Tag Archives: New South Wales

Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans (Butler)

Australian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans)


The Australian- or laced Fritillary was described in 1873, originally as a distinct species, but is now regarded as a subspecies of the Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius (L.)) (see photo). It is endemic to eastern Australia, where it is restricted to coastal areas of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales.

The species inhabited damp areas where the host plants of its larvae, Banks’ Violet (Viola banksii K. R. Thiele & Prober) and the Arrow-leaved Violet (Viola betonicifolia Sm.), were found growing abundantly.

Most of the sites that this species was known to inhabit, have been destroyed due to human activities, thus the populations broke down and disappeared completely; the very last known specimen was finally caught on April 17th, 2001, the Australian Fritillary is now most likely totally extinct.



[1] Trevor A. lambkin: Argynnis hyperbius inconsistans Butler, 1873 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae): a review of its collection history and biology. Australian Entomologist 44(4): 223-268. 2017


Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius)

Photo: Shriram Bhakare



edited: 07.08.2022

Trianthema cypseloides (Frenzl) Benth.

Hawkesbury Pigweed (Trianthema cypseloides)

This species is only known from the type material that was collected from the Hawkesbury River in New South Wales, Australia

This was a small, creeping, ground-dwelling herb with short branches and egg-shaped, about 0,5 cm long, slightly succulent leaves and flowers appearing in loose, flat-topped clusters.

The reasons for the extinction of this species are not known.


The photo below shows another congeneric species from Australia, the Star Pigweed (Trianthema oxycalyptrum F.Muell.)


Star Pigweed (Trianthema oxycalyptrum)

Photo: @WA_Botanist


edited: 25.01.2024

Angrobia dulvertonensis (J. E. Tenison-Woods)

Macquarie Slug (Angrobia dulvertonensis)

The Macquarie Slug was described in 1876; it was a freshwater snail that was restricted to Port Macquarie, a coastal town on the mid north coast of New South Wales, Australia.

The species was last seen in 1996 and is now considered most likely extinct.


edited: 14.11.2021

Amytornis modestus ssp. inexpectatus (Mathews)

Eastern Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis modestus ssp. inexpectatus)  

The Eastern Thick-billed Grasswren was described in 1912, it inhabited dense vegetation in the Murray-Darling basin in the northwestern part of New South Wales.  

The bird reached a length of about 16 cm.  

The Eastern Thick-billed Grasswren was never found again since its description and is considered extinct.  


birds on top, left and right; together with Short-tailed Grasswren (Amytornis merrotsyi Mellor) (bottom left)  

Depiction from: ‘Gregory M. Mathews: The Birds of Australia. London: Witherby & Co. 1910-1927’  

(public domain) 


edited: 22.03.2018

Vanvoorstia bennettiana (Harvey) Papenfuss

Bennett’s Seaweed (Vanvoorstia bennettiana 

Bennett’s Seaweed is probably the first marine algae species that was officially declared extinct.  

This very small red alga species was described in 1859, it may probably always only have occurred on two places within the harbor of Sydney at the coast of New South Wales, where it apparently was still quite common at the time when it was discovered.  

The extinction of this species was caused by various human activities that led to a pollution of the water with suspended sediments which again were blocking the very fine clathrate branches of the algae, resulting in the inhibition of photosynthesis and causing the dead of the plants.  

The last living examples were found in 1886.  


Depiction from: ‘William Henry Harvey: Phycologia Australica; or, A History of Australian Seaweeds; comprising coloured figures and descriptions of the more characteristic marine algae of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia and a synopsis of all known Australian algae. London, L. Reeve 1858-63’  

(not in copyright)


edited: 21.03.2018

Amperea xiphoclada var. pedicellata R. J. F. Henderson

Pedicellate Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada var. pedicellata)  

This variety of the Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada (Sieber ex Spreng.) Druce) is known only from the type material that was collected near Sydney, New South Wales; it differs from the nominate form (see photo below) by the prominently pedicellate female flowers.

Since this form was never found since, it is considered extinct.


Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada (Sieber ex Spreng.) Druce); nominate race

Photo: Melburnian


edited: 30.04.2021

Persoonia laxa L. A. S. Johnson & P. H. Weston

Loose Persoonia (Persoonia laxa)

This taxon was described in 1991, it is known exclusively from herbarium material that was collected in 1908 at what today is a suburban area of Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, Australia.

The species is most likely extinct. [1]



[1] Peter H. Weston; L. A. S. Johnson: Taxonomic changes in Persoonia (Proteaceae) in New South Wales. Telopea 4(2): 269-306. 1991


edited: 09.11.2021