Tag Archives: Rarotonga

Libera tumuloides (Garrett)

Rarotongan Libera Snail (Libera tumuloides)

The Rarotongan Libera Snail was described in 1872; it was restricted to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

The species was apparently very common when it was first collected.:

I took over three hundred examples of this species, all obtained in a small area of about one-half an acre, and nearly two miles inland, at Rarotonga. Through carefully searched for, I failed to discover a single example in any other part of the island.” [1]

The shells reach sizes of 0.62 to 0.72 cm in diameter; they are light yellow horn-colored, with broad, irregular, light- to dark-toned reddish flammulations; the umbilicus was strongly constricted to form a brood chamber.

The species disappeared shortly after its description.

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 3: Helicidae – Volume I. 1887’

(public domain)

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References:

[1] Andrew Garrett: The terrestrial Mollusca inhabiting the Cook’s or Harvey Islands. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Ser. 2. Vol. 8(4): 381-412. 1881
[2] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 3: Helicidae – Volume I. 1887
[3] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976

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edited: 17.02.2024

Sinployea titikaveka Brook

Titikaveka Sinployea Snail (Sinployea titikaveka)

The Titikaveka Sinployea Snail was described in 2010; it is known only from subfossil shells that were recovered from deposits near the southern coast of Rarotonga in the Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of only up to 0,16 cm in diameter.

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References:  

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

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edited: 02.08.2022

Sinployea planospira (Garrett)

Plane-spired Sinployea Snail (Sinployea planospira)

This species was described in 1881; it was restricted to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of 0,34 to 0,43 cm in diameter.

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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edited: 02.08.2022

Sinployea peasei Solem

Pease’s Sinployea Snail (Sinployea peasei)

Pease’s Sinployea Snail was described in 1983; it is known from the slopes of Mt. Maungaroa and several other mountainous areas on the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, it was formerly quite common and widespread.

The shells reached sizes of 0,29 to about 0,4 cm in diameter.

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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edited: 02.08.2022

Sinployea youngi (Garrett)

Young’s Sinployea Snail (Sinployea youngi)

This species was described in 1872; it was endemic to a single (unknown) valley on the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands and was described by its author as: “A somewhat rare species, easily known by its wide open umbilicus, few whorls, deep uniform brown color, and plicate striae. On the ground in damp woods, and only noticed in a single valley.“. [1]

The shells reach sizes of about 0,49 cm in diameter; they are: “Widely, perspectively umbilicated, thin, shining, subpellucid, uniform dark brown, closely, obliquely, arcuately, plicately striate, more slightly below, suture channeled; whorls 4 1/2, convex, rapidly increasing, the last deflected above, convex below.” [2]

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872
[2] G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887
[3] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Libera subcavernula (Tryon)

Cavity-bearing Libera Snail (Libera subcavernula)

The Cavity-bearing Libera Snail was described in 1887; it was restricted to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

Found plentifully in the mountain ravines, and is peculiar to Rarotonga.
It is closely related to the preceding species
 [Libera fratercula (Pease)], but may be distinguished by its darker color, smaller ribs, less prominent keel, and the shallow groove immediately above the revolving keel is not so conspicuous. In a careful comparison of numerous young examples of different ages I remark the umbilicus is considerably broader in cavernula than in fratercula” [1]

The shells reach sizes of 0.53 to 0.76 cm in diameter; they are yellowish horn-colored with numerous, somewhat irregular, reddish flammulations that fade out near the umbilicus.

The Cavity-bearing Libera Snail died out soon after its description.

***

syn. Libera cavernula (Garrett)

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Depiction from: ‘George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 3: Helicidae – Volume I. 1887’

(public domain)

*********************

References:

[1] Andrew Garrett: The terrestrial Mollusca inhabiting the Cook’s or Harvey Islands. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Ser. 2. Vol. 8(4): 381-412. 1881
[2] George W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second series: Pulmonata. Vol 3: Helicidae – Volume I. 1887
[3] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976

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edited: 17.02.2024

Sinployea harveyensis (Garrett)

Harvey’s Sinployea Snail (Sinployea harveyensis)

Harvey’s Sinployea Snail was described in 1872; it was endemic to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, where it was considered: “A common species found under rotten wood.“. [1]The shells reached sizes of 0,39 to about 0,52 cm in diameter; they are: “Moderately, deeply umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, greenish ash color, arcuately tessellated with chestnut, densely finely plicate-striate, striae oblique, sinuous, less distinct on the base, suture channeled; whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last obtusely angulated, deflected above, convex below.“. [2]

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872
[2] G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887
[3] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Mautodontha unilamellata (Garrett)

Rarotongan Mautodontha Snail (Mautodontha unilamellata)

This species was described in 1874; it was restricted to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 

The shells reach sizes of 0,36 to about 0,43 cm in diameter; they are light yellowish horn-colored with numerous, crowded zigzag-shaped, reddish flammulations. [1] 

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976

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edited: 13.03.2021

Sinployea tenuicostata (Garrett)

Weak-grooved Sinployea Snail (Sinployea tenuicostata)

This species was described in 1872; it is endemic to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands; it was originally described by its author as: “A very pretty and somewhat rare species, having a wide range on the island, and generally found on the ground on the sides of ravines” [1]

The shells reach average sizes of about 0,45 cm; they are: “Perspectively umbilicated, thin, pellucid, a little shining, light corneous, not variegated, laminately costate, the ribs thin, rather close, oblique, slightly sinuous, continued on the base, interstices lightly, closely striate, suture deep; whorls 4, plano-convex, rapidly enlarging, base convex.” [2]

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872
[2] G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887
[3] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

*********************

Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Acalypha wilderi Merr.

Wilder’s Copperleaf (Acalypha wilderi)  

Wilder’s Copperleaf was restricted to Rarotonga, the largest of the Cook Islands, and was scientifically described in the year 1931.  

The species was a mostly unbranched, about 2 m tall shrub, with long-stemmed, about 30 x 20 cm large leaves. It was monoecious, with plants producing either only female or male flowers, which appeared at the tops of the branches, the female flowers in short upright inflorescences, the male flowers in long, drooping ones.  

***

The Night-blooming Cestrum (Cestrum nocturnum L.), a plant introduced to Rarotonga, is known for displacing other plant species by forming dense impenetrable thickets, and is thought to be one of the invasive species that are responsible for the extinction of Wilder’s Copperleaf.  

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edited: 23.09.2017

Sinployea proxima (Garrett)

Rarotongan Sinployea Snail (Sinployea proxima)
 

This species was described in 1872; it was endemic to the island of Rarotonga,Cook Islands, where it apparently was quite common and widespread; A. J. Garrett, the author of the species, gave the following information about it.: 

A common species lurking under stones and among rotten wood. It was found in several villages.” [1] 

***

The shells reach an average size of about 0,35 cm in diameter. 

The Rarotongan Sinployea Snail was not recorded since the mid-1800s and thus is considered extinct. [2] 

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References: 

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872
[2] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010 

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Sinployea muri Brook

Muri Sinployea Snail (Sinployea muri)

This species was described in 2010; it is known only from subfossil shells that were recovered from the coastal plain near Muri on the eastern coast of Rarotonga in the Cook Islands.

The shells were very small, reaching sizes of only up to 0,26 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

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edited: 02.08.2022

Sinployea tupapa Brook

Tupapa Sinployea Snail (Sinployea tupapa 

The Tupapa Sinployea Snail was described in 2010 based on subfossil shells that had been found at Matavera, Pue, and Tupapa on the northeastern coast of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.  

The species differs from other species of similar small size by its widely open umbilicus, the shells reach an average size of about 0,19 to 0,22 cm in diameter.  

The species is now extinct. [1]  

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References:  

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

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edited: 11.06.2020

Sinployea rudis (Garrett)

Rough Sinployea Snail (Sinployea rudis)  

This species, which was endemic to Rarotonga, Cook Islands, was discovered in 1869 and described three years later, in 1872.  

A. J. Garrett, the author of the species, gave the following information about it.:  

A common species of a very rude aspect, easily distinguished by its rude, irregular lamellar ribs. We found examples in several different villages; all found on the ground in damp woods.” [1]  

***

The species is also known from subfossil shells that were commonly found in coastal deposits in northern, southeastern, and southern Rarotonga.  

The shells of this species reached an average size of about 0,35 to 0,48 cm in diameter, with the subfossil shells being generally smaller than those found alive in the 19th century.  

The Rough Sinployea Snail was not found during the next field studies in the 1920s, it obviously disappeared shortly after the date of its discovery. [2]  

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References:  

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872 
[2] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010  

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’  

(not in copyright)

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edited: 19.03.2017

Minidonta pue Brook

Pue Minidonta Snail (Minodonta pue)

This species was described in 2010 on the basis of subfossil shells that were recovered from sandy coral rubble near Pue near the north-eastern coast of Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

The shells reach sizes of only about 0,24 cm in diameter.

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References:

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

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edited: 17.08.2022

Sinployea decorticata (Garrett)

Decorticated Sinployea Snail (Sinployea decorticata)

This species was described in 1872; it was endemic to the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands and was considered: “A common species found on the ground in a mountain ravine.“. [1]

The shells reach sizes of 0,37 to 0,51 cm in diameter; they are: “Moderatley, deeply umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, ash-colored under a brownish corneous epidermis, decorticated in adults, rarely strigated with chestnut, arcuately costate, the interstices very lightly striated, suture channeled; whorls 5, convex, slowly increasing, the last deflected above, rounded below, periphery obsoletely angulated.“. [2]

The species is now extinct.

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References:

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872
[2] G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887
[3] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Sinployea canalis (Garrett)

Grooved Sinployea Snail (Sinployea canalis)

 

The Grooved Sinployea Snail was described in 1872, apparently based on 13 specimens; at that time, it was already: “A somewhat rare species, found on the ground in damp forests, and confined to a single valley. its flat spire, deeply channeled suture, and very wide umbilicus are its most important characters.” [1]

The shells reached sizes of about 0,4 to 0,55 cm in diameter; they are: “widely umbilicate, flatly discoid, thin, subpellucid, slightly glossy, closely and very finely ribbed, ribs oblique, sinuous, light brownish horn color, with darker radiating spots; spire very flat, not rising above the penultimate whorl; suture deeply channeled; whorls 5, strongly convex, regularly increasing, last one declivous above the periphery, rounded below; umbilicus deep, perspective, freely exposing all the whorls, nearly half the diameter of the shell; aperture oblique, sinuously rounded; peristome thin, simple, slightly sinuous.” [1]

The species disappeared shortly after its description.

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References:

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872
[2] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part II, Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeography. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1983

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Depiction from: ‘G. W. Tryon; Henry A. Pilsbry; a. o.: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’

(not in copyright)

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edited: 02.08.2022

Minidonta arorangi Brook

Arorangi Disc Snail (Minidonta arorangi)  

This species was described in the year 2010 from subfossil shells that were found in the sandy soil of the coastal plains between the villages of Aro’a and Arorangi on the southwest coast of the island of Rarotonga.  

The shells reach an average size of 0,3 to 0,36 cm in diameter.  

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References:  

[1] Fred J. Brook: Coastal landsnail fauna of Rarotonga, Cook Islands: systematics, diversity, biogeography, faunal history, and environmental influences. Tuhinga 21: 161-252. 2010

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edited: 11.06.2020

Helicarionidae sp. ‘QQsp4’

Te Kou Snail (Helicarionidae sp.)  

The Te Kou Snail is an undescribed species known only from empty shells that were collected in 2005 and 2010 in the upper regions of Takuvaine and Te Kou, two of the mountains in central Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

The species is very likely already extinct now.

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edited: 23.02.2024

Thaumatodon multilamellata (Garrett)

Rarotongan Thaumatodon Snail (Thaumatodon multilamellata)  

The Rarotongan Thaumatodon Snail was described in the year 1872.  

According to A. J. Garrett, the author of the species, the snails were found exclusively in two remote valleys on the island of Rarotonga, with the two populations most probably representing distinct subspecies. [1][2]  

The shell reached a size of about 3,4 cm in diameter.  

The last life specimens were found in the middle of the 19th century (around 1860), since then the species is considered extinct.  

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References:  

[1] Andrew J. Garrett: Descriptions of new species of land and fresh-water shells. American Journal of Conchology 7: 219-230. 1872 
[2] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976  

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Depiction from: G. W. Tryon: Manual of Conchology. Second Series: Pulmonata Vol. 3, Helicidae Vol. 1. 1887’  

(not in copyright)

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edited: 19.03.2017