Category Archives: Insecta

Philodoria spilota (Walsingham)

Haleakala Philodora Moth (Philodoria spilota)

This species was described 1907; it is known only from the forested slopes at elevations of about 1530 m above sea level of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 cm; the head and the thorax are brownish fuscous, the abdomen is fuscous; the forewings are bronze fuscous with silvery white spots, the hindwings are brownish fuscous.

The biology and the host plant of this species remain completely unknown.

The unique holotype is a faded, damaged female and not a male as Walsingham stated in his original description. Walsingham said that the type was “injured when being described”. It is badly broken – the hindwings and abdomen are glued to the fore part of the body; the head is badly abraded and glued to the thorax; the left antenna is missing.” [1]

***

syn. Elachista spilota Walsingham

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Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Pararrhaptica chlorippa (Meyrick)

Green Kolea Leafroller (Pararrhaptica chlorippa)

This species was described in 1928; it is only known from the slopes of the Pu’u Ohia (Mt. Olympus) on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae are known to feed on the Hawaiian endemic kōlea lau nui (Myrsine lessertiana A. DC.).

The species was last recorded in 1911 and is now believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscoveries and presumed extinctions of Hawaiian leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 55: 11-27. 2023

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edited: 03.12.2023

Thyrocopa sapindiella Swezey

Aulu Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa sapindiella)

This species was described in 1913; it is known exclusively from specimens that were found in the Niu Valley near the southeastern coast of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1.8 cm; the head is whitish brown; the thorax and the abdomen are very light whitish brown; the forewings are mainly very light whitish brown with a few brown scales scattered throughout and a very small, faint brownish spot in the cell; the hindwings are very light whitish brown.

The caterpillars are thought to feed on the leaves of the Hawaiian endemic ko’oloa (Abutilon spp.) and āulu (Sapindus spp.).:

The caterpillars were quite numerous on some trees. The small ones feed on the under surface of the leavs [sic], each producing a web covered with frass under which it feeds, eating off the surface of the leaf. The larger ones hide in rolled-together leaves, often several leaves in a bunch fastened together and there may be two or more caterpillars, each in a silken tunnel.

Pupa 9 mm. … The pupa is formed within the spun-together leaves where the caterpillar fed.
” [1]

***

This species is now possibly extinct.

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References: 

[1] O. H. Swezey: One new genus and eighteen new species of Hawaiian moths. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 269-280. 1908-1913
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009 

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edited: 18.02.2024

Cirrospilus nireus Walker

Saint Helena Eulophid Wasp (Cirrospilus nireus)

This species was described in 1839, it is apparently known only from material that was collected on the island of Saint Helena but was never recorded since. 

It is, however, “a doubtful species, as Francis Walker is well known for re-naming species that had previously been described.” [1]

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References:

[1] James K. Wetterer; Xavier Espadaler; N. Philip Ashmole; Howard Mendel; Chris Cutler; Judith Endeman: Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37. 2007

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edited: 29.05.2021

Heligmonevra insularis Engel

Seychelles Robber Fly (Heligmonevra insularis)

The Seychelles Robber Fly was described in 1927.

The species was endemic to the forested areas of the Seychelles Islands, where it actively hunted for other insects, especially for other fly species.

The species disappeared due to changes in its habitat due to large-scaled deforestation.

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References:

[1] Justin Gerlach: Red Listing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phesluma 20: 9-22. 2012

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edited: 25.04.2022

Carposina sp. ‘new species 3’

Oahu Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

This species is basically known only from an account made in 1913 by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey.:

The larvae mine the leaves of Rollandia racemosa [Cyanea humboldtiana (Gaudich.) Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma]. They feed largely in the midrib, following it outwardly, but eat lateral tunnels out into the mesophyll on both sides as they proceed. Usually there is but one larva in a leaf. I have found this in but one locality so far, on Mt. Olympus, Oahu. The leaves of the shrub were very commonly attacked by it. The leaves are quite large and are not entirely killed by the injury, but many may be seen with the injured portion decayed away leaving an irregular hole or space in mid-portion of leaf. The full-grown larva emerges and passes below to pupate in a slight cocoon amongst dead leaves or trash.” [1]

There appears to have also existed at least one specimen, but it seems to have been lost; because no leaf-mining species of that genus is found today in the type locality or on O’ahu, to be precise, this species is considered extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

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edited: 21.01.2022

Xyleborus exsectus Perkins

Cut-off Bark Beetle (Xyleborus exsectus)

The Cut-off Bark beetle was described in 1900; it is known only from some male specimens that were collected on the slopes of the Haleakalā volcano on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is only known from the type series that was collected in 1894 and 1896 respectively, it is possibly extinct.
***

However, it is possible that this taxon is not valid at all and in fact is identical with the Molokai Bark Beetle (Xyleborus molokaiensis Perkins) which is more widespread and of which only female specimens ae known. [1]

Otherwise, there is also the possibility that it might be rediscovered as it has happened with at least two other congeneric species. [2][3]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981
[2] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of an Enigmatic Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The Coleopterists Bulletin 72(4): 811-815. 2018
[3] Conrad P. D. T. Gillett; David Honsberger; Daniel Rubinoff: Rediscovery of the Hawaiian endemic bark beetle Xyleborus pleiades Samuleson, 1981 on Moloka‘i, with records of three new exotic bark beetles for the island (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini). Journal of Natural History 53(23-24): 1481-1490. 2020

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edited: 16.02.2024

Megalomma sp. ‘Rodrigues 1’

Rodrigues Tiger Beetle (Megalomma sp.)

This species is known from subfossil material (at least one prothorax), which shows that the species apparently was shiny coppery-colored in life.

***

The genus Megalomma contains at least six recent species, all endemic to the Mascarene Islands.

***

The photo below shows a closely related species from the nearby island of Mauritius, the Shining Megalomma Tiger Beetle (Megalomma fulgens (W. Horn))

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Shining Megalomma Tiger Beetle (Megalomma fulgens)

Photo: CORDENOS Thierry
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/thierrycordenos
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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edited: 06.02.2024

Xyleborus littoralis Perkins

Littoral Bark Beetle (Xyleborus littoralis)

The Littoral Bark Beetle was described in 1900; it is only known from areas at sea level on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was last seen in 189, when the type material was collected, it is possibly extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: A synopsis of Hawaiian Xyleborini. Pacific Insects 23(1-2): 50-92. 1981

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edited: 16.02.2024

Mellissius popei Endrödi

Pope’s Scarab Beetle (Mellissius popei)

This species was described in 1972, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species reaches a length of about 1,7 to 1,8 cm; it is mainly brown colored and differs from its close relative, the Eudoxus Scarab Beetle (Mellissius eudoxus Wollaston) in some characters including a less arched pronotum. [1]

The species was apparently not found during the most recent field searches and is probably extinct.

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References:

[1] S. Endrödi: Monographie der Dynastinae (Col. Lamellicornia, Melolonthidae) 4. Tribus: Pentodontini der äthiopischen Region, III. In: Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Frey Tutzing bei München 27: 118-282. 1976

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edited: 26.05.2021

Leuctra laura Hitchcock

Hampshire Needlefly (Leuctra laura)

The Hampshire Needlefly was described in 1969; it is known only from two specimens, a male and a female, that were collected on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, USA.

The species might be extinct; however, its taxonomic validity is questioned.

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edited: 17.02.2024

Amarygmus funebris Arrow

Dark Darkling Beetle (Amarygmus funebris)

The Dark Darkling Beetle was described in 1900 based on nine specimens that had been collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a length of about 0,9 cm; “the colour is black, tinged with a deep purplish or greenish hue, especially upon the head, thorax, and anterior part of the elytra. Some specimens present a slightly sericeous bloom upon the upper surface. Underneath it is a shining black, with the abdominal segment striated longitudinally.” [1]

The Dark Darkling Beetle was not found since the 1930s and is considered very likely extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 27.04.2022

Camponotus fabricator (F. Smith)

Saint Helena Carpenter Ant (Camponotus fabricator)

The Saint Helena Carpenter Ant was described in 1858 on the basis of at least a single worker (?), which was supposedly collected at an unknown date somewhere on the island of Saint Helena.

The species was repeatedly reclassified as a subspecies of other, African or European, species but was finally accepted as being valid in 1914. [1]

***

There are no recent records of this form, and it is believed to be extinct; however, it might in fact not even be native to Saint Helena but might have been an introduced form brought to the island with imported goods. [1]

***

syn. Formica fabricator F. Smith

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References:

[1] James K. Wetterer; Xavier Espadaler; N. Philip Ashmole; Howard Mendel; Chris Cutler; Judith Endeman: Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the South Atlantic islands of Ascension Island, St Helena, and Tristan da Cunha. Myrmecological News 10: 29-37. 2007

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edited: 29.05.2021

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Nuku Hiva’

Nuku Hiva Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This interesting taxon is known only on the basis of two subfossil remains that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. [1]

Within the Polynesian region, this genus now very likely contains more species known only from subfossil remains than living ones.

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References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

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edited: 20.02.2024

Carposina sp. ‘new species 6’

Maui Leaf-mining Carposina Moth (Carposina sp.)  

We know of the former existence of this taxon only by an account made by the entomologist Otto Herman Swezey in 1954, mentioned later by Elwood C. Zimmerman.:

Carposina new species 6.
“Heterocrossa sp., near bicincta” Swezey, 1954: 116

Endemic. Maui (Haelaau)
Hostplant: Clermontia kakeana and arborescens. The larvae mine the leaves.
” [1]

The specimen or specimens that were reared from the caterpillars collected from its host plants are now apparently lost; the species was never recorded again and is thus considered extinct. 

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Camiel Doorenweerd; Kyhl A. Austin; Daniel Rubinoff: First confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moths (Carposinidae): A new species feeding on an endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 53: 11-19. 2021

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edited: 21.01.2022

Miocalles sp. ‘Nuku Hiva1’

Nukuhiva Miocalles Weevil (Miocalles sp.)

The genus is occurring in French Polynesia with more than 100 species, all of which are endemic to a single island; however, only three of them are found on the Marquesan Islands. This number must once have been larger as being indicated by subfossil findings.

This taxon is one of two that are known from subfossil remains (two in that case) that were recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. [1]

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References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

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edited: 20.02.2024

Laemophloeidae gen. & sp. ‘Nuku Hiva 1’

Nuku Hiva Lined Flat Bark Beetle (Laemophloeidae gen. & sp.)

This taxon is known from subfossil material that was recovered from an archeological site in the Ho’oumi Valley on the island of Nuku Hiva, Marquesas.

Today, no indigenous member of this family is known to inhabit the Marquesas; however, two genera with one species each are known to be indigenous to the Society Islands which represents the geographically closest region in French Polynesia.

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left elytron

Photo from: ‘Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224’

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

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References:  

[1] Melinda S. Allen; Tara Lewis; Nick Porch: Lost bioscapes: Floristic and arthropod diversity coincident with 12th century Polynesian settlement, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0265224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0265224

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edited: 27.01.2024

Tarphiophasis wollastoni Ardoin

Wollaston’s Darkling Beetle (Tarphiophasis wollastoni)

Wollaston’s Darkling Beetle was described in 1972, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species was apparently not found during recent field searches and might be extinct, I could, however, not find any further information about this species so far.

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edited: 29.05.2021

Bitoma sp. ‘Rimatara’

Rimataran Bark Beetle (Bitoma sp.)

This up to now undescribed form is known only from subfossil remains, including at least one pronotum and one elytron, that were found on the island of Rimatara in the Austral Islands.

The species had a dark ochre ground color, the elytra were decorated with a pattern of very dark brown square-shaped spots that melted into a complete brown-colored outer margin.

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edited: 02.11.2020

Patellapis binghami (Kirby)

Bingham’s Sweat Bee (Patellapis binghami)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The bee reached a length of about 5.5 cm and a wingspan of about 1.1 cm; the head and the thorax are glossy black, sometimes with a very faint greenish tint, very finely punctured; the abdomen is shining black; the wings are iridescent hyaline with an yellowish-brown neuration. [1]

Bingham’s Sweat Bee was last recorded in 1968; it was never found despite considerable dedicated efforts. [2]

***

syn. Halictus binghami Kirby

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Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 13.02.2024

Choreutis ornaticornis (Walsingham)

(Choreutis ornaticornis)

This species was described in 1900 based on ten specimens; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The head is brownish ochreous, mixed with pale cinerous; the thorax is brownish ochreous, becoming dark brownish grey posteriorly; the abdomen is bronzy brownish; the forewings are olivaceous brownish, with two narrow transverse bands of pale cinereous speckling between the base and the middle; the hind wings are dark bronzy brownish, with some faint pale curved streaks running through them before the margin, the underside with two speckled pale cinereous bands.

The species was never found since and is most likely extinct.

***

syn. Simaethis ornaticornis Walsingham

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 05.01.2024

Trechus torretassoi Jeannel

Torretasso’s Ground Beetle (Trechus torretassoi)

Torretasso’s Ground Beetle was described in 1937, the species was endemic to the island of São Miguel in the Azores, where it obviously inhabited the margins of two large lakes.

The species reached a size of about 0,3 cm in length and was dark colored. [1]

Torretasso’s Ground Beetle was last seen in 1985, it was never found again since, despite several collecting efforts. [2]

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References:

[1] P. A. V. Borges; A. R. M. Serrano; I. R. Amorim: New species of cave-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae) from the Azores. Journal of Natural History 38: 1303-1313. 2004
[2] Paulo A. V. Borges; Pedro Oromí; Artur R. M. Serrano; Isabel R. Amorim; Fernando Pereira: Biodiversity patterns of cavernicolous ground-beetles and their conservation status in the Azores, with the description of a new species: Trechus isabelae n. sp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae). Zootaxa 1478: 21-31. 2007

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edited: 07.09.2020

Argynnis nokomis ssp. wenona Dos Passos & Grey

Wenona Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis ssp. wenona)

The Wenona Fritillary was described in 1945 as a subspecies of the Nokomis Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis (W. H. Edwards)); it was restricted to Nuevo Leon, northeastern Mexico

The form was last recorded sometimes during the 1970s and is now considered most likely extinct. [1]

***

The photo below shows another subspecies of that species, the Bluish Nokomis Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis ssp. coerulescens W. Holland), which occurs in parts of Mexico as well as in the southern USA.

***

syn. Speyeria nokomis ssp. wenona Dos Passos & Grey

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Bluish Nokomis Fritillary (Argynnis nokomis ssp. coerulescens)

Photo: Javier Cruz Nieto
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/lorospericos
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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References:

[1] Gerald Selby: Great Basin Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria nokomis nokomis [W. H. Edwards]): a technical conservation assessment. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region 2007

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edited: 13.09.2019

Lobogestoria sp. ‘Samoa’

Samoan Lobogestoria Beetle (Lobogestoria sp.)

This unnamed species is known so far only from subfossil remains recovered by Nick Porch from samplings from the Samoan Islands.

***

I do not know if this species is indeed extinct, but given the rather bad condition of the lowland areas of the larger Samoan Islands, it quite possibly is.

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edited: 22.04.2019

Homoeodera edithia Wollaston

Edith’s Fungus Beetle (Homoeodera edithia)

Edith’s Fungus Beetle was described in 1877, the author named it in honour of his wife.: 

The only example of this most remarkable Homoeodera which I have yet seen was captured by Mrs. Wollaston (after whom I have named the species) in the rotten trunk of a dead Buddleia madagascariensis, Vahl, immediately below Actaeon and Diana’s-Peak ridge, close to a spot called Newfoundland. It is evidently one of the rarest of the St.-Helena Coleoptera; for, in spite of constant researches at the very same tree, we were quite unable to procure a second specimen.” [1]

***

The species was commonly found during field surveys in 1965/66 but could not be traced in 2005/06, it may already be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877 
[2] Howard Mendel; Philip Ashmole; Myrtle Ashmole: Invertebrates of the Central Peaks and Peak Dale, St. Helena. Report for the St Helena National Trust, Jamestown 2008

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edited: 02.12.2018

Melanoplus ligneolus Scudder

Firewood Spur-throated Grasshopper (Melanoplus ligneolus)

The Firewood Spur-throated Grasshopper was described in 1899 based on specimens that had been collected near the cities of Benicia and Berkely in Solano – and Alameda County of California / USA respectively.

The males reached sizes of about 1,7 cm long, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were yellowish light-brown colored.

The species is considered possibly extinct without any reasons for this assumption being mentioned.

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Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899′

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edited: 31.08.2019

Proterhinus sp. ‘Mo’orea’

Moorean Proterhinus Weevil (Proterhinus sp.)

This species, which has not yet been described, is known from subfossil remains (at least one pronotum) that were collected on the island of Mo’orea, Society Islands.

***

The genus Proterhinus occurs on some of the islands in the tropical Pacific, with a strinking radiation of more than 130 species inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands alone.

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References:

[1] Jennifer G. Kahn, Cordelia Nickelsen, Janelle Stevenson, Nick Porch, Emilie Dotte-Sarout, Carl C. Christensen, Lauren May, J. Stephen Athens, Patrick V. Kirch: Mid- to late Holocene landscape change and anthropogenic transformations on Mo’orea, Society Islands: A multi-proxy approach. The Holocene 25(2): 1-15. 2014

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edited: 31.10.2020

Parnassius apollo ssp. ancile Fruhstorfer

Fichtel Mountain (Parnassius apollo ssp. ancile)

This form was described in 1909, apparently already after its extinction; it was restricted to a small region around the city of Bad Berneck in the Franconian part of the Fichtel Mountains.

The reasons for its disappearance are very well known.:

P. apollo ancile Fruhst, von Berneck im Fichtelgebirge hat leider dasselbe tragische Schicksal wie P. apollo posthumus erreicht. An der einzigen Stelle des Fichtelgebirges, wo ancile vorkam, wurde er nach freundl. brieflichen Mitteilungen des Herrn Lehrers Poehlmann in Röhrenhof, Oberfranken, durch „brutales Wegfangen seitens der Sommerfrischler, noch mehr aber durch die Dummheit einer Gärtnersfrau, völlig ausgerottet. Letztere ließ die ancile durch Kinder einfangen, um die apollo den abreisenden Kurgästen auf das übliche Blumenbuket (noch dazu häufig lebend!) zu stecken. 1909 wurde das letzte Stück beobachtet. Ein bezirksamtliches Fangverbot kam zu spät, es gab nichts mehr zu schützen.” [1]

translation:

P. apollo ancile Fruhst, from Berneck in the Fichtel mountains unfortunately met the same tragic fate as P. apollo posthumus. In the only place in the Fichtel Mountains where ancile occurred, it was found, according to a friendly written message by the teacher Poehlmann in Hülsenhof, Upper Franconia, completely eradicated by “brutal capture by the summer visitors, but even more so by the stupidity of a gardener’s wife. The latter had the ancile captured by children in order to pin the apollo on the usual bouquet of flowers (and often alive!) for the departing spa guests. The last specimen was observed in 1909. A district official catching ban came too late; there was nothing left to protect.”

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unspecified subspecies

Depiction from: ‘Jacob Hübner: Das kleine Schmetterlingsbuch: Die Tagfalter, Insel-Bücherei Nr. 213. 1934’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] H. Fruhstorfer: Neue und seltene Parnassius-Rassen. Entomologischer Anzeiger 3(11): 131-133. 1923

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edited: 10.01.2024

Philodoria pipturicola Swezey

Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria pipturicola)

The Mamaki-mining Philodoria Moth was described in 1915; it is known only from the region around Punalu’u near the northeast shore of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species has a wingspan of about 0,6 to 0,7 cm; the head is grayish fuscous, the thorax is slate gray fuscous colored, the abdomen is dark fuscous; the forewings are fuscous suffused with orange patches and some white bands, the hindwings are dark fuscous.

This is one of the species that was reared from mines, thus its host plant is established as the endemic māmaki (Pipturus sp.); the mine is a serpentine at the beginning and later becomes a blotch, the larva emerges from the mine to spin a light brown cocoon on some matching surface.

***

The species was also recorded from Maui, these records however, were misidentifications with another species, the Haelaau Philodoria Moth (Philodoria haelaauensis Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara). [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Trechus satanicus Barr

Satanic Ground Beetle (Trechus satanicus)

The Satanic Ground Beetle was described in 1962, it was apparently restricted to a place named Graveyard Fields in Haywood County, North Carolina, USA.

The beetle reached a size of about 0,36 cm in length.

The species is considered likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Tenebroides rimatara Kolibáč & Porch

Rimatara Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides rimatara)

This species was described in 2020 on the basis of subfossil remains, ncluding an articulated head and prothorax as well as at least three elytra, that were recovered from sediment cores that had been obtained on the island of Rimatara in the Austral Islands.

The remains can be dates to an age of about 4500 to 3500 BP.. 

the Rimatara Bark-gnawing Beetle reached a size of about 0,48 cm in length, it appears to have been dark brown in color. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Antilissus sp. ‘Mo’orea’

Moorea Bark Beetle (Antilissus sp.)

This taxon, which has not yet been formally described, is known from subfossil remains (at least one pronotum) found on the island of Mo’orea, Society Islands. [1]


The genus is today known only from the Hawaiian Islands and does only contain a single surviving species. 

*********************

References:

[1] Jennifer G. Kahn, Cordelia Nickelsen, Janelle Stevenson, Nick Porch, Emilie Dotte-Sarout, Carl C. Christensen, Lauren May, J. Stephen Athens, Patrick V. Kirch: Mid- to late Holocene landscape change and anthropogenic transformations on Mo‘orea, Society Islands: A multi-proxy approach. The Holocene 1-15. 2014

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edited: 24.10.2020

Blackburnia sharpi (Blackburn)

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia sharpi)

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1878, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was apparently restricted to the endemic koa forests that in former times covered large areas but are now almost completely lost due to logging as well as compacting of the soil due to trampling by invasive cattle. [1]

Sharp’s Blackburnia Ground Beetle was not found during recent surveys and is most likely already extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] James K. Liebherr: The mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation. Zookeys 544: 1-407. 2015

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edited: 02.09.2019

Trechus mitchellensis Barr

Mitchell’s Ground Beetle (Trechus mitchellensis)

Mitchell’s Ground Beetle was described in 1962, this species is known from at least three localities in the Black Mountains in Yancey County in North Carolina, USA.

The species reached a size of 0,36 to 0,42 cm in length. [1]

The species is considered likely extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Thomas C. Barr Jr.: Revision of Appalachian Trechus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Brimleyana 2: 29-75. 1979

*********************

edited: 07.09.2020

Helenomelas basilewskyi Ardoin

Basilewsky’s Darkling Beetle (Helenomelas basilewskyi)

This species is/was endmic to the island of Saint Helena in the southern Atlantic Ocean, where it was apparently restricted to the Prosperous Bay Plain at the eastern coast of the island.

The quite large species reaches a length of about 1,5 cm and is shiny black colored, it superficially resembles scarabeid beetles (Scarabeidae).

Basilewsky’s Darkling Beetle was not found during recent searches in 2003 and is feared to be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Philip Ashmole; Myrtle Ashmole: Guide to Invertebrates of Prosperous Bay Plain, St Helena and illustrated account of species found on the Eastern Arid Area (EAA), including Prosperous Bay Plain, Holdfast Tom and Horse Point Plain. Report for St Helena Government 2004

*********************

edited: 02.12.2018

Bitoma sp. ‘Tubuai’

Tubuaian Bark Beetle (Bitoma sp.)

 

This form has up to now not been described, it is known only from subfossil remains, including at least one pronotum and one elytron.

The pronotum was dark reddish brown colored while the elytra had a very light, almost whitish ground color and were decorated with about seven, square-shaped, dark brown spots that formed a bark-like pattern.

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Batocnema coquereli ssp. aldabrensis Aurivillius

Aldabra Sphinx Moth (Batocnema coquereli ssp. aldabrensis)

Coquerel’s Sphinx Moth is divided into five subspecies of which two are confined to Madagascar while the other three occur on the island groups to the north of Madagascar.

The Aldabra atoll was inhabited by an endemic form, the Aldabra Sphinx Moth, which was described in 1909 and which is said to have been quite similar to the nominate form (see photo).

This form is now considered extinct, the reasons appear not to be known.

*********************

nominate race

Photo: alcedo77
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/alcedo77
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

References:

[1] Pat Matyot: The hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Seychelles: identification, historical background, distribution, food plants and ecological considerations. Phelsuma 13. 55-80. 2005
[2] Justin Gerlach: Red Listing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phelsuma 20: 9-22. 2012

*********************

edited: 04.01.2023

Staphylinidae gen. & sp. ‘Austral Islands’

Austral islands Rove Beetle(s) (Staphylinidae gen. & sp.)

The rove beetles (Staphylinidae) contain about 63000 species, making it one of the largest families in the animal kingdom, several new species are being described every year.

So, it is no wonder that this family also contains countless extinct forms – at least 18 are known from subfossil remains found on the Austral Islands so far.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Acanthomerus asperatus Wollaston

Rough Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus asperatus)

The Rough Saint Helena Weevil was described in 1877, as its name implies, it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The species seems to have been adapted to the likewise endemic Scrubwood (Commidendrum rugosum (Dryand) DC.), and was apparently already very rare when it was discovered.:

I have seen hitherto but a single example of this curious and well-marked Acanthomerus, – which was taken by Mr. P. Whitehead, amongst the viscous shrubs of the scrubwood (or Aster glutinosus, Hk. f.) [Commidendrum rugosum], on the Barn. It must be regarded therefore as a scrubwood species; and I may add that there are few members of the scrubwood fauna (as yet brought to light) which are more interesting than the A. asperatus.

***

The Rough Saint Helena Weevil was not found during the most recent field surveys and might well be extinct.

***

The depiction below shows the closely related Boring Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus terebrans Wollaston).

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

*********************

Boring Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus terebrans)

Depiction from: ‘T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 26.05.2021

Protosticta gracilis Kirby

Gracile White-legged Damselfly (Protosticta gracilis)

The Gracile White-legged Damselfly was described in 1889 on the basis of type material that had been collected in 1859 from an unspecified locality on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia.

The species was never found anywhere on the island and may now well be extinct for a long time.

*********************

edited: 24.08.2022

Curculionidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Smaller Rapa Nui Cossonine Weevil (Curculionidae gen. & sp.)

The Smaller Rapa Nui Cossonine Weevil is one of two new weevil species that were recorded from core samples that were collected from the lake in the Rano Kau volcano on Rapa Nui.

The species is known from four heads, six prothoraces, 13 elytra and two first two-fused ventrites, it reached an estimated size of about 0,25 to 0,29 cm. [1]

The species is now extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] M. Horrocks; M. Marra; W. T. Baisden; J. Flenley; D. Feek; L. González Nualart; S. Haoa-Cardinali; T. Edmunds Gorman: Pollen, phytoliths, arthropods and high-resolution 14C sampling from Rano Kau, Easter Island: evidence for late Quaternary environments, ant (Formicidae) distributions and human activity. Journal of Paleolimnology 50(4): 417-432. 2013

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edited: 10.12.2018

Ascetoderes strigatus (Arrow)

Banded Dry Bark Beetle (Ascetoderes strigatus)

The Banded Dry Bark Beetle was described in 1900 based on a single specimen that was collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 cm; “The colour is black, with the antennae and legs a very dark red. The head and thorax are coarsely punctured, and there are a few scattered punctures on the first and third interstices of each elytron. The third interstice is also angularly elevated, and beyond it the striae are replaced by three sharp costae. Near the base of the thorax is a U-shaped impressed line enclosing a smooth area, and in front of this is a shallow depression.” [1]

The species is now most likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 27.04.2022

Blackburnia rugosa Liebherr & Porch

Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia rugosa)

The Rugose Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 2015, it is known only from several subfossil remains that had been found in the deposits of the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 to 1,1 cm and is distinguished from its congeners by its robust sclerotization. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] James K. Liebherr; Nick Porch: Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics 29: 191-213. 2015

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Procloeon insignificans (McDunnough)

Insignificant Small Minnow Mayfly (Procloeon insignificans)

The Insignificant Small Minnow Mayfly was described in 1925; it is known only from its type locality which is somewhere in the vicinity of the city of Ottawa in Ontario, Canada.

MALE. – Length of body 3mm., of fore wing 4 mm. Thoracic notum and pleura dark brown, sternum lighter brown, legs white, and wings hyaline, with longitudinal veins faintly yellowish. Basal abdominal tergites white, with a faint red, median streak on tergites 2 and 3, sternites 2 and 3 white; apical tergites light brown, sternites tan; genital forceps and caudal filaments white.” [1]

The species was never found since and is likely extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] B. D. Burks: The mayflies, or Ephemoptera, Of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Bulletin 26: 1-216. 1953-1955

*********************

edited: 24.08.2022

Tymbopiptus valeas Kuschel

Giant Waitomo Weevil (Tymbopiptus valeas)

The Giant Waitomo Weevil was described in 1987, it is one of the first New Zealand insects to have been described based on subfossil remains.

The remains were recovered from deposits of at least two localities in the Waitomo District in the west of the North Island of New Zealand, one of them being the Buried Forest of Pureora, a site that was formed by pumice ejected during an eruption of Taupo crater at around 186 AD..

The Giant Waitomo Weevil was a very large species, it reached a length of up to 2 to 2,3 cm and was 0,75 to 0,92 cm wide. [1]

***

Many of the larger beetle species dissapeared from the New Zealand main islands as soon as the first Polynesian people arrived here and brought with them Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)), which predated on these large insects; some of the species were widespread and thus survived on rat-free offshore islands while others, that were restricted to certain parts of the main islands, just went extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] G. Kuschel: The subfamily Molytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): general notes and descriptions of new taxa from New Zealand and Chile. New Zealand Entomologist 9: 11-29. 1987
[2] Corinne H. Watts; Maureen J. Marra; Chris J. green; Lynette A. Hunt; Danny Thornburrow: Comparing fossil and extant beetles in central North Island forests, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(1): 1-20. 2019

*********************

Photo: Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

*********************

edited: 05.11.2020

Anchastus atlanticus Candèze

Atlantic Click Beetle (Anchastus atlanticus)

The Atlantic Click Beetle was described in 1859; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

… the present species appears to be attached, in at any rate its larval condition, to the arborescent Compositae of a somewhat high altitude, more particularly (I think), though by no means exclusively, to the Little bastard Gumwood or Aster gummiferus, Hk. fil. [Commidendrum spurium (G. Forst.) DC.]; but in its perfect state it is more often be met with beneath stones in open grassy spots, especially in the vicinity of those particular shrubs. After the early summer rains, about the beginning of February, it makes its appearance in comparative abundance; during which season I took it in profusion just behind the lofty ridge, above West Lodge, overlooking the great Sandy-Bay crater, as well as on the eastern (and well-nigh inaccessible) slopes of High Peak, and also (though more sparingly) so low down as even Plantation. It has been captured by Mr. Whitehead on Halley’s Mount, and likewise (in great profusion), beneath stones, on Green Hill.” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during the latest field searches and is now feared to be extinct.

***

syn. Heteroderes puncticollis Wollaston

*********************

Depiction from: ‘Guy Babault: Voyage de M. Guy Babault dans l’Afrique orientale anglaise: résultats scientifiques. Paris: 1916-1924′

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

*********************

edited: 27.05.2021

Philodoria opuhe Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara

Opuhe-mining Philodoria Moth (Philodoria opuhe)

This species was described in 2021; it is apparently known from the Pu’u ‘Ohi’a (Mt. Tantalus) in the Ko’olau Mountains as well as from the Wai’anae Mountains both on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species is known to mine the leaves of the endemic ōpuhe spp. (Urera glabra (Hook. & Arn.) Wedd. and Urera kaalae Wawra).

***

The species was originally included in the description of the Urera-mining Philidoria Moth (Philodoria ureraella(Swezey)), from which it, however, differs in several characters.

*********************

[1] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

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edited: 18.03.2021

Wahnesia saltator (Lieftinck)

Dancing Flat-winged Damselfly (Wahnesia saltator)

The Dancing Flat-winged Damselfly was described in 1956, it is apparently restricted to the Milne Bay Province in eastern New Guinea, where it apparently had been collected at elevations of about 1550 m.

The species’ hindwings reach lenghts of about 2,9 to 3,1 cm; it is said to be easily recognisable based on the extreme expansion of the tip of its abdomen.

***

The name of this species appears in listings of extinct species and is thus also mentioned here.

*********************

References:

[1] Vincent Kalkman; Albert Orr: Field Guide to the damselflies of New Guinea

*********************

edited: 06.11.2020

Euschmidtia viridifasciata Descamps

Daressalam Monkey Grasshopper (Euschmidtia viridifasciata)

This species was described in 1973, it inhabited lowland rainforests in an area that now is the city of Daressalam at the eastern coast of Tanzania.

The habitat of this species does not longer exist and it is most likely extinct.

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edited: 15.01.2019

Scydmaenus wollastoni (Waterhouse)

Wollaston’s Ant-like Beetle (Scydmaenus wollastoni)

Wollaston’s Ant-like Beetle was described in 1879; it was endemic to the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The species was apparently last seen in 1836 and now feared to be extinct, unfortunately I could not find any additional information.

***

I’m not quite sure if this species indeed is the same as Euconnus wollastoni (Waterhouse).

*********************

edited: 27.05.2021

Andriana hancocki (Bruner)

Big Royal Pygmy Grasshopper (Andriana hancocki)

The Big Royal Pygmy Grasshopper was described in 1910; the species was restricted to the lowland forests near the city of Fenoarivo Atsinanana at eastern shore of Madagascar.

The species has not been seen since 1971 and, due to the loss of forests in the region, is likely extinct.

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edited: 23.08.2022

Colletes turgiventris Timberlake

Antioch Plasterer Bee (Colletes turgiventris)

The Antioch Plasterer Bee, described in 1951, is an endemic species of the Antioch Dunes near the city of Antioch in Contra-Costa County, California, USA.

The bee reaches a size of approx. 1.1 cm.

The species is probably extinct today.

*********************

edited: 29.11.2011

Curculionidae gen. & sp. ‘Rapa Nui’

Rapa Nui Molytine Weevil (Curculionidae gen. & sp.)

The Rapa Nui Molytine Weevil (family Curculionidae: subfamily Molytinae) is known from numerous body parts that were recovered from core samples made in the lake in the crater of the Rano Raraku volcano on Rapa Nui. [1]

The species is known exclusively from these samples of Holocene age and is clearly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] N. Cañellas-Boltà; V. Rull; A. Sáez; O. Margalef; S. Giralt; J. J. Pueyo; H. H. Birks; H. J. B. Birks; S. Pla-Rabes: Macrofossils in Raraku Lake (Easter Island) integrated with sedimentary and geochemical records: towards a palaeoecological synthesis for the last 34,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 34: 113-126. 2012

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edited: 10.12.2018

Tenebroides atiu Kolibáč & Porch

Atiu Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides atiu)

This species was described in 2020 on the basis of subfossil remains, including two heads and a left elytron, that were recovered from cora samples that had been taken in the Te Roto Swamp on the island of ‘Atiu in the Cook Islands.

The size of this species could be reconstructed to have been about 0,78 cm in length; the heads are very dark brown to almost black, the elytron appears to have been dark brown colored. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

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edited: 02.11.2020

Bombus rubriventris Lepeletier

Red-bellied Bumblebee (Bombus rubriventris)

The Red-bellied Bumblebee is known so far only from the holotype, which is a queen; it was allegedly collected in Brazil, apparently in the early 19th century, an exact locality, however, is not known but it is suspected that it might have come the Atlantic Forest.

The holotype is generally black with and shows a mainly reddish abdomen.

The bumblebee fauna of Brazil appears to be relatively well-known, but this species has never been recorded and thus is very likely extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Paul H. Williams: Bombus rubriventris: type locality, different histories of bumblebees in the New World, and a likely invertebrate extinction. Journal of Natural History 49(19-20): 1159-1171. 2015

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edited: 25.04.2022

Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans (Butler)

Australian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans)

 

The Australian- or laced Fritillary was described in 1873, originally as a distinct species, but is now regarded as a subspecies of the Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius (L.)) (see photo). It is endemic to eastern Australia, where it is restricted to coastal areas of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales.

The species inhabited damp areas where the host plants of its larvae, Banks’ Violet (Viola banksii K. R. Thiele & Prober) and the Arrow-leaved Violet (Viola betonicifolia Sm.), were found growing abundantly.

Most of the sites that this species was known to inhabit, have been destroyed due to human activities, thus the populations broke down and disappeared completely; the very last known specimen was finally caught on April 17th, 2001, the Australian Fritillary is now most likely totally extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Trevor A. lambkin: Argynnis hyperbius inconsistans Butler, 1873 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae): a review of its collection history and biology. Australian Entomologist 44(4): 223-268. 2017

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Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius)

Photo: Shriram Bhakare
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/milind_bhakare

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 07.08.2022

Scarabaeoidea gen. & sp. ‘Rodrigues’

Rodrigues Dung Beetle(s) (Scarabaeoidea gen. & sp.)

At least 12 (!) genera/species of dung beetles are known from subfossil remains found on the island of Rodrigues.

These dung beetles were just a little part of a now mostly completely lost insect fauna that once occurred on that island, they very likely were adapted to the numerous tortoises that formerly roamed the island.

The dung beetles disappeared after the extinction of the two endemic tortoise species they had been attached to in the 19th century.

***

I want to remind you, the blog readers, that these 12 genera/species are known from the island of Rodrigues alone, how many species did occur on the other Mascarene Islands – we will probably never know.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Antilissus makauwahi Porch

Makauwahi Bark Beetle (Antilissus makauwahi)

The Makauwahi Bark Beetle was described in 2020 based on subfossil remains that were recovered from the deposits in the Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 800 years before present. [1]

***

The only other known member of that genus, the Cylindrical Bark Beetle (Antilissus asper Sharp), is found on all of the larger Hawaiian Islands where it lives under the bark of dead or dying trees. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch: A new and likely extinct species of Antilissus Sharp, 1879 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Colydiinae) from Makauwahi Cave, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa 4868(1): 135-141. 2020

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edited: 24.10.2020

Felicola isidoroi Perez & Palma

Iberian Lynx Louse (Felicola isidoroi)

The Iberian Lynx Louse was described in 2001; it is known from a single male specimen.

The species’ disappearance is an example of a conservation-induced extinction: it died out when the last survivors of its host species, the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus (Temminck)), themselves being at that time highly in imminent danger of extinction, were taken into captivity and de-loused.

***

The Iberian Lynx itself has made a decent comeback with the population now being at 1668 individuals in May of 2023.

*********************

References:

[1] Jesus M. Perez; Ricardo Palma: A new species of Felicola (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) from the endangered Iberian lynx: another reason to ensure its survival. Biodiversity and Conservation 10(6): 929-937. 2001

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edited: 15.01.2024

Echinocnemus sahlbergi Schilsky

Sahlberg’s Aquatic Weevil (Echinocnemus sahlbergi)

Sahlberg’s Aquatic Weevil was described in 1911; it is known exclusively from the type series of four specimens that were collected from the Ayalon River in Tel Aviv, Israel, which now is almost completely channeled and probably quite polluted due to agriculture.

The species has not been found since its description and is thus very likely already extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Ariel-Leib-Leonid Friedman: Review of the Hygrophilous Weevils in Israel (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Diversity 10: 1-48. 2018

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edited: 16.05.2022

Anisodes hypomion Prout

Christmas Island Anisodes Geometer Moth (Anisodes hypomion)

This species was described in 1933, apparently based on a single specimen, a female: it has a wingspan of 2,2 cm; its wings have a light pinkish cinnamon color and bear several darker and lighter colored markings. [1]

The species was not found since and is considered possibly extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Louis B. Prout: The Geometridae of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 8: 88-94. 1933
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 08.09.2020

Coenosia extincta Pront

Extinct Mahé Fly (Coenosia extincta)

This species was described in 2009 based on a single male specimen that was collected in March, April or May 1892 on the island of Mahé, Seychelles Islands.

The species was never found since its original collection and was thus considered extinct by its author. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Adrian C. Pont: A new species of Coenosia Meigen, 1826 from the Seychelles Islands (Insecta, Diptera: Muscidae). Phelsume 17: 9-11. 2009
[2] Justin Gerlach: Red List ing reveals the true state of biodiversity: a comprehensive assessment of Seychelles biodiversity. Phesluma 20: 9-22. 2012

*********************

edited: 30.10.2020

Opogona binotatella (Walker)

Potato-boring Opogona Moth (Opogona binotatella)

This species was described in 1875, it is, or maybe was, restricted to the island of Saint Helena, where it appears to have been quite common.:

It was chiefly at Plantation that I met with this species, where it abounds; indeed it is much too abundant, as in the caterpillar-state it is most destructive to the potato-crops. Mr. Melliss observes, “The larva of this moth is well known in the island as the potato-worm. It is a small, translucent, maggot-like creature, of a dirty whitish hue, marked with four longitudinal rows of small brown spots, and having a few long hairs on its body. In length it varies from a half to three quarters of an inch. The head is hard, and of a chocolate-brown colour; and the little creature moves backwards quite as easily as it does forwards. It abounds in the island, and is a thorough pest to the potato-crops. Either the eggs are laid in the potatoes, or the larva enters them in an early stage of its growth, and, through its depredations, renders them quite unfit for food. When changing to the pupa-state it wraps itself up in a strong web, in the form of a close, tough envelope; and the chrysalis is of a light mahogany colour, with the positions of the wings and legs, even in its early stage, strongly marked longitudinally down the outside of the case or skin.” It would therefore appear to be only in the more cultivated parts of the island that this species has established itself; and on rapping the trunks of trees in such situations the imagos fly off in showers; nevertheless they very quickly settle again.” [1]

The forewings are dull and opaque dark cloudy brown colored, they are more or less besprinkled with blackish scales; some individuals are darker; the hindwings are glossy, silk-like cinereous, becoming darker towards the apex. [1]

***

There are no recent records of that species, and it is possible that it is already extinct, which is weird given the fact that it apparently was able to adapt to introduced potatoes as larval food plant. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Mrs. T. Vernon Wollaston: Notes on the Lepidoptera of St. Helena, with descriptions of new species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology. Ser. 5. Vol. 3: 415-441. 1879
[2] Timm Karisch: Darwin-Plus Project DPLUS040: securing the future for St Helena’s endemic invertebrates. Report Lepidoptera. Dessau, 31.08.2018

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Opogona helenae (E. Wollaston)

Saint Helena Opogona Moth (Opogona helenae)

The Saint Helena Opogona Moth was described in 1879, it is, or maybe was, restricted to the island of Saint Helena.

The species has not seen since its description and might very well be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Timm Karisch: Darwin-Plus Project DPLUS040: securing the future for St Helena’s endemic invertebrates. Report Lepidoptera. Dessau, 31.08.2018

*********************

edited: 29.05.2021

Philodoria costalis Swezey

Makaha Philodoria Moth (Philodoria costalis)

This species was described in 1934; it is known only from the forests of the Makaha Ridge at elevations of about 915 m above sea level on the western side of Mt. Ka’ala on the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 0,7 to 0,8 cm; the head, the thorax and the abdomen are tawny brown; the forewings are tawny brown and bear orange-colored patches.

The species is known to have mined the leaves of endemic māmaki species (Pipturus sp.); the sole description of its biology is the following sentence.:

The larvae form “oval brown cocoons on the surface of the leaves ….” (Swezey, 1934: 525.)” [1]

***

The species was not recorded during recent field work and might be extinct. [2]

*********************

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Shigeki Kobayashi; Chris A. Johns; Akito Y. Kawahara: Revision of the Hawaiian endemic leaf-mining moth genus Philodoria Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): its conservation status, host plants and descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa 4944(1): 1-715. 2021

*********************

edited: 18.03.2021

Meandrusa payeni ssp. payeni (Boisduval)

Yellow Gorgon (Meandrusa payeni ssp. payeni)

The Yellow Gorgon can be spilt into about six subspecies, which occur from parts of China and India to Indonesia.

The species itself seems not to be threatened yet, however, the nominate form, which was restricted to the island of Java, Indonesia, appears to be extinct now.

***

The photo below shows another subspecies.
***

syn. Papilio payeni ssp. payeni Boisduval

*********************

Indian Yellow Gorgon (Meandrusa payeni ssp. evan (Doubleday))

Photo: Tamagha Sengupta 
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

*********************

edited: 17.11.2021

Nesocordulia villiersi Legrand

Viliers’ Emerald (Nesocordulia villiersi)

Villiers’ Emerald was described in 1984; it is endemic to the island of Mwali (Mohéli) in the Comoro Islands.

The species is only known from one locality that seems to be highly degraded now, it has not been found in recent field studies and might well be extinct.

*********************

edited: 14.05.2022

Tenebroides tubuai Kolibáč & Porch

Tubuai Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides tubuai)

The Tubuai Bark-gnawing Beetle was described in 2020, it is known from subfossil remains, including a head, parts of another head, a left mandible, at least one complete elytron as well as additional elytral fragments, and a incomplete prothorax, all recovered from sediment core samples taken at the Mihiru Swamp on the island of Tubuai in the Austral Islands.

These remains can be dated to an age of about 2500 to 2000 BP..

The Tubuai Bark-gnawing Beetle might have been the largest member of its genus, its size has been reconstructed to have been about 1,57 cm in length, which clearly sets it apart from the congeneric and sympatric Mihiura Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides mihiura Kolibáč & Porch). [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Heraclia busiris (Fabricius)

Lost Heraclia Moth (Heraclia busiris)

This species is known from a single specimen that was collected somewhere in Africa (all other known members of the genus occur there); it was described in 1793, originally as a skipper (Hesperidae).

The sole specimen was examined in 2018, when it was found not to be a skipper (Hesperiidae) at all but instead a member of a completely different family, the owlet moths (Noctuidae). [1]

The Lost Heraclia Moth has not been found for 229 years; it may well be lost forever.

*********************

References:

[1] Alberto Zilli; Nick Grishin: Unveiling one of the rarest ‘butterflies’ ever (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Noctuidae). Systematic Entomology 44(2): 384-395. 2018

*********************

underside

Photo: The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

*********************

edited: 28.04.2022

Hesperia meskei ssp. pinocayo Gatrelle & Minno in Gatrelle, Minno & Grkovich

Rockland Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei ssp. pinocayo)

The Rockland Meske’s Skipper is a subspecies of Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei W. H. Edwards) (see photo below) that was described in 2003 and that apparently was restricted to the Florida Keys, a coral cay archipelago off the southern coast of Florida, USA.

It was already nearly extinct when it was described.:

The taxon is within the Key Deer Refuge on Big Pine Key and is therefore already afforded habitat and disturbance protection. However, the number of individuals have now declined so greatly that some type of breeding program seems called for soon if not immediately.” [1]

The butterfly was officially declared extinct in 2013.

*********************

References:

[1] Ronald R. Gatrelle: A subspecific assessment of the genus Hesperia (Hesperiinae) in eastern North America (part I: the south) New subspecies of Hesperia meteea, Hesperia sassacus and Hesperia meskei. The Taxonomic Report 4(3). 2003

*********************

Meske’s Skipper (Hesperia meskei), nominate form

Photo: Will Stuart
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/willstuart2001

(under creative commons license (4.0))
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 28.04.2022

Curculionidae gen. & sp. ‘Rimatara’

Rimataran Cossonine Weevil(s) (Curculionidae gen. & sp.)

The weevils (Curculionidae) are in fact the most species-rich family of the whole animal kingdom, the family is divided into several subfamilies of which the Cossininae is one.

***

The subfossil record of the island of Rimatara, Austral Islands has produced the remains of at least 18 (!) genera/species of cossinine weevils, this shows how species-rich the island faunas once, before the arrival of humans, were … and, how much has already been lost.

The remains are currently under review by Nick Porch, an Australian entomologist specialized in subfossil insect remains.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Pentatemnodes rupertsianus Voss

Rupert’s Valley Weevil (Pentatemnodes rupertsianus)

Rupert’s Valley Weevil was described in 1972; it is, or rather was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena.

The species was obviously not seen since 1967 and might well be extinct, however, I was not able to find any additional information about this species.

*********************

edited: 27.05.2021

‘Chlorita’ edithae White

Edith’s Green Leafhopper (‘Chlorita’ edithae)

Edith’s Green Leafhopper, which is or was endemic to the island of Saint Helena, was described in 1878, however, its genus name is placed between quotation marks because it apparently is invalid and the species belongs in another genus.

This species was found by Mrs. and Mr. Wollaston at Cason’s, Diana’s Peak, and high Peak in the central ridge of the island, but was not recorded during field surveys in 1965/66 and during the most recent searches in 2005/06 and is probably extinct now. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Howard Mendel; Philip Ashmole; Myrtle Ashmole: Invertebrates of the Central Peaks and Peak Dale, St. Helena. Report for the St Helena National Trust, Jamestown 2008

*********************

edited: 02.12.2018

Hemithea hyperymna Prout

Christmas Island Emerald (Hemithea hyperymna)

The Christmas Island Emerald was described in 1933; it is, or rather was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species hasn’t been seen since the 1930s and might well be extinct. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

*********************

edited: 02.05.2022

Xenephias socotranus Kevan

Socotra Cone-headed Katydid (Xenephias socotranus)  

The Socotra Cone-headed Katydid was described in 1973 based on specimens that had been collected in 1967 at the Adho Dimellu pass on the island of Socotra at an elevation of about 1000 m above sea level.

The species reaches a body length of about 2 to 3 cm; it is generally testaceous and strongly mottled and speckled with sepia-brown markings; the head bears a narrow, postocular, grey streak, the eyes are brown, the antennae are greyish.

It seems that this taxon has never been recorded subsequently and that it may be extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] D. Keith McE. Kevan: A new genus of Pyrgomorphidae (Acridoidea: Orthoptera) from the island of Socotra. The Canadian Entomologist 105(9): 1169-1173. 1973

*********************

edited: 30.01.2024

Celastrina ogasawaraensis (Pryer)

Ogasawara Holly Blue (Celastrina ogasawaraensis)

The Ogasawara Holly Blue, described in 1886, is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, where it appears to have been quite common until the 1970s, when its populations began to crash, mainly caused by the loss of their preferred host plant species due to the native vegetation being overrun by introduced invasive alien plants and because of increasing predation by likewise introduced Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis Voigt), whose populations are now as high as about 6 million individuals. [1]

The species appears to be extinct in the wild since 2018, when the last individuals were seen.

For some time there had been attempts to establish a captive program: the species was kept in captivity since 2005, once in the Tama Zoological Park and then in the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden, both in Tokyo, Japan.

However, these efforts apparently failed, and the last individuals apparently died in 2020.

The Ogasawara Holly Blue is now feared to have been lost.

*********************

References:

[1] Yasuhiro Nakamura: Conservation of butterflies in Japan: status, actions and strategy. Journal of Insect Conservation 15: 5-22. 2011

*********************

female

Photo: コミスジ空港

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0


*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Cephalochetus sp. ”Upolu’

Upolu Cephalochetus Roof Beetle (Cephalochetus sp.)

This species is known only from several subfossil remains that have been recovered from samplings from the island of ‘Upolu, Samoa by Nick Porch, an Australian entomologist specialized in subfossil insect remains.

The species must have had a size of about 0,3 cm in length.

***

The genus was formerly known to occur on the Fijian Islands, so this is a new record for the Samoan Islands.

The species might quite likely be still alive, but will be mentioned here for completeness.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Rhyncogonus bryani Perkins

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil (Rhyncogonus bryani)

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil was described in 1919, it is known from only a single specimen.

The species was endemic to the island of Laysan in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian Islands chain; its biology is completely unknown.

Bryan’s Rhyncogonus Weevil disappeared as an aftermath of the complete denudation of Laysan Island’s vegetation following the introduction of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.)) in 1909.

*********************

References:

[1] G. A. Samuelson: Review of Rhyncogonus of the Hawaiian Islands (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu 2003

*********************

edited: 27.01.2019

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Mangaia’

Mangaian Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This form has not yet been described, it is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from substrate that was collected on the island of Mangaia, Cook Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch; Tessa R. Smith: New Pycnomerus Erichson (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Pycnomerini) from Rimatara, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 4237(1): 154-166. 2017

*********************

edited: 11.06.2020

Icaricia saepiolus ssp. insulanus (Blackmore)

Vancouver Island Blue (Icaricia saepiolus ssp. insulanus)

The Vancouver Island Blue was described in 1920; it was restricted to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

This taxon hasn’t been seen since 1979 and is feared to be extinct.

***

syn. Aricia saepiolus ssp. insulanus Blackmore

*********************

Photo: Don Griffiths; Spencer Entomological Collection, Beaty Biodiversity Museum, UBC
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

*********************

edited: 02.02.2024

Archaeoglenes sp. ‘Kaua’i’

Kauai Darkling Beetle (Archaeoglenes sp.)

This is another of the many beetle forms that are known only by subfossil remains, in this case found on the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands.

***

The genus Archaeoglenes has a very odd distribution, some species occur in the Caribbean, some on the Mascarene Islands, others again on the islands of the western Pacific.

*********************

edited: 31.10.2020

Acanthomerus monilicornis (Wollaston)

Collared Saint Helena Weevil (Acanthomerus monilicornis)

The Collared Saint Helena Weevil was described in 1869; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena, where it appears to have been quite common and widespread once.:

This is the common Acanthomerus at Plantation, – where it swarms in the dead branches and trunks of the various species of oak, as well as in the crevices of old posts &c.; and I am inclined to think that it be should looked upon as having been attached originally to the gumwoods, which must once have been dominant throughout that district; and I have taken it amongst the gumwoods at Thompson’s Wood, where, however, it is less abundant than the A. ellipticus. At any rate it is more particularly a species of intermediate altitudes; though I believe that on one occasion I met with a single example of it towards the central ridge.” [1]

***

The species was not found during the most recent field searches and is believed to be possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] T. Vernon Wollaston: Coleoptera Sanctae-Helenae. London: John Van Voorst, Paternoster Row 1877

*********************

edited: 27.05.2021

Tenebroides raivavae Kolibáč & Porch

Raivavae Bark-gnawing Beetle (Tenebroides raivavae)


This species was described in 2020, it is so far only known from the holotype material, a subfossil incomplete prosternum, that was obtained from a core sample taken from the Rairua Swamp on the island of Raivavae in the Austral Islands.

The size of this species is estimated to have been about 1,39 cm in length; it appears to have been black in color. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Jiří Kolibáč; Milada Bocakova; James K. Liebherr; Thibould Ramage; Nick Porch: Extinct and extant Pacific Trogossitidae and the evolution of Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 20: 1-37. 2020

*********************

edited: 02.11.2020

Pycnomerus sp. ”Atiu’

Atiu Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)


This species has not yet been described, it is known from subfossil remains that were recovered from substrate that was collected on the island of ‘Atiu in the Cook Islands. 
[1]

*********************

References:

[1] Nick Porch; Tessa R. Smith: New Pycnomerus Erichson (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Pycnomerini) from Rimatara, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 4237(1): 154-166. 2017

*********************

edited: 11.06.2020

Cotes sp. ‘Benneydale’

Benneydale Ant-like Flower Beetle (Cotes sp.)

The genus Cotes is endemic to New Zeland, all of the about eight species currently assigned to it are probably feeding on decaying plant material.

***

The Benneydale Ant-like Flower Beetle is known only from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits near Benneydale, a small town in the Waitomo District of western North Island, New Zealand.

This species appears to be extinct now.

*********************

References:

[1] Corinne H. Watts; Maureen J. Marra; Chris J. green; Lynette A. Hunt; Danny Thornburrow: Comparing fossil and extant beetles in central North Island forests, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(1): 1-20. 2019

*********************

edited: 05.11.2020

Opogona irrorata (E. Wollaston)

Dewy Opogona Moth (Opogona irrorata)

The Dewy Opogona Moth was described in 1879; it is, or maybe was, endemic to the island of Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.

The description of this species.:

The fore wings of a pale brownish or straw-coloured tinge, and speckled with numerous irregular black dots (particularly on the basal half), each composed of a few dark scales, those near the costa having a faint tendency to be placed somewhat in transverse pairs. The apex and outer margin are speckled more minutely, as is also the fringe. Hind wings pale glossy cinereous, and, when viewed beneath a high magnifying-power, with a pearly and somewhat opaline lustre. Thorax slightly darker than the anterior wings; body much the same as the posterior ones.
The only examples which I have seen of this moth I captured, I believe, at Thompson’s Wood; but whether the species is in any way connected with the gumwoods I have no means of deciding. At any rate there is no reason to suspect that it is otherwise than truly indigenous in the island. The rather dotted, or speckled, surface of its upper wings will be sufficient to distinguish it from its more immediate allies.
” [1]

***

The species was never found again and is quite likely extinct. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Mrs. T. Vernon Wollaston: Notes on the Lepidoptera of St. Helena, with descriptions of new species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology. Ser. 5. Vol. 3: 415-441. 1879
[2] Timm Karisch: Darwin-Plus Project DPLUS040: securing the future for St Helena’s endemic invertebrates. Report Lepidoptera. Dessau, 31.08.2018

*********************

edited: 28.05.2021

Indolestes linsleyi Lieftinck

Linsley’s Spreadwing (Indolestes linsleyi)

Linsley’s Spreadwing was described in 1960, it apparently occurs, or maybe occurred near Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea.

The species has a wingspan of about 4,4 cm; the males have distinctly shaped hindwings with a rounded flap in the anal region. [1]

It is now thought to be possibly extinct.

*********************

References:

[1] Vincent Kalkman; Albert Orr: Field Guide to the damselflies of New Guinea. Brachytron 2013

*********************

edited: 13.11.2021

Melanoplus nanus Scudder

Small Spur-throat Grasshopper (Melanoplus nanus)

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper was described in 1898, it was apparently only found in few places in the Alameda – , the Marin – , and the San Mateo Counties in California, USA.

The species inhabited dry grassy hillsides.

The males reached sizes of about 1,4 cm, the females were slightly larger, both sexes were fuscous light-brown colored.

The Small Spur-throat Grasshopper is now considered possibly extinct, however, reasons for this assumption are not given.

********************

References:

[1] Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899

********************

Depiction from: ‘Samuel H. Scudder: Supplement to a revision of the Melanopli. Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences 7: 157-205. 1899’

(public domain)

********************

edited: 31.08.2019

Blackburnia agonoides (Sharp)

Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle (Blackburnia agonoides)

The Koa Blackburnia Ground Beetle was described in 1903, it was endemic to the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

The species was recorded from cavities in trunks or branches of the endemic Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray). [1]

********************* 

References: 

[1] Dan A. Polhemus; Curtis P. Ewing; R. Kaholo’a, James K. Liebherr: Rediscovery of Blackburnia anomala (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in East Maui, Hawai’i, after a 107-year hiatus. Pacific Science 57(2): 16-166. 2003

*********************

edited: 03.09.2019

Eupithecia dryinombra (Meyrick)

Wailuku Pug Moth (Eupithecia dryinombra)

The Wailuku Pug Moth was described in 1899, it is known only from the male type specimen.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 1,7 cm, it is rather pale and narrow-winged, there are obscure medial bands on its forewings that are marked by a series of short, disconnected longitudinal dashes.

The species inhabited the native rain forest above a place named Wailuku on the island of Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands, a habitat that is now heavily degraded by introduced mammalian herbivores. 

The Wailuku Pug Moth was never recorded since its description and is likely extinct. [1][2]

*********************  

References:  

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] Steven L. Montgomery: Carnivorous caterpillars: The behavior, biogeography and conservation of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the Hawaiian Islands. GeoJournal 7.6: 549-556. 1983

*********************  

edited: 06.01.2019

Pycnomerus sp. ‘Benneydale’

Benneydale Ironclad Beetle (Pycnomerus sp.)

This up to now undescribed species is known exclusively from subfossil remains that were recovered from deposits near Benneydale, a small town in the Waitomo District of western North Island, New Zealand. [1]

The species is now extinct, it is one of countless large insect species that were eaten into extinction by Polynesian Rats (Rattus exulans (Peale)) that had been introduced by the ancestors of the Maori when they first arrived in New Zealand.

*********************

References:

[1] Corinne H. Watts; Maureen J. Marra; Chris J. green; Lynette A. Hunt; Danny Thornburrow: Comparing fossil and extant beetles in central North Island forests, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(1): 1-20. 2019

*********************

edited: 05.11.2020

Graphium macleayanum ssp. insulana (Waterhouse)

Lord Howe Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum ssp. insulana)

Macleay’s Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum (Leach)) is an Australian butterfly species that contains three subspecies, of which two occur in Australia while the third one was restricted to Lord Howe Island.

The larvae feed on several plant species from the Atherospermataceae, the Lauraceae and the Winteraceae.

The Lord Howe subspecies, described in 1920, was last seen in 1893 and is now obviously extinct.

***

The photo below shows the south-eastern Australian subspecies of Macleay’s Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum ssp. moggana Couchman).

*********************

Macleay’s Swallowtail (Graphium macleayanum ssp. moggana)

Photo: daniaustin
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/daniaustin
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

*********************

edited: 02.02.2024

Taylorilygus aldrichi (Izzard)

Aldrich’s Plant Bug (Taylorilygus aldrichi)

Aldrich’s Plant Bug was described in 1936 on the basis of material that had been collected in 1933 on Christmas Island, Australia.

The species has not been recorded since and appears to be extinct now.

***

syn. Lygus aldrichi Izzard

*********************

References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

*********************

edited: 16.02.2024

Proplatycnemis longiventris (Schmidt)

Long-bellied White-legged Damselfly (Proplatycnemis longiventris)

This species is known only by its type which had been collected in 1933 or -34 from the vicinity of the city of Ambanja at the Sambirano River in north-western Madagascar.

The status of this species is currently unknown, but it could potentially be extinct.

***

syn. Platycnemis longiventris Schmidt

*********************

edited: 24.08.2022