5):  595-597. 1881’

(public domain)

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edited: 03.11.2020

Megadytes ducalis Sharp

Giant Diving Beetle (Megadytes ducalis)

The Giant Diving Beetle, described in 1882, was originally known only from a single specimen, which was collected in 1880 (?) at an unknown location in Brazil.

The species was considered extinct.

***

However, another ten specimens were discovered in 2019 in different historical museum collections, including drawers with unsorted diving beetle accessions of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France. These specimens were labeled as having been collected in what today is the municipality of Condeúba in the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil. 

The species is still officially considered extinct, but searches with the intention to rediscover the species are currently underway. [1]

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References:

[1] Lars Hendrich; Michael Manuel; Michael Balke: The return of the Duke – locality data for Megadytes ducalis Sharp, 1882, the world’s largest diving beetle, with notes on related species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Zootaxa 4586: 517-535. 2019

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edited: 29.04.2021

Wingegyps cartellei Alvarenga & Olson

Brazilian Condor (Wingegyps cartellei)

This species was described in 2004 based on fossil remains that can be dated to late Pleistocene or early Holocene age. [1]

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References:

[1] Herculano M. F. Alvarenga; Storrs L. Olson: A new genus of tiny condor from the Pleistocene of Brazil (Aves: Vulturidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117(1): 1-9. 2004

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edited: 26.04.2021

Orobrassolis latusoris Penz & Simonsen

Parana Owl Butterfly (Orobrassolis latusoris)  

This species was described in 2011, it is known only from two males that had been collected in 1919 in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and which are now deposited in the Natural History Museum, London.  

The Parana Owl Butterfly reaches a wingspan of 7 cm, it is quite similar to the Ornamented Owl Butterfly (Orobrassolis ornamentalis (Stichel)) (see photo) which again is the only other species in the genus. It differs by the more robust, darker brown dorsal bands on its hindwings, and by subtle differences in male genitalic structures.  

The female is unknown. [1]  

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References:  

[1] C. M. Penz; T. J. Simonsen; P. J. Devries: A new Orobrassolis butterfly (Nymphalidae, Brassolini): a casualty of habitat destruction? Zootaxa 2740: 35–43. 2011  

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Ornamented Owl Butterfly (Orobrassolis ornamentalis)

Photo from: ‘Carla Maria Penz; Neda Mohammadi: Wing pattern diversity in Brassolini butterflies (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Biota Neotropica 13(3): 154-180. 2013’  

(under creative commons license (3.0)) 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/deed.en

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edited: 02.09.2019

Calyptura cristata (Vieillot)

Kinglet Calyptura (Calyptura cristata)

The Kinglet Calyptura was described in 1818, it was originally thought to have been a member of the cotinga family (Cotingidae) but is now assigned to the tyrant flycatcher family (Tyrannidae).

The species was endemic to the Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil, a region that now is almost completely deforested.

***

The Kinglet Calyptura was thought to have gone extinct since its description but was rediscovered during the 1970s.

The species was last seen in October 1996 in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park in the state of Rio de Janeiro, it may just be surviving undiscovered because of its very small size but it more likely is now completely extinct.

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Depiction from: ‘ Jean-Emmanuel-Marie Le Maout; Louis Couailhac; Pierre Bernard: Le Jardin des Plantes 1842-76’

(public domain)

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edited: 30.10.2020

Holoaden bradei Lutz

Itatiaia Highland Frog (Holoaden bradei)

The Itatiaia Highland Frog, described in 1958, has always been restricted to a small area on the Itatiaia Mountains in southeastern Brazil.

The species reaches a length of about 3,7 cm; it is generally olive-brown with a lighter-colored belly, it has short limbs and yellowish fingertips.

Only very little is known about this species’ biology, however, it is known that it lays its eggs under mulch and decaying plant material; the offspring bypasses the larval stage and hatches as complete miniature frogs.

The Itatiaia Highland Frog is thought to be very likely extinct (not extinct in the wild as Wikipedia states).

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edited: 17.05.2022

Noronhomys vespuccii Carleton & Olson

Fernando de Noronha Rat (Noronhomys vespuccii

When Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian merchant, explorer, and navigator that lived from 1451 to 1512 and

from whose name the term “America” is derived, set foot on the island of Fernando de Noronha in 1503, he reported of: “marine and land birds without number” and also “very large rats.” [1]

This rat species had not been properly identified until subfossil remains were found abundantly in the 1970s.:

The most frequently encountered fossils were those of a large rodent of the family Cricetidae, very different from the recent remains of the introduced rats (Rattus), which were also encountered on the dunes. This cricetid is almost certainly the rat mentioned by Vespucci. It is a new species, and possibly a new genus in the subfamily Sigmodontinae.” [1]

The species was finally described in 1999; it very likely died out very soon after the discovery of the island accompanied by the accidental introduction of rats. [2]

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References:

[1] S. L. Olson: Natural history of vertebrates on the Brazilian islands of the mid South Atlantic. National Geographic Society Research Reports 13: 481-492. 1981
[2] Michael D. Carleton; Storrs L. Olson: Amerigo Vespucci and the rat of Fernando de Noronha: a new genus and species of Rodentia (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from a volcanic island off Brazil’s continental shelf. American Museum Novitates 3256: 1-59. 1999

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edited: 03.05.2022

Digerus gibberulus (Burrow)

Humpback Snail (Digerus gibberulus)

This species, described in 1815, is endemic to Brazil; it is now considered extinct, however, the reasons for this assumption appear to be unknown.

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Depiction from: ‘ Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a.o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 14: Oriental Bulimoid Helicidae. Odontostominae. Cerionidae. 1901-1902’  

(public domain)

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edited: 30.10.2020

Catonyx cuvieri Lund

Cuvier’s Ground Sloth (Catonyx cuvieri)

This species was described in 1839 on the basis of fossil remains that were dated to an Late Pleistocene age.

The species survived into the early Holocene era.

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References:

[1] Andrea Corona; Daniel Perea; H. Gregory McDonald: Catonyx cuvieri (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae, Scelidotheriinae) from the late Pleistocene of Uruguay, with comments regarding the systematics of the subfamily. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33(5): 1214-1225. 2013

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edited: 13.08.2022

Chrysophyllum januariense Eichler

Laranjeiras Star Apple (Chrysophyllum januariense)

This species was described in 1870, it was endemic to its type locality, the Laranjeiras Rainforest, a part of the coastal rainforests along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The species has never been found since and is probably extinct.

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edited: 14.08.2022

Fluminagrion taxaense (Santos)

Rio de Janeiro Damselfly (Fluminagrion taxaense)  

The Rio de Janeiro Damselfly is known only from its type locality, which is now obviously a part of a urban park within the city of Rio de Janeiro in the same-named state of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.  

The species was described in 1965, since then, however, it was never recorded again and is considered most probably extinct.  

***

The species was formerly doubtfully assigned to the genus Acanthagrion but is now placed in its own genus. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Danielle Anjos-Santos; Federico Lozano; Jnira Martins Costa: Fluminagrion gen. nov. for Acanthagrion taxaense Santos, 1965, from Brazil (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). International Journal of Odonatology 16(2): 145-155. 2013  

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edited: 13.01.2019

Monodelphis unistriata (Wagner)

One-striped Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis unistriata)

This species was originally described in 1842; it is still known only from two specimens, one from Argentina and one from Brazil.

The One-striped Short-tailed Opossum reached a length of about 20 cm (including the tail).

Nothing is known about its biology and it is thought to be possibly extinct.

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References:

[1] Ronald H. Pine; David A. Flores; Kurt Bauer: The second specimen of Monodelphis unistriata (Wagner) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia), with redescription of the species and phylogenetic analysis. Zootaxa 3640(3): 425-441. 2013

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Photo from: ‘Ronald H. Pine; David A. Flores; Kurt Bauer: The second specimen of Monodelphis unistriata (Wagner) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia), with redescription of the species and phylogenetic analysis. Zootaxa 3640(3): 425-441. 2013’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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edited: 08.05.2022

Myrmotherula fluminensis Gonzaga

Rio de Janeiro Antwren (Myrmotherula fluminensis)  

This enigmatic species of bird was described in 1988 on the basis of a single individual, which was caught during ornithological field studies in an isolated and intensely disturbed woodlot in the Magé District in the center of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro.  

The species may possibly exist in the nearby Guapi Açu Ecological Reserve, since in the 1990s some birds were seen here, that could turn out to be of this species – these sightings, however, remain unconfirmed.  Since the region is now lacking most intact wooded areas, the survival of this species is questionable.  

***

The Rio de Janeiro Antwren may in fact not even be a distinct species but may be a local variant of the Silvery-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula (axillaris ssp.) luctuosa Pelzeln) or a hybrid of this and the Unicolored Antwren (Myrmotherula unicolor (Ménétriés)) (see photo).

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Unicolored Antwren (Myrmotherula unicolor)

Photo: Dario Sanches

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

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edited: 31.08.2019

Vriesea rectifolia Rauh

Erect-leaved Vriesea (Vriesea rectifolia)

The Erect-leaved Vriesia was described in 1984, it was found near the town of Correntes in the state of Pernambuco, eastern Brazil.

The species morphologically resembles Lubbers’ Vriesea (Vriesea lubbersii (Baker) E. Morren) from  southeastern Brazil but differs from that species by its inflorescence with flowering branches and other characters. 

The species was never found again in its type locality but was kept in a botanical garden for a while, where it flowered and died without leaving descendants.

Thus, the Erect-leaved Vriesea is now considered extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] Janaína Gomes-da-Silva; Andrea Ferreira da Costa: A taxonomic revision of Vriesia corcovadensis Group (Bromeliaceae: Tillandsioideae) with description of two new species. Systematic botany 36(2): 291-309. 2011

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edited: 03.12.2018

Notholebias cruzi (W. J. E. M. Costa)

Cruz’s Pearlfish (Notholebias cruzi)  

This species was described in 1988, it was restricted to the coastal plains near Rio São João, Rio de Janeiro in southeast Brazil.  

Cruz’s Pearlfish reached a length of only about 3 to 4 cm.  

***

The genus Notholebias contains at least four species, one of which is already extinct, the remaining three are close to extinction.  

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References:  

[1] Wilson J. E. M. Costa; Pedro F. Amorim: Delimitation of cryptic species of Notholebias, a genus of seasonal miniature killifishes threatened with extinction from the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 24(1): 63-72. 2013  

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edited: 31.10.2017