Tag Archives: Christmas Island

Cyclonidea carina Laseron

Christmas Island Tower Snail (Cyclonidea carina)

This species was described in 1956; it is known only from the waters surrounding Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916 and might well be extinct.

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References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 14.02.2024

Haliclona innominata (Kirkpatrick)

Nameless Sponge (Haliclona innominata)

This species was described and – yes – also named thereby, in 1900; it is only known from the sea surrounding Christmas Island, Australia.

Sponge incrusting; colour pale brown with a faint reddish tinge; texture soft and elastic.

The species has never been found since its description and is now believed to be possibly extinct. [1]

***

syn. Reniera innominata Kirkpatrick

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Depiction from: ‘R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] R. Kirkpatrick: On the sponges of Christmas Island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1900: 127-140
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 15.02.2024

Dicliptera maclearii Hemsley

Maclear’s Dicliptera (Dicliptera maclearii)

Maclear’s Dicliptera was described in 1890; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was originally found to be “common on [the] shore platform” [1] but has not been seen since the 1960s and might now be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 18.02.2024

Amarygmus funebris Arrow

Dark Darkling Beetle (Amarygmus funebris)

The Dark Darkling Beetle was described in 1900 based on nine specimens that had been collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a length of about 0,9 cm; “the colour is black, tinged with a deep purplish or greenish hue, especially upon the head, thorax, and anterior part of the elytra. Some specimens present a slightly sericeous bloom upon the upper surface. Underneath it is a shining black, with the abdominal segment striated longitudinally.” [1]

The Dark Darkling Beetle was not found since the 1930s and is considered very likely extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 27.04.2022

Zebina acicula Laseron

Needle-like Zebina Snail (Zebina acicula)

The Needle-like Zebina Snail was described in 1956; it is restricted to the sea around Christmas Island, Australia.

The species was last recorded in 1916, when the type material was collected.

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References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Patellapis binghami (Kirby)

Bingham’s Sweat Bee (Patellapis binghami)

This species was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The bee reached a length of about 5.5 cm and a wingspan of about 1.1 cm; the head and the thorax are glossy black, sometimes with a very faint greenish tint, very finely punctured; the abdomen is shining black; the wings are iridescent hyaline with an yellowish-brown neuration. [1]

Bingham’s Sweat Bee was last recorded in 1968; it was never found despite considerable dedicated efforts. [2]

***

syn. Halictus binghami Kirby

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Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 13.02.2024

Choreutis ornaticornis (Walsingham)

(Choreutis ornaticornis)

This species was described in 1900 based on ten specimens; it is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The head is brownish ochreous, mixed with pale cinerous; the thorax is brownish ochreous, becoming dark brownish grey posteriorly; the abdomen is bronzy brownish; the forewings are olivaceous brownish, with two narrow transverse bands of pale cinereous speckling between the base and the middle; the hind wings are dark bronzy brownish, with some faint pale curved streaks running through them before the margin, the underside with two speckled pale cinereous bands.

The species was never found since and is most likely extinct.

***

syn. Simaethis ornaticornis Walsingham

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 05.01.2024

Tylos nudulus Budde-Lund

Naked Beach Pillbug (Tylos nudulus)

The Naked Beach Pillbug was described in 1906; it is known only from the beaches of Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species has never been found since its description and appears to be extinct now.

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References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Ascetoderes strigatus (Arrow)

Banded Dry Bark Beetle (Ascetoderes strigatus)

The Banded Dry Bark Beetle was described in 1900 based on a single specimen that was collected on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reached a size of about 0,8 cm; “The colour is black, with the antennae and legs a very dark red. The head and thorax are coarsely punctured, and there are a few scattered punctures on the first and third interstices of each elytron. The third interstice is also angularly elevated, and beyond it the striae are replaced by three sharp costae. Near the base of the thorax is a U-shaped impressed line enclosing a smooth area, and in front of this is a shallow depression.” [1]

The species is now most likely extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

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edited: 27.04.2022

Anisodes hypomion Prout

Christmas Island Anisodes Geometer Moth (Anisodes hypomion)

This species was described in 1933, apparently based on a single specimen, a female: it has a wingspan of 2,2 cm; its wings have a light pinkish cinnamon color and bear several darker and lighter colored markings. [1]

The species was not found since and is considered possibly extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] Louis B. Prout: The Geometridae of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 8: 88-94. 1933
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 08.09.2020

Hemithea hyperymna Prout

Christmas Island Emerald (Hemithea hyperymna)

The Christmas Island Emerald was described in 1933; it is, or rather was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species hasn’t been seen since the 1930s and might well be extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 02.05.2022

Taylorilygus aldrichi (Izzard)

Aldrich’s Plant Bug (Taylorilygus aldrichi)

Aldrich’s Plant Bug was described in 1936 on the basis of material that had been collected in 1933 on Christmas Island, Australia.

The species has not been recorded since and appears to be extinct now.

***

syn. Lygus aldrichi Izzard

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Taylorilygus murrayi (Izzard)

Murray’s Plant Bug (Taylorilygus murrayi)

This species, which is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, was last recorded in 1933, it may now be extinct. [1]

There appear to exist no further information about this species.

***

syn. Lygus murrayi Izzard

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Peritropis listeri (Izzard)

Lister’s Capsid Bug (Peritropis listeri)

Lister’s Capsid Bug was restricted to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean; it is apparently known only from specimens that were collected in 1933. [1]

The species was not found since and is believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 9.11.2021

Hypocambala exocoeti (Pocock)

Christmas Island Round-backed Millipede (Hypocambala exocoeti)

The Christmas Island Round-backed Millipede was described in 1888.

The species was not seen since its description and is now possibly extinct.

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 09.09.2020

Comostolopsis regina Thierry-Mieg

Regina’s Comostolopsis Geometer Moth (Comostolopsis regina)

Regina’s Comostolopsis Geometer Moth was described in 1915 based on specimens that had been collected in the years between 1897 and 1898 on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was apparently never found since and might be extinct.

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 19.08.2022

Armactica andrewsi Hampson

Andrew’s Owlet Moth (Armactica andrewsi)

This species was described in 1912, it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean and was formerly considered very common during the greater part of the rainy season. [1]

The species has not been found since the 1930s and might now be extinct. [2]

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References:

[1] H. M. Pendlebury: Lepidoptera (Heterocera). Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 18: 58-73. 1947
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 08.09.2020

Bocula limbata (Butler)

Bordered Bocula Moth (Bocula limbata)

The Bordered Bocula Moth was described in 1888; it is, or rather was, restricted to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species has not been found since the 1930s and is thought to be extinct now. [1]

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

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edited: 25.04.2022

Xenopsylla nesiotes (Jordan & Rothschild)

Maclear Rat Flea (Xenopsylla nesiotes)

The Maclear’s Rat Flea was described in 1908; it was strictly adapted to Maclears Rat (Rattus macleari(Thomas)) as its one and only host species.

The species died out together with its host around 1903.

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syn. Loemopsylla nesiotes Jordan & Rothschild

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 16.02.2024

Peperomia rossii Rendle ex Baker f.

Ross’s Peperomia (Peperomia rossii)

Ross’s Peperomia was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was an epiphytic herb that reached sizes of about 5 to 10 cm, the stems were glabrous and rooted at their nodes, the leaves were usually opposite, elliptic and 1 to 3 cm long.

Ross’s Peperomia is only known from the type material, which was collected in 1898, it has never been found since and is apparently extinct. [1]

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References:

[1] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 03.05.2022

Cossonus variipennis Gahan

Christmas Island Rotten-Wood Weevil (Cossonus variipennis)

The Christmas Island Rotten-Wood Weevil was described in 1900; it is, or maybe was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species was last recorded in 1897-98 and might well be extinct.

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References:

[1] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018

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edited: 14.02.2024

Eophileurus convexus (Arrow)

Convex Rhinoceros Beetle (Eophileurus convexus)

The Convex Rhinoceros Beetle was described in 1900; the species is known from a  single specimen that had been found in 1897 or 1898 at Flying Fish Cove at the northern coast of Christmas Island, Australia.

This new species is formed for the first representative of the important family Dynastidae so found in the island, a single specimen having been recently discovered by Mr. H. Ross. 
This species is less flattened, and somewhat longer than usual, but does not differ structurally from the larger described forms of Continental Asia, where all its hitherto known allies are found, ….
” [1]

The species has never been found and might well be extinct now. [2]

***

syn. Phileurus convexus Arrow

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Depiction from: ‘Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 15.02.2024

Moca chlorolepis (Walsingham)

Green-scaled Moca Moth (Moca chlorolepis)

The Green-scaled Moca Moth was described in 1900; it was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species reaches a wingspan of up to 2,8 cm; the head is greyish brown, the thorax is dark brown, sprinkled with greenish and pale cinereous scales, the abdomen is greyish brown, the forewings are dark brown, profusely sprinkled with pale yellowish green scales, the hindwings are greyish brown.

The species has apparently never been recorded since its description and is believed to be extinct.

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[3] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 08.05.2022

Sirovena stigma Boucek

Stigmated Fig Wasp (Sirovena stigma)

This species was described in 1988; it is, or maybe was, endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

The species is known exclusively from old collections that were made in the years between 1897 and 1902; it has not been found since and might well be extinct.

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edited: 12.08.2022

Cosmoclostis quadriquadra Walsingham

Christmas Island Plume Moth (Cosmoclostis quadriquadra)

The Christmas Island Plume Moth was described in 1900; as its name implies, t is endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

Antennae white. Palpi scarcely projecting beyond the head; white. Head pale rust-brown above, face white. Thorax yellowish white anteriorly, rust-brown posteriorly; under-side shining white, tinged with yellowish at the sides. Fore wings cleft to beyond middle; yellowish white, the costae and dorsum narrowly pale rust-brown; a few rust-brown scales crossing the wings at one-fourth are succeeded by a rust-brown patch at the base of the fissure, wider on the tornal than on the apical lobe; before the middle of the apical lobe is another transverse oblique rust-brown patch of the same colour which overflows the dorsal but not the costal cilia; on the tornal lobe there is also a broad straight transverse rust-brown patch beyond its middle, colouring the cilia above and below it, the cilia (except where so coloured) are whitish. Exp. al. 11-13 mm. Hind wings and cilia bronzy grey, the cilia of the dorsal lobe paler. Abdomen rich rust-brown, with four quadrate whitish patches above – one basal, one ante-median, one post-median, and one on the anal segment; under-side shining white, tinged with yellowish at the sides. Hind legs white, smeared above on the tibiae and banded on the tarsi with pale rust-brown; spurs white, tinged with rust-brown before their extremities, the scales at the base of the spurs not conspicuously raised, rust-brown mixed with white.” [1]

***

The species has not been recorded since the 1930s and might well be extinct.

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: printed by order of the Trustees 1900
[2] John Woinarski: A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia 2018
[3] D. J. James; P. T. Green; W. F. Humphreys; J. C. Z. Woinarski: Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34: 55-114. 2019

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edited: 14.02.2024

Rattus nativitatis (Thomas)

Bulldog Rat (Rattus nativitatis)

The Bulldog Rat was described in 1900.:

Size large; form thick and clumsy, the limbs and tail stout and heavy, but the head peculiarly small, slender, and delicate. General colour dark umber-brown all over, the belly not or scarcely lighter than the back. Ears small, laid forward they barely reach to the posterior canthus of the eye. Fur of back, long, thick, and coarse, but without the extremely long piles so characteristic of M. macleari, the longest hairs being about 40 to 45 mm. in length. Hands and feet very thick and heavy; the claws, especially on the fore feet, enormously broad and strong, not compressed, more than twice the size of those of M. macleari, and evidently modified for burrowing. Palms and soles naked, smooth; the pads broad, low, and rounded, unusually little prominent; last hind foot pad elongate. Tail shorter than the body without the head, very thick, evenly tapering, nearly or quite naked; its scales triangular, very large, the rings averaging about seven or eight to the centimetre; its colour uniform blackish brown throughout, above and below, the white skin, however, showing to a certain extent between the scales.” [1]

The species reached a size of about 45 cm, including the tail.

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The species was endemic to Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, it was one of only five mammal species inhabiting that island naturally, all of them endemic and all of them, except for one, now extinct.

The Bulldog Rat inhabited the floor of the dense rainforest, the animals lived in small colonies and built burrows among tree roots or under fallen logs.

The species disappeared due to the introduction of Black Rats (Rattus rattus (L.)), which apparently carried diseases that the endemic rats fell victim to.

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References:

[1] Charles William Andrews: A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London, Printed by order of the Trustees 1900

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edited: 24.04.2019