Australian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius ssp. inconstans)
The Australian- or laced Fritillary was described in 1873, originally as a distinct species, but is now regarded as a subspecies of the Indian Fritillary (Argynnis hyperbius (L.)) (see photo). It is endemic to eastern Australia, where it is restricted to coastal areas of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales.
The species inhabited damp areas where the host plants of its larvae, Banks’ Violet (Viola banksii K. R. Thiele & Prober) and the Arrow-leaved Violet (Viola betonicifolia Sm.), were found growing abundantly.
Most of the sites that this species was known to inhabit, have been destroyed due to human activities, thus the populations broke down and disappeared completely; the very last known specimen was finally caught on April 17th, 2001, the Australian Fritillary is now most likely totally extinct.
 Trevor A. lambkin: Argynnis hyperbius inconsistans Butler, 1873 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae): a review of its collection history and biology. Australian Entomologist 44(4): 223-268. 2017
The Taiwan Ringed Butterfly was described in 1909, it was for some time considered a subspecies of the Small Three-ringed Butterfly (Ypthima norma (Westwood)) from the South-East Asian mainland.
The species seems to be endemic to the island of Taiwan.
The Taiwan Ringed Butterfly reaches a wingspan of about 3,4 cm; its wings are mainly brownish grey colored, the forewings have one eye spot each.
The Taiwan Ringed Butterfly is said to be extinct, however, I was not able yet to gain any further information; a subspecies (Ypthima posticalis ssp. aei Shirôzu & Shima) does apparently still live on the Philippine Islands, however, this is probably rather to be treated as a distinct species.
The Atossa Fritillary, also known as the Unsilvered Fritillary, was described in 1890, originally as a full species, it was restricted to an area approximately at the borders between the three counties of Kern, Los Angeles and Ventura in southern California, USA.
The adult butterflies were found in open canyons wherever water was present, they were attracted by many wildflowers, but seemed to have had a special preference for the flowers of the California Buckeye (Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt.). The larval food plant was a violet species, yet the exact species was apparently never properly recorded but is suspected to might have been the Oakwoods Violet (Viola purpurea ssp. quercetorum (M. S. Baker & J. C. Clausen) R. J. Little).
The Atossa Fritillary was last recorded in 1959 when two specimens were collected, respectively in 1960 when a last individual was spotted on the peak of Mt. Pinos in the Los Padres National Forest on the boundary between Kern – and Ventura counties.
There have been many field searches since the last sightings, yet all of them were unsuccessful, the Atossa Fritillary is extinct. 
 Larry J. Orsak: Project Atossa – Preliminary report. Atala 2(2): 5-8. 1974
This species was described in 2011, it is known only from two males that had been collected in 1919 in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and which are now deposited in the Natural History Museum, London.
The Parana Owl Butterfly reaches a wingspan of 7 cm, it is quite similar to the Ornamented Owl Butterfly (Orobrassolis ornamentalis (Stichel)) (see photo) which again is the only other species in the genus. It differs by the more robust, darker brown dorsal bands on its hindwings, and by subtle differences in male genitalic structures.
The female is unknown. 
 C. M. Penz; T. J. Simonsen; P. J. Devries: A new Orobrassolis butterfly (Nymphalidae, Brassolini): a casualty of habitat destruction? Zootaxa 2740: 35–43. 2011
The Mariana Wandering Butterfly was restricted to the islands of Guam and Rota in the southern part of the Mariana Islands chain.
The butterfly inhabited the forests on the lime cliffs wherever Luluhut (Maytenus thompsonii (Merr.) Fosberg), the food plant of its caterpillars was found. 
The local name of this butterfly is Ababbang (in Chamorro), bzw. Libwueibogh (in Carolinian).
The species was last seen on Guam in 1979 and is considered as being extinct at least there, the last record of the species on the neighboring island of Rota took place in 1995, when only some male specimens were found but no female ones nor any eggs or caterpillars.
The Mariana Wandering Butterfly is now most likely globally extinct.
 Ilse Schreiner; Donald Nafus: Survey of rare butterflies in the Mariana Islands. Preliminary report to USFWS. 1-10. 1995
The Leanira Checkerspot (Chlosyne leanira (C. & R. Felder)) is a species of butterfly that occurs with at least eleven subspecies over the southern parts of North America including Mexico and parts of the USA.
At least one of these subspecies, the obsolete Checkerspot, is now apparently extinct, it was restricted to a small area in California and was last seen sometimes prior 1956.
The photo below shows an individual of another Californian subspecies, Wright’s Checkerspot (Chlosyne leanira ssp. wrightii (W. H. Edwards)).
Myrtle’s Fritillary, also known Myrtle’s Silverspot, a subspecies of the Zerene Fritillary (Speyeria zereneSwainson) (see photo), was described in 1945, it was restricted to Pescadero Point in San Mateo County in California, USA.
The larvae are known to have fed on the Hookedspur Violet (Viola adunca Sm.).
Myrtle’s Fritillary was apparently last recorded around 1919 and is now considered extinct.
The taxonomic situation of this form, however, is not finally solved and thus it might be identical with another form, the Point Reyes Fritillary (Speyeria zerene ssp. puntareyes Emmel & Emmel), which is restricted to the southernmost Sonoma County of california, and which itself is highly threatened.